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1.  Performance of penalized maximum likelihood in estimation of genetic covariances matrices 
Background
Estimation of genetic covariance matrices for multivariate problems comprising more than a few traits is inherently problematic, since sampling variation increases dramatically with the number of traits. This paper investigates the efficacy of regularized estimation of covariance components in a maximum likelihood framework, imposing a penalty on the likelihood designed to reduce sampling variation. In particular, penalties that "borrow strength" from the phenotypic covariance matrix are considered.
Methods
An extensive simulation study was carried out to investigate the reduction in average 'loss', i.e. the deviation in estimated matrices from the population values, and the accompanying bias for a range of parameter values and sample sizes. A number of penalties are examined, penalizing either the canonical eigenvalues or the genetic covariance or correlation matrices. In addition, several strategies to determine the amount of penalization to be applied, i.e. to estimate the appropriate tuning factor, are explored.
Results
It is shown that substantial reductions in loss for estimates of genetic covariance can be achieved for small to moderate sample sizes. While no penalty performed best overall, penalizing the variance among the estimated canonical eigenvalues on the logarithmic scale or shrinking the genetic towards the phenotypic correlation matrix appeared most advantageous. Estimating the tuning factor using cross-validation resulted in a loss reduction 10 to 15% less than that obtained if population values were known. Applying a mild penalty, chosen so that the deviation in likelihood from the maximum was non-significant, performed as well if not better than cross-validation and can be recommended as a pragmatic strategy.
Conclusions
Penalized maximum likelihood estimation provides the means to 'make the most' of limited and precious data and facilitates more stable estimation for multi-dimensional analyses. It should become part of our everyday toolkit for multivariate estimation in quantitative genetics.
doi:10.1186/1297-9686-43-39
PMCID: PMC3331854  PMID: 22117894
2.  Principal component approach in variance component estimation for international sire evaluation 
Background
The dairy cattle breeding industry is a highly globalized business, which needs internationally comparable and reliable breeding values of sires. The international Bull Evaluation Service, Interbull, was established in 1983 to respond to this need. Currently, Interbull performs multiple-trait across country evaluations (MACE) for several traits and breeds in dairy cattle and provides international breeding values to its member countries. Estimating parameters for MACE is challenging since the structure of datasets and conventional use of multiple-trait models easily result in over-parameterized genetic covariance matrices. The number of parameters to be estimated can be reduced by taking into account only the leading principal components of the traits considered. For MACE, this is readily implemented in a random regression model.
Methods
This article compares two principal component approaches to estimate variance components for MACE using real datasets. The methods tested were a REML approach that directly estimates the genetic principal components (direct PC) and the so-called bottom-up REML approach (bottom-up PC), in which traits are sequentially added to the analysis and the statistically significant genetic principal components are retained. Furthermore, this article evaluates the utility of the bottom-up PC approach to determine the appropriate rank of the (co)variance matrix.
Results
Our study demonstrates the usefulness of both approaches and shows that they can be applied to large multi-country models considering all concerned countries simultaneously. These strategies can thus replace the current practice of estimating the covariance components required through a series of analyses involving selected subsets of traits. Our results support the importance of using the appropriate rank in the genetic (co)variance matrix. Using too low a rank resulted in biased parameter estimates, whereas too high a rank did not result in bias, but increased standard errors of the estimates and notably the computing time.
Conclusions
In terms of estimation's accuracy, both principal component approaches performed equally well and permitted the use of more parsimonious models through random regression MACE. The advantage of the bottom-up PC approach is that it does not need any previous knowledge on the rank. However, with a predetermined rank, the direct PC approach needs less computing time than the bottom-up PC.
doi:10.1186/1297-9686-43-21
PMCID: PMC3114711  PMID: 21609451
3.  Bayesian Semiparametric Multiple Shrinkage 
Biometrics  2009;66(2):455-462.
Summary
High-dimensional and highly correlated data leading to non- or weakly identified effects are commonplace. Maximum likelihood will typically fail in such situations and a variety of shrinkage methods have been proposed. Standard techniques, such as ridge regression or the lasso, shrink estimates toward zero, with some approaches allowing coefficients to be selected out of the model by achieving a value of zero. When substantive information is available, estimates can be shrunk to nonnull values; however, such information may not be available. We propose a Bayesian semiparametric approach that allows shrinkage to multiple locations. Coefficients are given a mixture of heavy-tailed double exponential priors, with location and scale parameters assigned Dirichlet process hyperpriors to allow groups of coefficients to be shrunk toward the same, possibly nonzero, mean. Our approach favors sparse, but flexible, structure by shrinking toward a small number of random locations. The methods are illustrated using a study of genetic polymorphisms and Parkinson’s disease.
doi:10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01275.x
PMCID: PMC3631538  PMID: 19508244
Dirichlet process; Hierarchical model; Lasso; MCMC; Mixture model; Nonparametric; Regularization; Shrinkage prior
4.  Statistical properties on semiparametric regression for evaluating pathway effects 
Most statistical methods for microarray data analysis consider one gene at a time, and they may miss subtle changes at the single gene level. This limitation may be overcome by considering a set of genes simultaneously where the gene sets are derived from prior biological knowledge. We call a pathway as a predefined set of genes that serve a particular cellular or physiological function. Limited work has been done in the regression settings to study the effects of clinical covariates and expression levels of genes in a pathway on a continuous clinical outcome. A semiparametric regression approach for identifying pathways related to a continuous outcome was proposed by Liu et al. (2007), who demonstrated the connection between a least squares kernel machine for nonparametric pathway effect and a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) for variance components. However, the asymptotic properties on a semiparametric regression for identifying pathway have never been studied. In this paper, we study the asymptotic properties of the parameter estimates on semiparametric regression and compare Liu et al.’s REML with our REML obtained from a profile likelihood. We prove that both approaches provide consistent estimators, have n convergence rate under regularity conditions, and have either an asymptotically normal distribution or a mixture of normal distributions. However, the estimators based on our REML obtained from a profile likelihood have a theoretically smaller mean squared error than those of Liu et al.’s REML. Simulation study supports this theoretical result. A profile restricted likelihood ratio test is also provided for the non-standard testing problem. We apply our approach to a type II diabetes data set (Mootha et al., 2003).
PMCID: PMC3763850  PMID: 24014933
Gaussian random process; Kernel machine; Mixed model; Pathway analysis; Profile likelihood; Restricted maximum likelihood
5.  The Bayesian Covariance Lasso 
Statistics and its interface  2013;6(2):243-259.
Estimation of sparse covariance matrices and their inverse subject to positive definiteness constraints has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. The abundance of high-dimensional data, where the sample size (n) is less than the dimension (d), requires shrinkage estimation methods since the maximum likelihood estimator is not positive definite in this case. Furthermore, when n is larger than d but not sufficiently larger, shrinkage estimation is more stable than maximum likelihood as it reduces the condition number of the precision matrix. Frequentist methods have utilized penalized likelihood methods, whereas Bayesian approaches rely on matrix decompositions or Wishart priors for shrinkage. In this paper we propose a new method, called the Bayesian Covariance Lasso (BCLASSO), for the shrinkage estimation of a precision (covariance) matrix. We consider a class of priors for the precision matrix that leads to the popular frequentist penalties as special cases, develop a Bayes estimator for the precision matrix, and propose an efficient sampling scheme that does not precalculate boundaries for positive definiteness. The proposed method is permutation invariant and performs shrinkage and estimation simultaneously for non-full rank data. Simulations show that the proposed BCLASSO performs similarly as frequentist methods for non-full rank data.
PMCID: PMC3925647  PMID: 24551316
Bayesian covariance lasso; non-full rank data; Network exploration; Penalized likelihood; Precision matrix
6.  A Small-Sample Choice of the Tuning Parameter in Ridge Regression 
Statistica Sinica  2015;25(3):1185-1206.
We propose new approaches for choosing the shrinkage parameter in ridge regression, a penalized likelihood method for regularizing linear regression coefficients, when the number of observations is small relative to the number of parameters. Existing methods may lead to extreme choices of this parameter, which will either not shrink the coefficients enough or shrink them by too much. Within this “small-n, large-p” context, we suggest a correction to the common generalized cross-validation (GCV) method that preserves the asymptotic optimality of the original GCV. We also introduce the notion of a “hyperpenalty”, which shrinks the shrinkage parameter itself, and make a specific recommendation regarding the choice of hyperpenalty that empirically works well in a broad range of scenarios. A simple algorithm jointly estimates the shrinkage parameter and regression coefficients in the hyperpenalized likelihood. In a comprehensive simulation study of small-sample scenarios, our proposed approaches offer superior prediction over nine other existing methods.
doi:10.5705/ss.2013.284
PMCID: PMC4790465  PMID: 26985140
Akaike’s information criterion; Cross-validation; Generalized cross-validation; Hyperpenalty; Marginal likelihood; Penalized likelihood
7.  Reparametrization-based estimation of genetic parameters in multi-trait animal model using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation 
Key message
A novel reparametrization-based INLA approach as a fast alternative to MCMC for the Bayesian estimation of genetic parameters in multivariate animal model is presented.
Abstract
Multi-trait genetic parameter estimation is a relevant topic in animal and plant breeding programs because multi-trait analysis can take into account the genetic correlation between different traits and that significantly improves the accuracy of the genetic parameter estimates. Generally, multi-trait analysis is computationally demanding and requires initial estimates of genetic and residual correlations among the traits, while those are difficult to obtain. In this study, we illustrate how to reparametrize covariance matrices of a multivariate animal model/animal models using modified Cholesky decompositions. This reparametrization-based approach is used in the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methodology to estimate genetic parameters of multivariate animal model. Immediate benefits are: (1) to avoid difficulties of finding good starting values for analysis which can be a problem, for example in Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML); (2) Bayesian estimation of (co)variance components using INLA is faster to execute than using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) especially when realized relationship matrices are dense. The slight drawback is that priors for covariance matrices are assigned for elements of the Cholesky factor but not directly to the covariance matrix elements as in MCMC. Additionally, we illustrate the concordance of the INLA results with the traditional methods like MCMC and REML approaches. We also present results obtained from simulated data sets with replicates and field data in rice.
doi:10.1007/s00122-015-2622-x
PMCID: PMC4733146  PMID: 26582509
8.  Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation* 
Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.
doi:10.1111/j.1467-9868.2012.01049.x
PMCID: PMC3667751  PMID: 23730197
covariance estimation; regularization; convex optimization; condition number; eigenvalue; shrinkage; cross-validation; risk comparisons; portfolio optimization
9.  Penalized spline estimation for functional coefficient regression models 
The functional coefficient regression models assume that the regression coefficients vary with some “threshold” variable, providing appreciable flexibility in capturing the underlying dynamics in data and avoiding the so-called “curse of dimensionality” in multivariate nonparametric estimation. We first investigate the estimation, inference, and forecasting for the functional coefficient regression models with dependent observations via penalized splines. The P-spline approach, as a direct ridge regression shrinkage type global smoothing method, is computationally efficient and stable. With established fixed-knot asymptotics, inference is readily available. Exact inference can be obtained for fixed smoothing parameter λ, which is most appealing for finite samples. Our penalized spline approach gives an explicit model expression, which also enables multi-step-ahead forecasting via simulations. Furthermore, we examine different methods of choosing the important smoothing parameter λ: modified multi-fold cross-validation (MCV), generalized cross-validation (GCV), and an extension of empirical bias bandwidth selection (EBBS) to P-splines. In addition, we implement smoothing parameter selection using mixed model framework through restricted maximum likelihood (REML) for P-spline functional coefficient regression models with independent observations. The P-spline approach also easily allows different smoothness for different functional coefficients, which is enabled by assigning different penalty λ accordingly. We demonstrate the proposed approach by both simulation examples and a real data application.
doi:10.1016/j.csda.2009.09.036
PMCID: PMC3080050  PMID: 21516260
10.  Functional Linear Model with Zero-value Coefficient Function at Sub-regions 
Statistica Sinica  2013;23(1):25-50.
We propose a shrinkage method to estimate the coefficient function in a functional linear regression model when the value of the coefficient function is zero within certain sub-regions. Besides identifying the null region in which the coefficient function is zero, we also aim to perform estimation and inferences for the nonparametrically estimated coefficient function without over-shrinking the values. Our proposal consists of two stages. In stage one, the Dantzig selector is employed to provide initial location of the null region. In stage two, we propose a group SCAD approach to refine the estimated location of the null region and to provide the estimation and inference procedures for the coefficient function. Our considerations have certain advantages in this functional setup. One goal is to reduce the number of parameters employed in the model. With a one-stage procedure, it is needed to use a large number of knots in order to precisely identify the zero-coefficient region; however, the variation and estimation difficulties increase with the number of parameters. Owing to the additional refinement stage, we avoid this necessity and our estimator achieves superior numerical performance in practice. We show that our estimator enjoys the Oracle property; it identifies the null region with probability tending to 1, and it achieves the same asymptotic normality for the estimated coefficient function on the non-null region as the functional linear model estimator when the non-null region is known. Numerically, our refined estimator overcomes the shortcomings of the initial Dantzig estimator which tends to under-estimate the absolute scale of non-zero coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated in simulation studies. We apply the method in an analysis of data collected by the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study, where the primary interests are in estimating the strength of association between body mass index in midlife and the quality of life in physical functioning at old age, and in identifying the effective age ranges where such associations exist.
doi:10.5705/ss.2010.237
PMCID: PMC3903402  PMID: 24478566
B-spline basis function; functional linear regression; group smoothly clipped absolute deviation approach; null region
11.  Restricted maximum likelihood estimation of genetic principal components and smoothed covariance matrices 
Principal component analysis is a widely used 'dimension reduction' technique, albeit generally at a phenotypic level. It is shown that we can estimate genetic principal components directly through a simple reparameterisation of the usual linear, mixed model. This is applicable to any analysis fitting multiple, correlated genetic effects, whether effects for individual traits or sets of random regression coefficients to model trajectories. Depending on the magnitude of genetic correlation, a subset of the principal component generally suffices to capture the bulk of genetic variation. Corresponding estimates of genetic covariance matrices are more parsimonious, have reduced rank and are smoothed, with the number of parameters required to model the dispersion structure reduced from k(k + 1)/2 to m(2k - m + 1)/2 for k effects and m principal components. Estimation of these parameters, the largest eigenvalues and pertaining eigenvectors of the genetic covariance matrix, via restricted maximum likelihood using derivatives of the likelihood, is described. It is shown that reduced rank estimation can reduce computational requirements of multivariate analyses substantially. An application to the analysis of eight traits recorded via live ultrasound scanning of beef cattle is given.
doi:10.1186/1297-9686-37-1-1
PMCID: PMC2697245  PMID: 15588566
covariances; principal components; restricted maximum likelihood; reduced rank
12.  Employing a Monte Carlo Algorithm in Newton-Type Methods for Restricted Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Genetic Parameters 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e80821.
Estimation of variance components by Monte Carlo (MC) expectation maximization (EM) restricted maximum likelihood (REML) is computationally efficient for large data sets and complex linear mixed effects models. However, efficiency may be lost due to the need for a large number of iterations of the EM algorithm. To decrease the computing time we explored the use of faster converging Newton-type algorithms within MC REML implementations. The implemented algorithms were: MC Newton-Raphson (NR), where the information matrix was generated via sampling; MC average information(AI), where the information was computed as an average of observed and expected information; and MC Broyden's method, where the zero of the gradient was searched using a quasi-Newton-type algorithm. Performance of these algorithms was evaluated using simulated data. The final estimates were in good agreement with corresponding analytical ones. MC NR REML and MC AI REML enhanced convergence compared to MC EM REML and gave standard errors for the estimates as a by-product. MC NR REML required a larger number of MC samples, while each MC AI REML iteration demanded extra solving of mixed model equations by the number of parameters to be estimated. MC Broyden's method required the largest number of MC samples with our small data and did not give standard errors for the parameters directly. We studied the performance of three different convergence criteria for the MC AI REML algorithm. Our results indicate the importance of defining a suitable convergence criterion and critical value in order to obtain an efficient Newton-type method utilizing a MC algorithm. Overall, use of a MC algorithm with Newton-type methods proved feasible and the results encourage testing of these methods with different kinds of large-scale problem settings.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080821
PMCID: PMC3858226  PMID: 24339886
13.  Penalized model-based clustering with cluster-specific diagonal covariance matrices and grouped variables 
Clustering analysis is one of the most widely used statistical tools in many emerging areas such as microarray data analysis. For microarray and other high-dimensional data, the presence of many noise variables may mask underlying clustering structures. Hence removing noise variables via variable selection is necessary. For simultaneous variable selection and parameter estimation, existing penalized likelihood approaches in model-based clustering analysis all assume a common diagonal covariance matrix across clusters, which however may not hold in practice. To analyze high-dimensional data, particularly those with relatively low sample sizes, this article introduces a novel approach that shrinks the variances together with means, in a more general situation with cluster-specific (diagonal) covariance matrices. Furthermore, selection of grouped variables via inclusion or exclusion of a group of variables altogether is permitted by a specific form of penalty, which facilitates incorporating subject-matter knowledge, such as gene functions in clustering microarray samples for disease subtype discovery. For implementation, EM algorithms are derived for parameter estimation, in which the M-steps clearly demonstrate the effects of shrinkage and thresholding. Numerical examples, including an application to acute leukemia subtype discovery with microarray gene expression data, are provided to demonstrate the utility and advantage of the proposed method.
doi:10.1214/08-EJS194
PMCID: PMC2777718  PMID: 19920875
BIC; EM algorithm; High-dimension but low-sample size; L1 penalization; Microarray gene expression; Mixture model; Penalized likelihood
14.  Hierarchical Regression for Multiple Comparisons in a Case-Control Study of Occupational Risks for Lung Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38944.
Background
Occupational studies often involve multiple comparisons and therefore suffer from false positive findings. Semi-Bayes adjustment methods have sometimes been used to address this issue. Hierarchical regression is a more general approach, including Semi-Bayes adjustment as a special case, that aims at improving the validity of standard maximum-likelihood estimates in the presence of multiple comparisons by incorporating similarities between the exposures of interest in a second-stage model.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We re-analysed data from an occupational case-control study of lung cancer, applying hierarchical regression. In the second-stage model, we included the exposure to three known lung carcinogens (asbestos, chromium and silica) for each occupation, under the assumption that occupations entailing similar carcinogenic exposures are associated with similar risks of lung cancer. Hierarchical regression estimates had smaller confidence intervals than maximum-likelihood estimates. The shrinkage toward the null was stronger for extreme, less stable estimates (e.g., “specialised farmers”: maximum-likelihood OR: 3.44, 95%CI 0.90–13.17; hierarchical regression OR: 1.53, 95%CI 0.63–3.68). Unlike Semi-Bayes adjustment toward the global mean, hierarchical regression did not shrink all the ORs towards the null (e.g., “Metal smelting, converting and refining furnacemen”: maximum-likelihood OR: 1.07, Semi-Bayes OR: 1.06, hierarchical regression OR: 1.26).
Conclusions/Significance
Hierarchical regression could be a valuable tool in occupational studies in which disease risk is estimated for a large amount of occupations when we have information available on the key carcinogenic exposures involved in each occupation. With the constant progress in exposure assessment methods in occupational settings and the availability of Job Exposure Matrices, it should become easier to apply this approach.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038944
PMCID: PMC3372490  PMID: 22701732
15.  A novel framework for validating and applying standardized small area measurement strategies 
Background
Local measurements of health behaviors, diseases, and use of health services are critical inputs into local, state, and national decision-making. Small area measurement methods can deliver more precise and accurate local-level information than direct estimates from surveys or administrative records, where sample sizes are often too small to yield acceptable standard errors. However, small area measurement requires careful validation using approaches other than conventional statistical methods such as in-sample or cross-validation methods because they do not solve the problem of validating estimates in data-sparse domains.
Methods
A new general framework for small area estimation and validation is developed and applied to estimate Type 2 diabetes prevalence in US counties using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The framework combines the three conventional approaches to small area measurement: (1) pooling data across time by combining multiple survey years; (2) exploiting spatial correlation by including a spatial component; and (3) utilizing structured relationships between the outcome variable and domain-specific covariates to define four increasingly complex model types - coined the Naive, Geospatial, Covariate, and Full models. The validation framework uses direct estimates of prevalence in large domains as the gold standard and compares model estimates against it using (i) all available observations for the large domains and (ii) systematically reduced sample sizes obtained through random sampling with replacement. At each sampling level, the model is rerun repeatedly, and the validity of the model estimates from the four model types is then determined by calculating the (average) concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and (average) root mean squared error (RMSE) against the gold standard. The CCC is closely related to the intraclass correlation coefficient and can be used when the units are organized in groups and when it is of interest to measure the agreement between units in the same group (e.g., counties). The RMSE is often used to measure the differences between values predicted by a model or an estimator and the actually observed values. It is a useful measure to capture the precision of the model or estimator.
Results
All model types have substantially higher CCC and lower RMSE than the direct, single-year BRFSS estimates. In addition, the inclusion of relevant domain-specific covariates generally improves predictive validity, especially at small sample sizes, and their leverage can be equivalent to a five- to tenfold increase in sample size.
Conclusions
Small area estimation of important health outcomes and risk factors can be improved using a systematic modeling and validation framework, which consistently outperformed single-year direct survey estimates and demonstrated the potential leverage of including relevant domain-specific covariates compared to pure measurement models. The proposed validation strategy can be applied to other disease outcomes and risk factors in the US as well as to resource-scarce situations, including low-income countries. These estimates are needed by public health officials to identify at-risk groups, to design targeted prevention and intervention programs, and to monitor and evaluate results over time.
doi:10.1186/1478-7954-8-26
PMCID: PMC2958154  PMID: 20920214
16.  Regularized estimation of large-scale gene association networks using graphical Gaussian models 
BMC Bioinformatics  2009;10:384.
Background
Graphical Gaussian models are popular tools for the estimation of (undirected) gene association networks from microarray data. A key issue when the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples is the estimation of the matrix of partial correlations. Since the (Moore-Penrose) inverse of the sample covariance matrix leads to poor estimates in this scenario, standard methods are inappropriate and adequate regularization techniques are needed. Popular approaches include biased estimates of the covariance matrix and high-dimensional regression schemes, such as the Lasso and Partial Least Squares.
Results
In this article, we investigate a general framework for combining regularized regression methods with the estimation of Graphical Gaussian models. This framework includes various existing methods as well as two new approaches based on ridge regression and adaptive lasso, respectively. These methods are extensively compared both qualitatively and quantitatively within a simulation study and through an application to six diverse real data sets. In addition, all proposed algorithms are implemented in the R package "parcor", available from the R repository CRAN.
Conclusion
In our simulation studies, the investigated non-sparse regression methods, i.e. Ridge Regression and Partial Least Squares, exhibit rather conservative behavior when combined with (local) false discovery rate multiple testing in order to decide whether or not an edge is present in the network. For networks with higher densities, the difference in performance of the methods decreases. For sparse networks, we confirm the Lasso's well known tendency towards selecting too many edges, whereas the two-stage adaptive Lasso is an interesting alternative that provides sparser solutions. In our simulations, both sparse and non-sparse methods are able to reconstruct networks with cluster structures. On six real data sets, we also clearly distinguish the results obtained using the non-sparse methods and those obtained using the sparse methods where specification of the regularization parameter automatically means model selection. In five out of six data sets, Partial Least Squares selects very dense networks. Furthermore, for data that violate the assumption of uncorrelated observations (due to replications), the Lasso and the adaptive Lasso yield very complex structures, indicating that they might not be suited under these conditions. The shrinkage approach is more stable than the regression based approaches when using subsampling.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-384
PMCID: PMC2808166  PMID: 19930695
17.  Stable Estimation of a Covariance Matrix Guided by Nuclear Norm Penalties 
Estimation of a covariance matrix or its inverse plays a central role in many statistical methods. For these methods to work reliably, estimated matrices must not only be invertible but also well-conditioned. The current paper introduces a novel prior to ensure a well-conditioned maximum a posteriori (MAP) covariance estimate. The prior shrinks the sample covariance estimator towards a stable target and leads to a MAP estimator that is consistent and asymptotically efficient. Thus, the MAP estimator gracefully transitions towards the sample covariance matrix as the number of samples grows relative to the number of covariates. The utility of the MAP estimator is demonstrated in two standard applications – discriminant analysis and EM clustering – in this sampling regime.
doi:10.1016/j.csda.2014.06.018
PMCID: PMC4133137  PMID: 25143662
Covariance estimation; Regularization; Condition number; Discriminant analysis; EM Clustering
18.  Shrinkage Estimation of the Realized Relationship Matrix 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2012;2(11):1405-1413.
The additive relationship matrix plays an important role in mixed model prediction of breeding values. For genotype matrix X (loci in columns), the product XX′ is widely used as a realized relationship matrix, but the scaling of this matrix is ambiguous. Our first objective was to derive a proper scaling such that the mean diagonal element equals 1+f, where f is the inbreeding coefficient of the current population. The result is a formula involving the covariance matrix for sampling genomic loci, which must be estimated with markers. Our second objective was to investigate whether shrinkage estimation of this covariance matrix can improve the accuracy of breeding value (GEBV) predictions with low-density markers. Using an analytical formula for shrinkage intensity that is optimal with respect to mean-squared error, simulations revealed that shrinkage can significantly increase GEBV accuracy in unstructured populations, but only for phenotyped lines; there was no benefit for unphenotyped lines. The accuracy gain from shrinkage increased with heritability, but at high heritability (> 0.6) this benefit was irrelevant because phenotypic accuracy was comparable. These trends were confirmed in a commercial pig population with progeny-test-estimated breeding values. For an anonymous trait where phenotypic accuracy was 0.58, shrinkage increased the average GEBV accuracy from 0.56 to 0.62 (SE < 0.00) when using random sets of 384 markers from a 60K array. We conclude that when moderate-accuracy phenotypes and low-density markers are available for the candidates of genomic selection, shrinkage estimation of the relationship matrix can improve genetic gain.
doi:10.1534/g3.112.004259
PMCID: PMC3484671  PMID: 23173092
realized relationship matrix; genomic selection; breeding value prediction; shrinkage estimation; GenPred; Shared Data Resources
19.  Semiparametric estimation of covariance matrices for longitudinal data 
Estimation of longitudinal data covariance structure poses significant challenges because the data are usually collected at irregular time points. A viable semiparametric model for covariance matrices was proposed in Fan, Huang and Li (2007) that allows one to estimate the variance function nonparametrically and to estimate the correlation function parametrically via aggregating information from irregular and sparse data points within each subject. However, the asymptotic properties of their quasi-maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE) of parameters in the covariance model are largely unknown. In the current work, we address this problem in the context of more general models for the conditional mean function including parametric, nonparametric, or semi-parametric. We also consider the possibility of rough mean regression function and introduce the difference-based method to reduce biases in the context of varying-coefficient partially linear mean regression models. This provides a more robust estimator of the covariance function under a wider range of situations. Under some technical conditions, consistency and asymptotic normality are obtained for the QMLE of the parameters in the correlation function. Simulation studies and a real data example are used to illustrate the proposed approach.
doi:10.1198/016214508000000742
PMCID: PMC2631936  PMID: 19180247
Correlation structure; difference-based estimation; quasi-maximum likelihood; varying-coefficient partially linear model
20.  Allele coding in genomic evaluation 
Background
Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference.
Results
Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being the best.
Conclusions
Different allele coding methods lead to the same inference in the marker-based and equivalent models when a fixed general mean is included in the model. However, reliabilities of genomic breeding values are affected by the allele coding method used. The centered coding has some numerical advantages when Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used.
doi:10.1186/1297-9686-43-25
PMCID: PMC3154140  PMID: 21703021
21.  Separability tests for high-dimensional, low sample size multivariate repeated measures data 
Journal of applied statistics  2014;41(11):2450-2461.
Longitudinal imaging studies have moved to the forefront of medical research due to their ability to characterize spatio-temporal features of biological structures across the lifespan. Valid inference in longitudinal imaging requires enough flexibility of the covariance model to allow reasonable fidelity to the true pattern. On the other hand, the existence of computable estimates demands a parsimonious parameterization of the covariance structure. Separable (Kronecker product) covariance models provide one such parameterization in which the spatial and temporal covariances are modeled separately. However, evaluating the validity of this parameterization in high-dimensions remains a challenge. Here we provide a scientifically informed approach to assessing the adequacy of separable (Kronecker product) covariance models when the number of observations is large relative to the number of independent sampling units (sample size). We address both the general case, in which unstructured matrices are considered for each covariance model, and the structured case, which assumes a particular structure for each model. For the structured case, we focus on the situation where the within subject correlation is believed to decrease exponentially in time and space as is common in longitudinal imaging studies. However, the provided framework equally applies to all covariance patterns used within the more general multivariate repeated measures context. Our approach provides useful guidance for high dimension, low sample size data that preclude using standard likelihood based tests. Longitudinal medical imaging data of caudate morphology in schizophrenia illustrates the approaches appeal.
doi:10.1080/02664763.2014.919251
PMCID: PMC4203479  PMID: 25342869
Kronecker product; Separable Covariance; Multivariate repeated measures; Likelihood ratio test; Spatio-temporal data; Linear exponent autoregressive model
22.  Quasi-Likelihood Techniques in a Logistic Regression Equation for Identifying Simulium damnosum s.l. Larval Habitats Intra-cluster Covariates in Togo 
The standard methods for regression analyses of clustered riverine larval habitat data of Simulium damnosum s.l. a major black-fly vector of Onchoceriasis, postulate models relating observational ecological-sampled parameter estimators to prolific habitats without accounting for residual intra-cluster error correlation effects. Generally, this correlation comes from two sources: (1) the design of the random effects and their assumed covariance from the multiple levels within the regression model; and, (2) the correlation structure of the residuals. Unfortunately, inconspicuous errors in residual intra-cluster correlation estimates can overstate precision in forecasted S.damnosum s.l. riverine larval habitat explanatory attributes regardless how they are treated (e.g., independent, autoregressive, Toeplitz, etc). In this research, the geographical locations for multiple riverine-based S. damnosum s.l. larval ecosystem habitats sampled from 2 pre-established epidemiological sites in Togo were identified and recorded from July 2009 to June 2010. Initially the data was aggregated into proc genmod. An agglomerative hierarchical residual cluster-based analysis was then performed. The sampled clustered study site data was then analyzed for statistical correlations using Monthly Biting Rates (MBR). Euclidean distance measurements and terrain-related geomorphological statistics were then generated in ArcGIS. A digital overlay was then performed also in ArcGIS using the georeferenced ground coordinates of high and low density clusters stratified by Annual Biting Rates (ABR). This data was overlain onto multitemporal sub-meter pixel resolution satellite data (i.e., QuickBird 0.61m wavbands ). Orthogonal spatial filter eigenvectors were then generated in SAS/GIS. Univariate and non-linear regression-based models (i.e., Logistic, Poisson and Negative Binomial) were also employed to determine probability distributions and to identify statistically significant parameter estimators from the sampled data. Thereafter, Durbin-Watson test statistics were used to test the null hypothesis that the regression residuals were not autocorrelated against the alternative that the residuals followed an autoregressive process in AUTOREG. Bayesian uncertainty matrices were also constructed employing normal priors for each of the sampled estimators in PROC MCMC. The residuals revealed both spatially structured and unstructured error effects in the high and low ABR-stratified clusters. The analyses also revealed that the estimators, levels of turbidity and presence of rocks were statistically significant for the high-ABR-stratified clusters, while the estimators distance between habitats and floating vegetation were important for the low-ABR-stratified cluster. Varying and constant coefficient regression models, ABR- stratified GIS-generated clusters, sub-meter resolution satellite imagery, a robust residual intra-cluster diagnostic test, MBR-based histograms, eigendecomposition spatial filter algorithms and Bayesian matrices can enable accurate autoregressive estimation of latent uncertainity affects and other residual error probabilities (i.e., heteroskedasticity) for testing correlations between georeferenced S. damnosum s.l. riverine larval habitat estimators. The asymptotic distribution of the resulting residual adjusted intra-cluster predictor error autocovariate coefficients can thereafter be established while estimates of the asymptotic variance can lead to the construction of approximate confidence intervals for accurately targeting productive S. damnosum s.l habitats based on spatiotemporal field-sampled count data.
doi:10.1080/10095020.2012.714663
PMCID: PMC3595116  PMID: 23504576
Simulium damnosum s.l.; cluster covariates; QuickBird; onchoceriasis; annual biting rates; Bayesian; Togo
23.  ORACLE INEQUALITIES FOR THE LASSO IN THE COX MODEL 
Annals of statistics  2013;41(3):1142-1165.
We study the absolute penalized maximum partial likelihood estimator in sparse, high-dimensional Cox proportional hazards regression models where the number of time-dependent covariates can be larger than the sample size. We establish oracle inequalities based on natural extensions of the compatibility and cone invertibility factors of the Hessian matrix at the true regression coefficients. Similar results based on an extension of the restricted eigenvalue can be also proved by our method. However, the presented oracle inequalities are sharper since the compatibility and cone invertibility factors are always greater than the corresponding restricted eigenvalue. In the Cox regression model, the Hessian matrix is based on time-dependent covariates in censored risk sets, so that the compatibility and cone invertibility factors, and the restricted eigenvalue as well, are random variables even when they are evaluated for the Hessian at the true regression coefficients. Under mild conditions, we prove that these quantities are bounded from below by positive constants for time-dependent covariates, including cases where the number of covariates is of greater order than the sample size. Consequently, the compatibility and cone invertibility factors can be treated as positive constants in our oracle inequalities.
doi:10.1214/13-AOS1098
PMCID: PMC3786146  PMID: 24086091
Proportional hazards; regression; absolute penalty; regularization; oracle inequality; survival analysis
24.  ML versus MI for Missing Data with Violation of Distribution Conditions* 
Sociological methods & research  2012;41(4):598-629.
Normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood (ML) and multiple imputation (MI) are the two major procedures for missing data analysis. This article compares the two procedures with respects to bias and efficiency of parameter estimates. It also compares formula-based standard errors (SEs) for each procedure against the corresponding empirical SEs. The results indicate that parameter estimates by MI tend to be less efficient than those by ML; and the estimates of variance-covariance parameters by MI are also more biased. In particular, when the population for the observed variables possesses heavy tails, estimates of variance-covariance parameters by MI may contain severe bias even at relative large sample sizes. Although performing a lot better, ML parameter estimates may also contain substantial bias at smaller sample sizes. The results also indicate that, when the underlying population is close to normally distributed, SEs based on the sandwich-type covariance matrix and those based on the observed information matrix are very comparable to empirical SEs with either ML or MI. When the underlying distribution has heavier tails, SEs based on the sandwich-type covariance matrix for ML estimates are more reliable than those based on the observed information matrix. Both empirical results and analysis show that neither SEs based on the observed information matrix nor those based on the sandwich-type covariance matrix can provide consistent SEs in MI. Thus, ML is preferable to MI in practice, although parameter estimates by MI might still be consistent.
doi:10.1177/0049124112460373
PMCID: PMC3995817  PMID: 24764604
bias; standard error; consistency; observed information; sandwich-type variance; Monte Carlo
25.  Wavelet-based functional mixed models 
Summary
Increasingly, scientific studies yield functional data, in which the ideal units of observation are curves and the observed data consist of sets of curves that are sampled on a fine grid. We present new methodology that generalizes the linear mixed model to the functional mixed model framework, with model fitting done by using a Bayesian wavelet-based approach. This method is flexible, allowing functions of arbitrary form and the full range of fixed effects structures and between-curve covariance structures that are available in the mixed model framework. It yields nonparametric estimates of the fixed and random-effects functions as well as the various between-curve and within-curve covariance matrices. The functional fixed effects are adaptively regularized as a result of the non-linear shrinkage prior that is imposed on the fixed effects’ wavelet coefficients, and the random-effect functions experience a form of adaptive regularization because of the separately estimated variance components for each wavelet coefficient. Because we have posterior samples for all model quantities, we can perform pointwise or joint Bayesian inference or prediction on the quantities of the model. The adaptiveness of the method makes it especially appropriate for modelling irregular functional data that are characterized by numerous local features like peaks.
doi:10.1111/j.1467-9868.2006.00539.x
PMCID: PMC2744105  PMID: 19759841
Bayesian methods; Functional data analysis; Mixed models; Model averaging; Nonparametric regression; Proteomics; Wavelets

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