Implant osseointegration is a prerequisite for clinical success in orthopaedic and dental applications, many of which are restricted by loosening. Biomaterial surface modification approaches, including calcium-phosphate ceramic coatings and macro/microporosity, have had limited success in promoting integration. To improve osseointegration, titanium surfaces were coated with the GFOGER collagen-mimetic peptide, selectively promoting α2β1 integrin binding, a crucial event for osteoblastic differentiation. Titanium surfaces presenting GFOGER triggered osteoblastic differentiation and mineral deposition in bone marrow stromal cells, leading to enhanced osteoblastic function compared to unmodified titanium. Furthermore, this integrin-targeted coating significantly improved in vivo peri-implant bone regeneration and osseointegration, as characterized by bone-implant contact and mechanical fixation, compared to untreated titanium in a rat cortical bone-implant model. GFOGER-modified implants also significantly enhanced osseointegration compared to surfaces modified with full-length type I collagen, highlighting the importance of presenting specific biofunctional domains within the native ligand. In addition, this biomimetic implant coating is generated using a simple, single-step procedure that readily translates to a clinical environment with minimal processing and cytotoxicity concerns. Therefore, this study establishes a biologically active and clinically relevant implant coating strategy that enhances bone repair and orthopaedic implant integration.
biomimetic material; cell adhesion; collagen; osseointegration; integrin
Limited osseointegration of current orthopaedic biomaterials contributes to the failure of implants such as arthroplasties, bone screws and bone grafts, which present a large socioeconomic cost within the United States. These implant failures underscore the need for biomimetic approaches that modulate host cell-implant material responses to enhance implant osseointegration and bone formation. Bioinspired strategies have included functionalizing implants with ECM proteins or ECM-derived peptides or protein fragments which engage integrins and direct osteoblast adhesion and differentiation. This review discusses 1) bone ECM composition and key integrins implicated in osteogenic differentiation, 2) the use of implants functionalized with ECM-mimetic peptides/protein fragments, and 3) growth-factor derived peptides to promote the mechanical fixation of implants to bone and to enhance bone healing within large defects.
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to biomolecules adsorbed onto biomedical devices regulates device integration and performance. Because of the central role of integrin-fibronectin (FN) interactions in osteoblastic function and bone formation, we evaluated the ability of fibronectin-inspired biomolecular coatings to promote osteoblastic differentiation and implant osseointegration. Notably, these biomolecular coatings relied on physical adsorption of FN-based ligands onto biomedical-grade titanium as a simple, clinically-translatable strategy to functionalize medical implants. Surfaces coated with a recombinant fragment of FN spanning the central cell binding domain enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in bone marrow stromal cell cultures and increased implant osseointegration in a rat cortical bone model compared to passively adsorbed RGD peptides, serum proteins, and full-length FN. Differences in biological responses correlated with integrin binding specificity and signaling among surface coatings. This work validates a simple, clinically-translatable, surface biofunctionalization strategy to enhance biomedical device integration.
fibronectin; osseointegration; coating; integrins; biomimetic; implant
Engineered biointerfaces covered with biomimetic motifs, including short bioadhesive ligands, are a promising material-based strategy for tissue repair in regenerative medicine. Potentially useful coating molecules are ligands for the integrins, major extracellular matrix receptors that require both ligand binding and nanoscale clustering for maximal signaling efficiency. We prepared coatings consisting of well-defined multimer constructs with a precise number of recombinant fragments of fibronectin (monomer, dimer, tetramer, and pentamer) to assess how nanoscale ligand clustering affects integrin binding, stem cell responses, tissue healing, and biomaterial integration. Clinical-grade titanium was grafted with polymer brushes that presented monomers, dimers, trimers, or pentamers of the α5β1 integrin–specific fibronectin III (7 to 10) domain (FNIII7–10). Coatings consisting of trimers and pentamers enhanced integrin-mediated adhesion in vitro, osteogenic signaling, and differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells more than did surfaces presenting monomers and dimers. Furthermore, ligand clustering promoted bone formation and functional integration of the implant into bone in rat tibiae. This study establishes that a material-based strategy in which implants are coated with clustered bioadhesive ligands can promote robust implant-tissue integration.
Titanium alloys (Ti) are the preferred material for orthopaedic applications. However, very often, these metallic implants loosen over a long period and mandate revision surgery. For implant success, osteoblasts must adhere to the implant surface and deposit a mineralized extracellular matrix. Here, we utilized UV-killed Staphylococcus aureus as a novel osteoconductive coating for Ti surfaces. S. aureus expresses surface adhesins capable of binding to bone and biomaterials directly. Furthermore, interaction of S. aureus with osteoblasts activates growth factor-related pathways that potentiate osteogenesis. While UV-killed S. aureus cells retain their bone-adhesive ability, they do not stimulate significant immune modulator expression. All of the above properties were utilized for a novel implant coating so as to promote osteoblast recruitment and subsequent cell functions on the bone-implant interface. In the present study, osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and mineralized extracellular matrix synthesis were measured on Ti surfaces coated with fibronectin with and without UV-killed bacteria. Osteoblast adhesion was enhanced on Ti alloy surfaces coated with bacteria compared to uncoated surfaces while cell proliferation was sustained comparably on both surfaces. Osteoblast markers such as collagen, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation were increased on Ti alloy coated with bacteria compared to uncoated surfaces.
Titanium implant surfaces; Osseointegration; Staphylococcus aureus; Calvarial osteoblasts; Osteoblast differentiation
A novel porous titanium foam implant has recently been developed to enhance biological fixation of orthopaedic implants to bone. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical and histological characteristics of bone apposition into two different pore sizes of this titanium foam (565 and 464 micron mean void intercept length) and to compare these characteristics to those obtained with a fully porous conventionally sintered titanium bead implant. Cylindrical implants were studied in a rabbit distal femoral intramedullary osseointegration model at time zero and at 3, 6, and 12 weeks. The amount of bone ingrowth, amount of periprosthetic bone, and mineral apposition rate of periprosthetic bone measured did not differ among the three implant designs at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. By 12 weeks, the interface stiffness and maximum load of the beaded implant was significantly greater than either foam implant. No significant difference was found in the interface stiffness or maximum load between the two foam implant designs at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. The lower compressive modulus of the foam compared to the more dense sintered beaded implants likely contributed to the difference in failure mode. However, the foam implants have a similar compressive modulus to other clinically successful coatings, suggesting they are nonetheless clinically adequate. Additional studies are required to confirm this in weight-bearing models. Histological data suggest that these novel titanium foam implants are a promising alternative to current porous coatings and should be further investigated for clinical application in cementless joint replacement.
Osseointegration; bone ingrowth; titanium foam; rabbit; push-out testing
Modification of the implant surface with the Arg-Gly-Asp tripeptide (RGD) putatively facilitates osteoblast attachment for improved implant fixation in the laboratory. We compared the histomorphometric and mechanical performance of titanium implants coated with RGD using a novel interface of self-assembled monolayers of phosphonates (RGD/SAMP) and implants coated with RGD using the more conventional thiolate-gold interface (RGD/thiolate-gold). We hypothesized RGD/SAMP-coated implants would show greater bone ongrowth and implant fixation than RGD/thiolate-gold-coated ones. We implanted an RGD/SAMP-coated implant in one femur and an RGD/thiolate-gold-coated in the contralateral femur of 60 rats. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation, 10 rats were sacrificed for histologic evaluation and another 10 for biomechanical testing. Bone-implant ongrowth and implant force-to-failure of the two implants were similar at all times. Although RGD/SAMP-coated implants did not show superior bone ongrowth and implant fixation, RGD/SAMP-coated implants have at least equally good histomorphometric and mechanical in vivo performance as RGD/thiolate-gold-coated ones. Additional in vivo characterization of self-assembled monolayer films of phosphonates as interface to bond RGD to titanium is needed to explore its full potential and seems justified based on the results of this study.
Surface contaminants, such as bacterial debris and manufacturing residues, may remain on orthopaedic implants after sterilization procedures and affect osseointegration. The goals of this study were to develop a murine model of osseointegration in order to determine whether removing surface contaminants enhances osseointegration. To develop the murine model, titanium alloy implants were implanted into a unicortical pilot hole in the mid-diaphysis of the femur and osseointegration was measured over a five week time course. Histology, backscatter scanning electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy showed areas of bone in intimate physical contact with the implant, confirming osseointegration. Histomorphometric quantification of bone-to-implant contact and peri-implant bone and biomechanical pullout quantification of ultimate force, stiffness and work to failure increased significantly over time, also demonstrating successful osseointegration. We also found that a rigorous cleaning procedure significantly enhances bone-to-implant contact and biomechanical pullout measures by two-fold compared with implants that were autoclaved, as recommended by the manufacturer. The most likely interpretation of these results is that surface contaminants inhibit osseointegration. The results of this study justify the need for the development of better detection and removal techniques for contaminants on orthopaedic implants and other medical devices.
contaminants; osseointegration; murine; histomorphometry; biomechanical testing
The long-term clinical success of dental implants is related to their early osseointegration. This paper reviews the different steps of the interactions between biological fluids, cells, tissues, and surfaces of implants. Immediately following implantation, implants are in contact with proteins and platelets from blood. The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells will then condition the peri-implant tissue healing. Direct bone-to-implant contact is desired for a biomechanical anchoring of implants to bone rather than fibrous tissue encapsulation. Surfaces properties such as chemistry and roughness play a determinant role in these biological interactions. Physicochemical features in the nanometer range may ultimately control the adsorption of proteins as well as the adhesion and differentiation of cells. Nanotechnologies are increasingly used for surface modifications of dental implants. Another approach to enhance osseointegration is the application of thin calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings. Bioactive CaP nanocrystals deposited on titanium implants are resorbable and stimulate bone apposition and healing. Future nanometer-controlled surfaces may ultimately direct the nature of peri-implant tissues and improve their clinical success rate.
High strength porous titanium implants are widely used for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects because of their similar mechanical properties to those of bone. The recent introduction of electron beam melting (EBM) technique allows a direct digitally enabled fabrication of patient specific porous titanium implants, whereas both their in vitro and in vivo biological performance need further investigation.
In the present study, we fabricated porous Ti6Al4V implants with controlled porous structure by EBM process, analyzed their mechanical properties, and conducted the surface modification with biomimetic approach. The bioactivities of EBM porous titanium in vitro and in vivo were evaluated between implants with and without biomimetic apatite coating.
The physical property of the porous implants, containing the compressive strength being 163 - 286 MPa and the Young’s modulus being 14.5–38.5 GPa, is similar to cortical bone. The in vitro culture of osteoblasts on the porous Ti6Al4V implants has shown a favorable circumstance for cell attachment and proliferation as well as cell morphology and spreading, which were comparable with the implants coating with bone-like apatite. In vivo, histological analysis has obtained a rapid ingrowth of bone tissue from calvarial margins toward the center of bone defect in 12 weeks. We observed similar increasing rate of bone ingrowth and percentage of bone formation within coated and uncoated implants, all of which achieved a successful bridging of the defect in 12 weeks after the implantation.
This study demonstrated that the EBM porous Ti6Al4V implant not only reduced the stress-shielding but also exerted appropriate osteoconductive properties, as well as the apatite coated group. The results opened up the possibility of using purely porous titanium alloy scaffolds to reconstruct specific bone defects in the maxillofacial and orthopedic fields.
Background and purpose
Amorphous diamond (AD) is a durable and compatible biomaterial for joint prostheses. Knowledge regarding bone growth on AD-coated implants and their early-stage osseointegration is poor. We investigated bone growth on AD-coated cementless intramedullary implants implanted in rats. Titanium was chosen as a reference due to its well-known performance.
Materials and methods
We placed AD-coated and non-coated titanium implants (Ra ≈ 0.2 μm) into the femoral bone marrow of 25 rats. The animals were divided in 2 groups according to implant coating and they were killed after 4 or 12 weeks. The osseointegration of the implants was examined from hard tissue specimens by measuring the new bone formation on their surface.
4 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone in the AD-coated group was greater than that in the non-coated group (15.3 (SD 7.1) μm vs. 7.6 (SD 6.0) μm). 12 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone was similar in the non-coated group and in the AD-coated group.
We conclude that AD coating of femoral implants can enhance bone ongrowth in rats in the acute, early stage after the operation and might be an improvement over earlier coatings.
Ideal outcomes in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involve biomaterials that can enhance cell differentiation and production of local factors for natural tissue regeneration without the use of systemic drugs. Biomaterials typically used in tissue engineering applications include polymeric scaffolds that mimic the 3-D structural environment of the native tissue, but these are often functionalized with proteins or small peptides to improve their biological performance. For bone applications, titanium (Ti) implants, or more appropriately the titania (TiO2) passive oxide layer formed on their surface, have been shown to enhance osteoblast differentiation in vitro and to promote osseointegration in vivo. In this study we evaluated the effect on osteoblast differentiation of pure TiO2 nano-fiber meshes with different surface micro-roughness and nano-fiber diameters, prepared by the electrospinning method. MG63 cells were seeded on TiO2 meshes, and cell number, differentiation markers and local factor production were analyzed. The results showed that cells grew throughout the entire surfaces and with similar morphology in all groups. Cell number was sensitive to surface micro-roughness, whereas cell differentiation and local factor production was regulated by both surface roughness and nano-fiber diameter. These results indicate that scaffold structural cues alone can be used to drive cell differentiation and create an osteogenic environment without the use of exogenous factors.
nano structures; electrospinning; scaffold; titanium implant; tissue engineering; bone
This study evaluated the effects of phosphate-coated titanium on mineral apposition rate (MAR) and new bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in canines.
Materials and Methods:
2.2 mm × 4 mm electrolytically phosphated or non-phosphated titanium implants with acid-etched surfaces were placed in 48 mandibular sites in 6 foxhounds. Tetracycline and calcein dyes were administered 1 week after implant placement and 1 week before sacrifice. At twelve weeks following implant healing, animals were sacrificed. MAR and BIC were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. Light microscopic and histological evaluation was performed on undecalcified sections.
Microscopic evaluation showed the presence of healthy osteoblasts lining bone surfaces near implants. Similar bone-to-implant contact was observed in phosphated and non-phosphated titanium implant sites. MAR was significantly higher near non-phosphated titanium implant surfaces than the phosphated titanium samples. No significant differences were found between dogs or implant sites.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Acid-etched only implants showed significantly higher mineral apposition rates compared to acid-etched, phosphate-coated implants.
phosphate; titanium; acid-etched; mineral apposition rate; BIC
The success of middle ear reconstructive surgery depends on stable coupling between the prosthesis and residual ossicles. To establish a stable fixed point on the stapes footplate for subsequent prosthesis reconstruction, a titanium footplate anchor was coated with osteoinductive substances to induce a controlled osseointegration on the footplate. Various studies have shown that collagen-based matrices with and without bone growth and differentiation factors can induce and enhance bone formation and consequently increase implant stability. The ears of 23 one-year-old Merino sheep (n = 46) were divided into five groups and implanted with a specially designed footplate anchor. The surface of each implant was modified by applying a collagenous matrix (collagen I or II) either with immobilized bone morphogenic protein (BMP-4) or transforming growth factor-ß, respectively, to stimulate osteoblastic activation and differentiation on the stapes footplate with subsequent osseointegration. Polychrome labeling was used to assess new bone formation and remodeling during the study. After study termination on day 84, synchrotron radiation-based computed microtomography and histomorphometry were used to identify bone implant contact. Eight implants showed radiographical and/or histological evidence of integration by newly formed bone. An osseointegration could histologically be proven in two of these eight specimens, and additional ectopic bone formations were seen in another 21 specimens. In all animals, bone turnover on the footplate was proven by polychrome labeling. This study proves the general ability to induce a controlled osseointegration of titanium implants biologically activated with artificial extracellular matrices on their surfaces on the stapes footplate in a mammalian organism.
tympanoplasty; reconstruction; animal study; growth factors; implant coating
Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used for fabrication of dental implants. Since the material composition and the surface topography of a biomaterial play a fundamental role in osseointegration, various chemical and physical surface modifications have been developed to improve osseous healing. Zirconia-based implants were introduced into dental implantology as an altenative to titanium implants. Zirconia seems to be a suitable implant material because of its tooth-like colour, its mechanical properties and its biocompatibility. As the osseointegration of zirconia implants has not been extensively investigated, the aim of this study was to compare the osseous healing of zirconia implants with titanium implants which have a roughened surface but otherwise similar implant geometries.
Forty-eight zirconia and titanium implants were introduced into the tibia of 12 minipigs. After 1, 4 or 12 weeks, animals were sacrificed and specimens containing the implants were examined in terms of histological and ultrastructural techniques.
Histological results showed direct bone contact on the zirconia and titanium surfaces. Bone implant contact as measured by histomorphometry was slightly better on titanium than on zirconia surfaces. However, a statistically significant difference between the two groups was not observed.
The results demonstrated that zirconia implants with modified surfaces result in an osseointegration which is comparable with that of titanium implants.
An implant coating with poly(D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) releasing incorporated Zoledronic acid (ZOL) has already proven to positively effect osteoblasts, to inhibit osteoclasts and to accelerate fracture healing. Aim of this study was to investigate the release kinetics of the chosen coating and the effect of different concentrations of ZOL locally released from this coating on the osseointegration of implants.
For release kinetics the release of C14-labled ZOL out of the coating was monitored over a period of six weeks in vitro. For testing the osseointegration, titanium Kirschner wires were implanted into the medullary canal of right femurs of 100 Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups receiving implants either uncoated or coated with PDLLA, PDLLA/ZOL low (1.2% w/w) or PDLLA/ZOL high (2% w/w). Additionally, a group with uncoated implants received ZOL intravenously (i.v.). After 56 days animals were sacrificed, femurs dissected and either strength of fixation or histological bone/implant contacts and newly formed bone around the implants were determined.
Release kinetics revealed an initial peak in the release of C14-ZOL with a slight further progression over the following weeks. There was no significant enhancement of osseointegration for both groups who received ZOL-coated implants or ZOL i.v. compared to the controls in biomechanical or histological analyses, except for a significant raise in strength of fixation of ZOL i.v. versus PDLLA.
Even though the investigated local ZOL application did not enhance the osseointegration of the implant, the findings might support its application in fracture treatment, since fracture stabilization devices are often explanted after consolidation.
Self-assembled rosette nanotubes (RNTs), obtained from a twin G∧C base functionalized with lysine-arginine-serine-arginine (KRSR–(G∧C)2), were designed and investigated as bioactive coatings on titanium. These results were compared to RNTs derived from Lysine G∧C (K G∧C), Arg-Gly-Asp G∧C (RGD G∧C) and aminobutane–(G∧C)2 (AB–(G∧C)2). The results from this study revealed that these materials had excellent cytocompatibility properties as they enhanced osteoblast (bone forming cell) adhesion when coated on titanium. In particular, KRSR and RGD functionalized RNTs coated on titanium promoted the greatest osteoblast densities relative to untreated titanium. Furthermore, KRSR functionalized RNTs selectively improved osteoblast adhesion relative to fibroblast (soft-tissue forming cell) and endothelial cell adhesion. In contrast with these results, RNTs obtained from an unfunctionalized twin base (AB–(G∧C)2), RGD G∧C co-assembled with K G∧C and K-G∧C significantly enhanced endothelial cell attachment, which may find applications in the vascularization of newly formed bone tissue. In summary, these studies suggest that the surface of orthopedic implant materials (such as titanium) could be tailored to promote selective cell adhesion using biologically-inspired nanotubular structures functionalized with osteogenic compounds.
rosette nanotubes; nanomaterials; biomimetic; osteogenic peptides; coating; orthopedic implant
Recently, tantalum is gaining more attention as a new metallic biomaterial as it has been shown to be bioactive and biologically bond to the bone. However, relatively high cost of manufacture and inability to produce a modular all tantalum implant has limited'its widespread acceptance. In this study, we have successfully deposited Ta coating on Ti using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) to enhance osseointegration properties. In vitro biocompatibility study, using human osteoblast cell line hFOB, showed excellent cellular adherence and growth with abundant extracellular matrix formation on Ta coating surface compare to Ti surface. Six times higher living cell density was observed on Ta coating than on Ti control surface during MMT assay. High surface energy and wettability of Ta surface were observed to contribute to its significantly better cell-materials interactions. Also, these dense Ta coatings do not suffer from low fatigue resistance due to the absence of porosity and sharp interface between the coating and the substrate, which is a major concern for porous coatings used for enhanced/early biological fixation.
Laser processing; Tantalum; Coatings; Biocompatibility; Osteoblast; Bone implants; laser engineered net shaping (LENS)
Although the bone's capability of dental implant osseointegration has clinically been utilised as early as in the Gallo-Roman population, the specific mechanisms for the emergence and maintenance of peri-implant bone under functional load have not been identified. Here we show that under immediate loading of specially designed dental implants with masticatory loads, osseointegration is rapidly achieved.
We examined the bone reaction around non- and immediately loaded dental implants inserted in the mandible of mature minipigs during the presently assumed time for osseointegration. We used threaded conical titanium implants containing a titanium2+ oxide surface, allowing direct bone contact after insertion. The external geometry was designed according to finite element analysis: the calculation showed that physiological amplitudes of strain (500–3,000 ustrain) generated through mastication were homogenously distributed in peri-implant bone. The strain-energy density (SED) rate under assessment of a 1 Hz loading cycle was 150 Jm-3 s-1, peak dislocations were lower then nm.
Bone was in direct contact to the implant surface (bone/implant contact rate 90%) from day one of implant insertion, as quantified by undecalcified histological sections. This effect was substantiated by ultrastructural analysis of intimate osteoblast attachment and mature collagen mineralisation at the titanium surface. We detected no loss in the intimate bone/implant bond during the experimental period of either control or experimental animals, indicating that immediate load had no adverse effect on bone structure in peri-implant bone.
In terms of clinical relevance, the load related bone reaction at the implant interface may in combination with substrate effects be responsible for an immediate osseointegration state.
Simvastatin increases the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in osteoblasts, therefore it is important to investigate the influence of statins on bone formation, fracture healing and implant integration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Simvastatin, locally applied from intramedullary coated and bioactive implants, on bone integration using biomechanical and histomorphometrical analyses.
Eighty rats received retrograde nailing of the femur with titanium implants: uncoated vs. polymer-only (poly(D,L-lactide)) vs. polymer plus drug coated (either Simvastatin low- or high dosed; “SIM low/ high”). Femurs were harvested after 56 days for radiographic and histomorphometric or biomechanical analysis (push-out).
Radiographic analysis revealed no pathological findings for animals of the control and SIM low dose group. However, n=2/10 animals of the SIM high group showed osteolysis next to the implant without evidence of bacterial infection determined by microbiological analysis. Biomechanical results showed a significant decrease in fixation strength for SIM high coated implants vs. the control groups (uncoated and PDLLA). Histomorphometry revealed a significantly reduced total as well as direct bone/implant contact for SIM high- implants vs. controls (uncoated and PDLLA-groups). Total contact was reduced for SIM low vs. uncoated controls. Significantly reduced new bone formation was measured around SIM high coated implants vs. both control groups.
This animal study suggests impaired implant integration with local application of Simvastatin from intramedullary titanium implants after 8 weeks when compared to uncoated or carrier-only coated controls.
Statins; Simvastatin; Implant integration; BMP; Local application
Titanium implants are widely used in dentistry and orthopaedic surgery. Nevertheless, bone regeneration around the implant is a relatively slow process, after placement. This study assessed whether SATB2 can enhance osseointegration of a titanium implant. To determine the effect of SATB2 in implant integration, two different viruses encoding SATB2 (PBABE-Satb2 virus or RCAS-Satb2 virus) were locally administered to the bone defect prior to titanium implant placement in our established transgenic TVA mice. Seven and 21 days post implantation, the femurs were isolated for quantitative real-time RT-PCR, H&E staining, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated that the in vivo overexpression of SATB2 enhanced expression levels of potent osteogenic transcription factors and bone matrix proteins. We also found that 21 days after implantation, there were no significant differences in the expression levels of SATB2, Osx, Runx2, COLI, OC, and BSP between the RCAS-Satb2 group and the RCAS group. Histological analysis showed that SATB2 overexpression significantly enhanced new bone formation and bone-to-implant contact after implantation. IHC staining analysis revealed that forced expression of SATB2 increased the number of BSP-positive cells surrounding the implant. MicroCT analysis demonstrated that in vivo overexpression of SATB2 significantly increased the density of the newly formed bone surrounding the implant. These results conclude that in vivo overexpression of SATB2 significantly accelerates osseointegration of titanium implants and SATB2 can serve as a potent molecule in promoting tissue regeneration.
implant; SATB2; osseointegration; TVA mice
Our study was designed to evaluate osseointegration among implants with three surface treatments: plasma-sprayed titanium (P), plasma-sprayed titanium with hydroxyapatite (PHA), and chemical-textured titanium with hydroxyapatite (CHA). Average surface roughness (Ra) was 27 microns for the P group, 17 microns for the PHA group, and 26 microns for the CHA group. Bilateral distal intramedullary implants were placed in the femora of thirty rabbits. Histomorphometry of scanning electron microscopy images was used to analyze the amount of bone around the implants at 6 and 12 weeks after implantation. Greater amounts of osseointegration were observed in the hydroxyapatite-coated groups than in the noncoated group. For all implant surfaces, osseointegration was greater at the diaphyseal level compared to the metaphyseal level. No significant differences were seen in osseointegration between the 6 and 12 week time points. Although the average surface roughness of the P and the CHA groups was similar, osseointegration of the CHA implants was significantly greater. The results of this in vivo lapine study suggest that the presence of an hydroxyapatite coating enhances osseointegration despite similarities in average surface roughness.
Uncemented fixation of components in joint arthroplasty is achieved primarily through de novo bone formation at the bone-implant interface and establishment of a biological and mechanical interlock. In order to enhance bone-implant integration osteoconductive coatings and the methods of application thereof are continuously being developed and applied to highly porous and roughened implant substrates. In this study the effects of an electrochemically-deposited dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) coating of a porous substrate on implant osseointegration was assessed using a standard uncemented implant fixation model in sheep.
Plasma sprayed titanium implants with and without a DCPD coating were inserted into defects drilled into the cancellous and cortical sites of the femur and tibia. Cancellous implants were inserted in a press-fit scenario whilst cortical implants were inserted in a line-to-line fit. Specimens were retrieved at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Interfacial shear-strength of the cortical sites was assessed using a push-out test, whilst bone ingrowth, ongrowth and remodelling were investigated using histologic and histomorphometric endpoints.
DCPD coating significantly improved cancellous bone ingrowth at 4 weeks but had no significant effect on mechanical stability in cortical bone up to 12 weeks postoperatively. Whilst a significant reduction in cancellous bone ongrowth was observed from 4 to 12 weeks for the DCPD coating, no other statistically significant differences in ongrowth or ingrowth in either the cancellous or cortical sites were observed between TiPS and DCPD groups.
The application of a DCPD coating to porous titanium substrates may improve the extent of cancellous bone ingrowth in the early postoperative phase following uncemented arthroplasty.
Bone ingrowth; Interfacial shear strength; Calcium phosphate; Osteoconduction; Bone remodeling
Titanium (Ti) osseointegration is critical for the success of dental and orthopaedic implants. Previous studies have shown that surface roughness at the micro- and submicro-scales promotes osseointegration by enhancing osteoblast differentiation and local factor production. Only relatively recently have the effects of nanoscale roughness on cell response been considered. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and scalable surface modification treatment that introduces nanoscale features to the surfaces of Ti substrates without greatly affecting other surface features, and to determine the effects of such superimposed nano-features on the differentiation and local factor production of osteoblasts. A simple oxidation treatment was developed for generating controlled nanoscale topographies on Ti surfaces, while retaining the starting micro-/submicro-scale roughness. Such nano-modified surfaces also possessed similar elemental compositions, and exhibited similar contact angles, as the original surfaces, but possessed a different surface crystal structure. MG63 cells were seeded on machined (PT), nano-modified PT (NMPT), sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA), and nano-modified SLA (NMSLA) Ti disks. The results suggested that the introduction of such nanoscale structures in combination with micro-/submicro-scale roughness improves osteoblast differentiation and local factor production, which, in turn, indicates the potential for improved implant osseointegration in vivo.
(4 to 6) nanotopography; titanium oxide; surface roughness; titanium; bone; implant; osteoblasts
Current orthopedic implants have functional lifetimes of only 10–15 years due to a variety of reasons including infection, extensive inflammation, and overall poor osseointegration (or a lack of prolonged bonding of the implant to juxtaposed bone). To improve properties of titanium for orthopedic applications, this study anodized and subsequently coated titanium with drugs known to reduce infection (penicillin/streptomycin) and inflammation (dexamethasone) using simple physical adsorption and the deposition of such drugs from simulated body fluid (SBF). Results showed improved drug elution from anodized nanotubular titanium when drugs were coated in the presence of SBF for up to 3 days. For the first time, results also showed that the simple physical adsorption of both penicillin/streptomycin and dexamethasone on anodized nanotubular titanium improved osteoblast numbers after 2 days of culture compared to uncoated unanodized titanium. In addition, results showed that depositing such drugs in SBF on anodized titanium was a more efficient method to promote osteoblast numbers compared to physical adsorption for up to 2 days of culture. In addition, osteoblast numbers increased on anodized titanium coated with drugs in SBF for up to 2 days of culture compared to unanodized titanium. In summary, compared to unanodized titanium, this preliminary study provided unexpected evidence of greater osteoblast numbers on anodized titanium coated with either penicillin/streptomycin or dexamethasone using simple physical adsorption or when coated with SBF; results which suggest the need for further research on anodized titanium orthopedic implants possessing drug-eluting nanotubes.
anodization; titanium; adhesion; simulated body fluid; nanotubes; osteoblasts