According to some studies, almost 40% of depressive patients – half of them previously undetected – are diagnosed of bipolar II disorder when systematically assessed for hypomania. Thus, instruments for bipolar disorder screening are needed. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a self-reported questionnaire validated in Spanish in stable patients with a previously known diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in the daily clinical practice the usefulness of the Spanish version of the MDQ in depressive patients.
Patients (n = 87) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode, not previously known as bipolar were included. The affective module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) was used as gold standard.
MDQ screened 24.1% of depressive patients as bipolar, vs. 12.6% according to SCID. For a cut-off point score of 7 positive answers, sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI = 63.3 – 82.1) and specificity 82.9% (95% CI = 74.9–90.9). Likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests were 4,252 y 0,329 respectively.
The small sample size reduced the power of the study to 62%.
Sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ were high for screening bipolar disorder in patients with major depression, and similar to the figures obtained in stable patients. This study confirms that MDQ is a useful instrument in the daily clinical assessment of depressive patients.
The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a well-recognized screening tool for bipolar disorder, but its Chinese version needs further validation. This study aims to measure the accuracy of the Chinese version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder (BPD) in a group of patients with a current major depressive episode.
142 consecutive patients with an initial DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of a major depressive episode were screened for BPD using the Chinese translation of the MDQ and followed up for one year. The final diagnosis, determined by a special committee consisting of three trained senior psychiatrists, was used as a 'gold standard' and ROC was plotted to evaluate the performance of the MDQ. The optimal cut-off was chosen by maximizing the Younden's index.
Of the 142 patients, 122 (85.9%) finished the one year follow-up. On the basis of a semi-structured clinical interview 48.4% (59/122) received a diagnosis of unipolar depression (UPD), 36.9% (45/122) BPDII and 14.8% (18/122) BPDI. At the end of the one year follow-up,9 moved from UPD to BPD, 2 from BPDII to UPD, 1 from BPDII to BPDI, the overall rate of initial misdiagnosis was 16.4%. MDQ showed a good accuracy for BPD: the optimal cut-off was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.73. When BPDII and BPDI were calculated independently, the optimal cut-off for BPDII was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.73; while the optimal cut-off for BPDI was 5, with a sensitivity of 0.67 and a specificity of 0.86.
Our results show that the Chinese version of MDQ is a valid tool for screening BPD in a group of patients with current depressive episode on the Chinese mainland.
We investigated our translation of The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric setting in Finland.
In a pilot study for the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS), 109 consecutive non-schizophrenic psychiatric out- and inpatients in Espoo, Finland, were screened for bipolar disorder using the Finnish translation of the MDQ, and 38 of them diagnostically interviewed with the SCID.
Forty subjects (37%) were positive in the MDQ screen. In the SCID interview, twenty patients were found to suffer from bipolar disorder, of whom seven (70%) of ten patients with bipolar I but only two (20%) of ten with bipolar II disorder had been previously clinically correctly diagnosed. The translated MDQ was found internally consistent (alpha 0.79) and a feasible screening tool.
Bipolar disorder, particularly type II, remains commonly unrecognized in psychiatric settings. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire is a feasible screen for bipolar disorder, which could well be integrated into psychiatric routine practice.
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) can be used to predict the presence of bipolarity in patients with major depressive episodes.
A cohort of 61 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) following diagnosis using Axis I of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-text revision, and who had no history of hypomanic or manic episodes was included in this study. The patients were stratified into two subgroups based on whether or not they achieved a positive score for the Korean versions of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ). The LDAEP was evaluated by measuring the auditory event-related potentials before beginning medication with serotonergic agents.
The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) score was also higher for the positive screening group (81.24±11.87) than for the negative screening group (73.30±14.92; p=0.039, independent t-test). However, the LDAEP, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale scores did not differ significantly between them. When binary logistic regression analysis was carried, the relationship between the positive or negative subgroups for K-MDQ and BIS or Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS) score was also significant (respectively, p=0.017, p=0.038).
We found that LDAEP was not significantly different between depressive patients with and without bipolarity. However, our study has revealed the difference between two subgroups based on whether or not they achieved a positive score for the K-MDQ in BIS or BSS score.
LDAEP; Major depressive disorder; Bipolarity; Bipolar spectrum disorder
Objective. To describe the prevalence of patients who screen positive for bipolar disorder (BD) symptoms in primary care comparing two screening instruments: Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ) and Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32). Participants. Adult patients presenting to their primary care practitioners for any cause and reporting current depression symptoms or a depressive episode in the last 6 months. Methods. Subjects completed MDQ and HCL-32, and clinical diagnosis was assessed by a psychiatrist following DSM-IV criteria. Depressive symptoms were evaluated in a subgroup with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results. A total of 94 patients were approached to participate and 93 completed the survey. Among these, 8.9% screened positive with MDQ and 43.0% with HCL-32. MDQ positive had more likely features associated with BD: panic disorder and smoking habit (P < .05). The best test accuracy was performed by cut-off 5 for MDQ (sensitivity = .91; specificity = .67) and 15 for HCL-32 (sensitivity = .64; specificity = .57). Higher total score of PHQ-9 was related to higher total scores at the screening tests (P < .001). Conclusion. There is a significant prevalence of bipolar symptoms in primary care depressed patients. MDQ seems to have better accuracy and feasibility than HCL-32, features that fit well in the busy setting of primary care.
The study measured the accuracy of the Italian version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) as a screening instrument for bipolar disorders in a psychiatric setting.
154 consecutive subjects attending the Division of Psychiatry of the University of Cagliari (Italy), were screened for bipolar disorders using the Italian translation of the MDQ, and diagnostically interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) by physicians.
On the basis of the SCID: 51 (33.1%) received a diagnosis of bipolar or schizoaffective bipolar type disorders, 63 (40.9%) were diagnosed as having at least one psychiatric disorder in Axis I (other than bipolar or schizoaffective bipolar type disorders), whilst 40 (25.9%) were unaffected by any type of psychiatric disorder. MDQ showed a good accuracy for bipolar or schizoaffective bipolar type disorders: the cut-off 4 had sensitivity 0.90 and specificity 0.58; the cut-off 5 had sensitivity 0.84 and specificity 0.70; and the cut-off 6 had sensitivity 0.76 and specificity 0.86. The accuracy for bipolar II disorders was sufficient but not excellent: the cut-off 4 had sensitivity 0.80 and specificity 0.45; the cut-off 5 had sensitivity 0.70 and specificity 0.55; and the cut-off 6 had sensitivity 0.55 and specificity 0.65.
Our results seem to indicate a good accuracy of MDQ, and confirm the results of recent surveys conducted in the USA. Moreover the instrument needs to be validated in other settings (e.g. in general practice).
bipolar disorder; mood disorders; screening; mood disorder questionnaire
To describe the prevalence of patients who screen positive for symptoms of bipolar disorder in primary care practice using the validated Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ).
Fifty-four primary care practices across Canada.
Adult patients presenting to their primary care practitioners for any cause and reporting, during the course of their visits, current or previous symptoms of depression, anxiety, substance use disorders, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Main outcome measures
Subjects were screened for symptoms suggestive of bipolar disorder using the MDQ. Health-related quality of life, functional impairment, and work productivity were evaluated using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and Sheehan Disability Scale.
A total of 1416 patients were approached to participate in this study, and 1304 completed the survey. Of these, 27.9% screened positive for symptoms of bipolar disorder. All 13 items of the MDQ were significantly associated with screening positive for bipolar disorder (P < .05). Patients screening positive were significantly more likely to report depression, anxiety, substance use, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, family history of bipolar disorder, or suicide attempts than patients screening negative were (P < .001). Health-related quality of life, work or school productivity, and social and family functioning were all significantly worse in patients who screened positive (P < .001).
This prevalence survey suggests that more than a quarter of patients presenting to primary care with past or current psychiatric indices are at risk of bipolar disorder. Patients exhibiting a cluster of these symptoms should be further questioned on family history of bipolar disorder and suicide attempts, and selectively screened for symptoms suggestive of bipolar disorder using the quick and high-yielding MDQ.
Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder.
Participants were 78 consecutive female patients who were referred for evaluation of an eating disorder. All participants completed the mood and eating disorder sections of the SCID-I/P and the borderline personality disorder section of the SCID-II, in addition to the MDQ and BSDS. Predictive validity of the MDQ and BSDS was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis of the Area Under the Curve (AUC).
Fifteen (19%) and twelve (15%) patients fulfilled criteria for bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, respectively. The AUCs for bipolar II disorder were 0.78 (MDQ) and 0.78 (BDSD), and the AUCs for borderline personality disorder were 0.75 (MDQ) and 0.79 (BSDS).
Among patients being evaluated for eating disorders, the MDQ and BSDS show promise as screening questionnaires for both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.
Bipolar disorder; Borderline personality disorder; Eating disorder; Comorbidity; Screening scale
The aim of this study was to test the ability of the Chinese version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to identify Bipolar Disorders (BD) in patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Unipolar Disorder (UD) in the clinical setting.
1,487 being treated for MDD or UD at 12 mental health centers across China, completed the MDQ and subsequently examined by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Receiver Operating Characteristic(ROC) curves were used to determine the ability of the MDQ to differentiate between BD (BD, BD-I and BD-II) and MDD or UD and patients with BD-I from patients with BD-II.
Of the 1,487 patients, 309 (20.8%) satisfied the DSM-IV criteria for BD: 118 (7.9%) for BD-I and 191 (12.8%) for BD-II. When only part one of the MDQ was used, the best cutoff was 7 between BD and UD (sensitivity 0.66, specificity 0.88, positive predictive value 0.59, negative predictive value 0.91), 6 between BD-II and UD, and 10 between BD-I and BD-II. If all three parts of the MDQ were used, the MDQ could not distinguish between BD and UD at a cutoff of 7 (or 6), and the sensitivity was only 0.22 (or 0.24).
The Chinese version of the MDQ had good psychometric features in screening bipolar disorders from depressive patients with mood disorders when part two and part three of the MDQ were ignored.
The hypothesis for this paper is that adult patients who have higher screening scores for mental health co‐morbidities and depression have a greater likelihood of not responding to treatment with collaborative care management (CCM) for their depression within six months.
For the 334 patients in this study, the primary endpoints were if the patient was in remission at six months (PHQ‐9 score <5) or if they were non‐responsive (NR) (PHQ‐9 >50% of baseline score). Initial evaluation included screening for alcoholism (AUDIT), anxiety (GAD‐7) and bipolar disorders (MDQ).
The differences in marital status, percentage of minority patients, gender, initial PHQ‐9 and AUDIT scores were not statistically significant. Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ) screening was more likely to be negative for the group in remission (96.2% vs 90.0%, P=0.049) and positive for the NR group (8.0% vs 2.1%, P=0.026). GAD‐7 screening was significantly lower in the remission group (9.85) than in the NR group (11.53, P=0.009).
Results of multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, gender, race, marital status, PHQ‐9 score and AUDIT score were not related to the odds of being NR. A one‐point higher GAD‐7 score was associated with approximately 6% higher adjusted odds of being NR. Patients with a positive MDQ were associated with elevated odds of non‐response (adjusted OR=3.4714, P=0.044) when controlling for all other variables.
A higher initial screening score for anxiety or bipolar disorder is associated with a statistically significant increase in the relative risk of patients in CCM not responding to current treatments for depression within six months.
collaborative care management; co‐morbidity; depression
The study measured the accuracy of the Italian version of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) for self-assessment as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder (BPD) in a psychiatric setting and compared results with a previous study, carried out in a comparable sample and in the same setting, using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ).
123 consecutive subjects attending a psychiatric division were screened for BPD using the Italian translation of the HCL-32, and diagnostically interviewed with the SCID by physicians. The sample of the previous study using the MDQ consisted of 154 subjects.
On the basis of the SCID: 26 received a diagnosis of bipolar/schizoaffective disorder, 57 were diagnosed as having at least another psychiatric disorder in Axis-I, whilst 40 were unaffected by any type of psychiatric disorder. Comparing the bipolar with all other patients the HCL-32 showed a good accuracy: cut-off 8: sensitivity 0.92-specificity 0.48; cut-off 10: sensitivity 0.88-specificity 0.54; cut-off 12: sensitivity 0.85-specificity 0.61. The accuracy for BPD-II (10) remains good: cut-off 8: sensitivity 0.90-specificity 0.42; cut-off 10: sensitivity 0.80-specificity 0.47; cut-off 12: sensitivity 0.80-specificity 0.54. The comparison with the MDQ performance shows that both screening tools may show good results, but HCL-32 seems to be more sensitive in detecting BPD-II.
Our results seem to indicate good accuracy of HCL-32 as a screening instrument for BPD in a psychiatric setting, with a low rate of false negatives, and a fairly good degree of identification of BPD-II.
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder (BSD) in the general Korean population.
A sample of college students (n = 1026) was stratified to reflect geographical differences accurately in Korean college students. The Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ) was administered and an epidemiological survey carried out between November 2006 and February 2007. BSD was defined as a score of at least seven K-MDQ symptoms that co-occurred and resulted in minimal or more functional impairment.
The prevalence of BSD was 18.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.2–21.0) in total, being 19.8% (95% CI 16.3–23.2) in men and 17.5% (95% CI 14.2–20.8) in women. The prevalence of BSD was more common in rural dwellers than in urban dwellers (P = 0.008, chi-square test). Univariate and multivariate regression models showed that rural residence was a significant factor associated with BSD. There were significant relationships between BSD and gender, age, and socioeconomic status.
The prevalence of BSD found in the present study is higher than that reported by other epidemiological studies in Korea and in international studies.
general population; bipolar disorder; epidemiological study; Mood Disorder Questionnaire
Data from the Iranian population for hypomania core symptom clusters are lacking. The aim of the present study was therefore to apply the Farsi version of the Hypomania-Check-List 32 (HCL-32), and to explore its factorial structure.
A total of 163 Iranian out-patients took part in the study; 61 suffered from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and 102 suffered from Bipolar Disorders (BP). Participants completed the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32). Exploratory factor analyses were used to examine the properties of the HCL-32. A ROC-curve analysis was performed to calculate sensitivity and specificity.
The HCL-32 differentiated between patients with MDD and with BP. Psychometric properties were satisfactory: sensitivity: 73%; specificity: 91%. MDQ and HCL-32 did correlate highly. No differences were found between patients suffering from BP I and BP II.
Instead of the two-factorial structure of the HCL-32 reported previously, the present pattern of factorial results suggest a distinction between four factors: two broadly positive dimensions of hypomania ("physically and mentally active"; "positive social interactions") and two rather negative dimensions ("risky behavior and substance use"; "difficulties in social interaction and impatience").
The Farsi version of the HCL-32 proved to be applicable, and therefore easy to introduce within a clinical context. The pattern of results suggests a four factorial solution.
The Provisional Diagnostic Instrument (PDI-4) is a brief, adult self-report instrument for 4 common psychiatric diagnoses in primary care patients: major depressive episode (MDE), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar I disorder based on past or present mania. Our objective was to assess validity of the PDI-4 in a population independent of the study population originally used to develop the scale.
An online version of the 17-item PDI-4 was administered to 1,047 adults in the US; respondents also completed the PHQ-9, HADS-A, CAARS-S, and MDQ within the online survey. Respondents self-reported diagnosis by a healthcare professional with the terms depression (n=221), anxiety (n=218), attention deficit disorder (n=206), bipolar or manic depressive disorder (n=195), or none of these (n=207). Statistical analyses examined convergent and discriminant validity, and operating characteristics of the PDI-4 relative to the individual, validated, self-rated scales PHQ-9, HADS-A, CAARS-S, and MDQ, for each PDI-4 diagnosis.
Convergent validity of the PDI-4 was supported by strong correlations with the corresponding individual scales (range of 0.63 [PDI-4 and MDQ] to 0.87 [PDI-4 and PHQ-9]). Operating characteristics of the PDI-4 were similar to results in the previous site-based study. The scale exhibited moderate sensitivities (0.52 [mania] to 0.70 [ADHD]) and strong specificities (0.86 [mania] to 0.92 [GAD]) using the individual scales as the gold standards. ANOVAs demonstrated that PDI-4 discriminated between subsets of patients defined by pre-specified severity level cutoff scores of the individual scales. However, overlapping symptoms and co-morbidities made differentiation between mental diagnoses much weaker than differentiation from the control group with none of the diagnoses.
The PDI-4 appears to be a suitable, brief, self-rated tool for provisional diagnoses of common mental disorders. However, the high level of symptom overlap between these diagnoses emphasizes that such brief scales are not a replacement for thorough diagnostic evaluation by trained medical providers.
Cross validation; Diagnostic instrument; Anxiety; Depression; Hyperactivity; Mania
To determine the use of antidepressants (ADs) in people with sub-threshold depression (SD); the lifetime prevalence of mania and hypomania in SD and the link between ADs use, bipolarity and anxiety disorders in SD.
Study design: community survey. Study population: samples randomly drawn, after stratification from the adult population of municipal records. Sample size: 4999 people from seven areas within six Italian regions. Tools: Questionnaire on psychotropic drug consumption, prescription; Structured Clinical Interview NP for DSM-IV modified (ANTAS); Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D); Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ); Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). SD definition: HAM-D > 10 without lifetime diagnosis of Depressive Episode (DE).
SD point prevalence is 5.0%. The lifetime prevalence of mania and hypomania episodes in SD is 7.3%. Benzodiazepines (BDZ) consumption in SD is 24.1%, followed by ADs (19.7%). In SD, positive for MDQ and comorbidity with Panic Disorder (PD) or Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD) are associated with ADs use, whereas the association between a positive MDQ and ADs use, without a diagnosis of PD or GAD, is not significant. Only in people with DE the well-being (SF-12) is higher among those using first-line antidepressants compared to those not using any medication. In people with SD no significant differences were found in terms of SF-12 score according to drug use.
This study suggests caution in prescribing ADs to people with SD. In people with concomitant anxiety disorders and SD, it should be mandatory to perform a well-designed assessment and evaluate the presence of previous manic or hypomanic symptoms prior to prescribing ADs.
We define intrusive prospective imagery as the experience of mental imagery of events that may happen in the future and which come to mind involuntarily. This everyday phenomenon may be exacerbated in psychological disorders such as bipolar disorder (Holmes, Geddes, Colom, & Goodwin, 2008) although specific measures to assess this have been lacking. We recently developed the Impact of Future Events Scale (IFES; Deeprose & Holmes, 2010), which is further examined in the current paper. In Study 1, adults volunteers (N=50) completed the IFES on two occasions, with 1-week between measurements. This revealed acceptable test-rest reliability. In Study 2, (N=90) IFES showed good internal consistency and confirmed two predictions. First, in the total sample risk for bipolar disorder (MDQ; Hirschfield et al., 2000) and IFES Total Score correlated positively. Second, when the sample was split into high (MDQ ≥ 7) and low (MDQ ≤ 6) bipolarity risk groups, higher IFES Total Scores were observed in the high risk group. We conclude that 1) IFES presents a useful measure for assessing intrusive prospective imagery with acceptable test-retest reliability and good internal consistency and 2) risk for bipolar disorder is associated with elevated IFES Total Scores with potentially important clinical implications.
Mental imagery; intrusion; prospective cognition; Impact of Future Events Scale; IFES; bipolar disorder
Antidepressant (AD) drugs are effective in the short term treatment of fibromyalgia (FM). It may be useful to study the long-term impact of AD on patients with FM.
One-year follow-up study on 23 females with FM divided into groups on AD (ADg-N=7), and not taking AD (NADg-N=11). Evaluation at t1 and at the end (t2) with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ); at t2 with: SCID-IV; Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ); Short Form-12; Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D); Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)
After a year the AD group showed a worst impact of the disease by FIQ (p=0.017), worsened quality of life by SF-12 (p<0.01), and disability linked to bipolar symptoms by FAST (p=0.05). About 40% of the sample was screened positive at MDQ without difference in the two groups. The patients who recovered from a depressive episode did not differ between ADg and NADg (20% vs 33.3%), and were fewer than expected from the literature (40-60%). The HAM-D score at the end of the trial was worse in the ADg (p<0.03).
Observational research on few patients, not specifically designed to test the hypothesis. The results have a heuristic value only.
The results should be read in the light of the high prevalence of patients screened positive for Bipolar Disorders and of the well-known poor response of the mood symptoms to antidepressants in Bipolar Depression. The deterioration in the long-term management of FM patients following AD treatments suggests the need for new and robust studies.
Fibromyalgia; Antidepressants; Efficacy; Long-Term Treatment; Quality of life.
The Attention Network Test (ANT) generates measures of different aspects of attention/executive function. In the present study we investigated whether adults with ADHD performed different from controls on measures of accuracy, variability and vigilance as well as the control network. Secondly, we studied subgroups of adults with ADHD, expecting impairment on measures of the alerting and control networks in a subgroup with additional symptoms of affective fluctuations.
A group of 114 adults (ADHD n = 58; controls n = 56) performed the ANT and completed the Adult ADHD Rating Scale (ASRS) and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). The latter was used to define affective fluctuations.
The sex distribution was similar in the two groups, but the ADHD group was significantly older (p = .005) and their score on a test of intellectual function (WASI) significantly lower than in the control group (p = .007). The two groups were not significantly different on measures of the three attention networks, but the ADHD group was generally less accurate (p = .001) and showed a higher variability through the task (p = .033).
The significance was only retained for the accuracy measure when age and IQ scores were controlled for. Within the ADHD group, individuals reporting affective fluctuations (n = 22) were slower (p = .015) and obtained a lower score on the alerting network (p = .018) and a higher score on the conflict network (p = .023) than those without these symptoms. The significance was retained for the alerting network (p = .011), but not the conflict network (p = .061) when we controlled for the total ASRS and IQ scores.
Adults with ADHD were characterized by impairment on accuracy and variability measures calculated from the ANT. Within the ADHD group, adults reporting affective fluctuations seemed to be more alert (i.e., less impacted by alerting cues), but slower and more distracted by conflicting stimuli than the subgroup without such fluctuations. The results suggest that the two ADHD subgroups are characterized by distinct patterns of attentional problems, and that the symptoms assessed by MDQ contribute to the cognitive heterogeneity characterizing groups of individuals with ADHD.
Jail incarceration represents an opportunity to deliver HIV counseling and testing (C&T) services to persons at increased risk of infection. However, jails can be chaotic with rapid turnover of detainees. We conducted a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of comparing the effect of different approaches to HIV counseling and testing (C&T) in jail on subsequent HIV risk behaviors among persons testing HIV-negative.
Consecutive cohorts of newly incarcerated jail detainees were recruited with 132 subjects completing standard HIV C&T as per jail protocol and 132 subjects completing rapid testing with an individualized counseling session. Risk behavior was assessed and compared at baseline and six weeks following jail release.
Among the 264 male participants, pre-incarceration substance use and sexual risk were common. The follow-up visit was completed by 59% of eligible participants. There were no differences in post-release HIV risk behavior between the two arms but there was an overall decrease in risk behavior following jail release for the cohort. In addition, all participants in the rapid arm received rapid HIV test results compared to participants receiving 28% of conventional test results.
Jail incarceration represents an important public health opportunity to deliver HIV C&T. This study demonstrated (1) feasibility in delivering rapid HIV testing combined with individualized counseling to jail detainees, (2) improved test result delivery rates, and (3) success with evaluating risk behaviors during the transition from jail to the community. Further research is needed to determine the optimal approach to HIV C&T in jail with the goal of increasing awareness of HIV serostatus and decreasing HIV risk behavior.
HIV counseling and testing; HIV prevention; correctional facilities; jail
Given the growth of juvenile detainee populations, epidemiologic data on their psychiatric disorders are increasingly important. Yet, there are few empirical studies. Until we have better epidemiologic data, we cannot know how best to use the system’s scarce mental health resources.
Using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3), interviewers assessed a randomly selected, stratified sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (1172 males, 657 females, ages 10–18) arrested and detained in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). We present six-month prevalence estimates by demographic subgroups (gender, race/ethnicity, and age) for the following disorders: affective disorders (major depressive episode, dysthymia, manic episode), anxiety (panic, separation anxiety, overanxious, generalized anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders), psychosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) and substance use disorders (alcohol and drug).
Nearly two thirds of males and nearly three quarters of females met diagnostic criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders. Excluding conduct disorder (common among detained youth), nearly 60% of males and over two thirds of females met diagnostic criteria and had diagnosis-specific impairment for one or more psychiatric disorders. One half of males and almost one half of females had a substance use disorder, and over 40% of males and females met criteria for disruptive behavior disorders. Affective disorders were also prevalent, especially among females; 20% of females met criteria for a major depressive episode. Rates of many disorders were higher among females, non-Hispanic whites, and older adolescents.
These results suggest substantial psychiatric morbidity among juvenile detainees. Youth with psychiatric disorders pose a challenge for the juvenile justice system and, after their release, for the larger mental health system.
To determine prevalence estimates of exposure to trauma and 12-month rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, and age).
Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the posttraumatic stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) to randomly selected detainees.
A large, temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs).
Randomly selected, stratified sample of 898 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (532 males, 366 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained.
Main Outcome Measures
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV).
Most participants (92.5%) had experienced one or more traumas (mean = 14.6 incidents, median = 6 incidents). Significantly more males (93.2%) than females (84.0%) reported at least one traumatic experience; 11.2% of the sample met criteria for PTSD in the past year. Over half of the participants with PTSD reported witnessing violence as the precipitating trauma.
Trauma and PTSD appear to be more prevalent among juvenile detainees than in community samples. We recommend directions for research and discuss implications for mental health policy.
To estimate six-month prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (gender, race/ethnicity, and age).
Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3) to randomly selected detainees.
A large temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs).
Randomly selected, stratified sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (1172 males, 657 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained.
Main Outcome Measures
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3).
Significantly more females (56.5%) than males (45.9%) met criteria for 2 or more of the following disorders: major depressive, dysthymic, manic, psychotic, panic, separation-anxiety, overanxious, generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive, attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional-defiant, alcohol, marijuana, and other substance; 17.3% of females and 20.4% of males had only one disorder. We also examined types of disorder: affective, anxiety, substance use and ADHD/behavioral. The odds of having comorbid disorders were higher than expected by chance for most demographic subgroups, except when base rates of disorders were already high, or when cell sizes were small. Nearly 14% of females and 11% of males had both a major mental disorder (psychosis, manic episode, or major depressive episode) and a substance use disorder. Compared to participants with no major mental disorder (the residual category), those with a major mental disorder had significantly greater odds (1.8–4.1) of having substance use disorders. Nearly 30% of females and over 20% of males with substance use disorders had major mental disorders. Rates of some types of comorbidity were higher among non-Hispanic whites and older adolescents.
Comorbid psychiatric disorders are a major health problem among detained youth. We recommend directions for research and discuss how to improve treatment and reduce health disparities in the juvenile justice and mental health systems.
In the context of US urban jails, incarceration is often seen as an opportune intervention point for prevention interventions in public health. For the detained individual, it is an opportunity to reflect on individual choices and the potential for changes in one's life course. For population focused public health professionals, jail detention facilities represent a concentration of health risks, and an opportunity to have an impact on a significant portion of those at risk for HIV and other health concerns. This paper presents an innovative education and empowerment model that bridges across jail walls, beginning on the inside, and continuing on the outside of jail where individuals continue to be challenged and supported toward positive health and social choices. The intervention also seeks to foment community activism in the communities to which jail detainees return, thus aiming to have a structural impact. This paper examines both the intervention model and the challenges of examining the effectiveness claims for the intervention at multiple levels.
Jail; HIV prevention; Empowerment; Intervention research
Women are the fastest-growing population in the criminal justice system, and jails reach more people than any other component of the correctional system. About 1 million women pass through US jails each year. Most return to their communities within a few weeks of arrest, and few receive help for the substance abuse, health, psychological or social problems that contribute to incarceration. We describe a model program, Health Link, designed to assist drug-using jailed women in New York City to return to their communities, reduce drug use and HIV risk behavior, and avoid rearrest. The program operates on four levels: direct services, including case management for individual women in the jail and for 1 year after release; technical assistance, training, and financial support for community service providers that serve ex-offenders; staff support for a network of local service providers that coordinate services and advocate for resources: and policy analysis and advocacy to identify and reduce barriers to successful community reintegration of women released from jail. We describe the characteristics of 386 women enrolled in Health Link in 1997 and 1998; define the elements of this intervention; and assess the lessons we have learned from 10 years of experience working with jailed women.
Case Management; Community Reintegration; Drug-Using Women; Jail; Substance Abuse Services
Little is known about the association of intimate partner violence (IPV) with specific HIV treatment outcomes, especially among criminal justice (CJ) populations who are disproportionately affected by IPV, HIV, mental and substance use disorders (SUDs) and are at high risk of poor post-release continuity of care.
Mixed methods were used to describe the prevalence, severity, and correlates of lifetime IPV exposure among HIV-infected jail detainees enrolled in a novel jail-release demonstration project in Connecticut. Additionally, the effect of IPV on HIV treatment outcomes and longitudinal healthcare utilization was examined.
Structured baseline surveys defined 49% of 84 participants as having significant IPV-exposure, which was associated with female gender, longer duration since HIV diagnosis, suicidal ideation, having higher alcohol use severity, having experienced other forms of childhood and adulthood abuse, and homo/bisexual orientation. IPV was not directly correlated with HIV healthcare utilization or treatment outcomes. In-depth qualitative interviews with 20 surveyed participants, however, confirmed that IPV was associated with disengagement from HIV care especially in the context of overlapping vulnerabilities, including transitioning from CJ to community settings, having untreated mental disorders, and actively using drugs or alcohol at the time of incarceration.
Post-release interventions for HIV-infected CJ populations should minimally integrate HIV secondary prevention with violence reduction and treatment for SUDs.
HIV; intimate partner violence; jail; criminal justice; antiretroviral adherence; women’s health; mental disorders; substance abuse