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1.  Highly Virulent Leptospira borgpetersenii Strain Characterized in the Hamster Model 
A recent study by our group reported the isolation and partial serological and molecular characterization of four Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum strains. Here, we reproduced experimental leptospirosis in golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and carried out standardization of lethal dose 50% (LD50) of one of these strains (4E). Clinical disease features and histopathologic analyses of tissue lesions were also observed. As results, strain 4E induced lethality in the hamster model with inocula lower than 10 leptospires, and histopathological examination of animals showed typical lesions found in severe leptospirosis. Gross pathological findings were peculiar; animals that died early had more chance of presenting severe jaundice and less chance of presenting pulmonary hemorrhages (P < 0.01). L. borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum has had a considerable growth in human leptospirosis cases in recent years. This strain has now been thoroughly characterized and can be used in more studies, especially evaluations of vaccine candidates.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0013
PMCID: PMC3144824  PMID: 21813846
2.  Characterization of a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain isolated from an abandoned swimming pool 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2013;44(1):165-170.
Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are the etiological agents of leptospirosis, an important disease of both humans and animals. In urban settings, L. interrogans serovars are the predominant cause of disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel Leptospira isolate recovered from an abandoned swimming pool. Molecular characterization through sequencing of the rpoB gene revealed 100% identity with L. interrogans and variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis resulted in a banding pattern identical to L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, serovar Copenhageni or Icterohaemorrhagiae. The virulence of the strain was determined in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) was calculated to be two leptospires in female hamsters and a histopathological examination of infected animals found typical lesions associated with severe leptospirosis, including renal epithelium degeneration, hepatic karyomegaly, liver-plate disarray and lymphocyte infiltration. This highly virulent strain is now available for use in further studies, especially evaluation of vaccine candidates.
doi:10.1590/S1517-83822013005000029
PMCID: PMC3804194  PMID: 24159300
Leptospira; Leptospirosis; Virulent; VNTR; rpoB
3.  A LigA Three-Domain Region Protects Hamsters from Lethal Infection by Leptospira interrogans 
The leptospiral LigA protein consists of 13 bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains and is the only purified recombinant subunit vaccine that has been demonstrated to protect against lethal challenge by a clinical isolate of Leptospira interrogans in the hamster model of leptospirosis. We determined the minimum number and location of LigA domains required for immunoprotection. Immunization with domains 11 and 12 was found to be required but insufficient for protection. Inclusion of a third domain, either 10 or 13, was required for 100% survival after intraperitoneal challenge with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. As in previous studies, survivors had renal colonization; here, we quantitated the leptospiral burden by qPCR to be 1.2×103 to 8×105 copies of leptospiral DNA per microgram of kidney DNA. Although renal histopathology in survivors revealed tubulointerstitial changes indicating an inflammatory response to the infection, blood chemistry analysis indicated that renal function was normal. These studies define the Big domains of LigA that account for its vaccine efficacy and highlight the need for additional strategies to achieve sterilizing immunity to protect the mammalian host from leptospiral infection and its consequences.
Author Summary
Leptospirosis is the most widespread bacterial infection transmitted to humans from host animals that harbor the bacteria in their kidneys. Human infections caused by the bacterium, Leptospira interrogans, frequently result in a life-threatening illness characterized by jaundice and kidney failure. Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent leptospirosis in populations at risk. The leptospiral protein, LigA, is a promising vaccine candidate because it is the first purified protein to be shown to protect animals from fatal leptospirosis. The goal of this study was to determine which of LigA's 13 domains are required for the protective effect. Immunization with domains 11 and 12 was found to be required, but was insufficient, for protection. A third domain, either 10 or 13, was required for 100% survival. As in previous studies, residual bacteria were cultured from the kidneys of survivors. However, in contrast to previous studies, we determined the amount of bacterial DNA in the kidneys as a measure of vaccine efficacy. We also examined the kidneys microscopically for signs of damage and measured blood chemistries to assess kidney function. These are important steps towards developing vaccines that provide protection from kidney damage and infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001422
PMCID: PMC3236721  PMID: 22180800
4.  Detection and Quantification of Leptospira interrogans in Hamster and Rat Kidney Samples: Immunofluorescent Imprints versus Real-time PCR 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e32712.
A major limitation in the clinical management and experimental research of leptospirosis is the poor performance of the available methods for the direct detection of leptospires. In this study, we compared real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the lipL32 gene, with the immunofluorescent imprint method (IM) for the detection and quantification of leptospires in kidney samples from the rat and hamster experimental models of leptospirosis. Using a virulent strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni, a chronic infection was established in the rat model, which were euthanized 28 days post-infection, while the hamster model simulated an acute infection and the hamsters were euthanized eight days after inoculation. Leptospires in the kidney samples were detected using culture isolation, qPCR and the IM, and quantified using qPCR and the IM. In both the acute and chronic infection models, the correlation between quantification by qPCR and the IM was found to be positive and statistically significant (P<0.05). Therefore, this study demonstrates that the IM is a viable alternative for not only the detection but also the quantification of leptospires, particularly when the use of qPCR is not feasible.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032712
PMCID: PMC3290571  PMID: 22393440
5.  A Minireview of the Pathogenesis of Acute Leptospirosis 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1981;22(9):277-278.
Hemorrhagic diathesis is one of the most striking manifestations in acute leptospirosis. Hemorrhages are seen in infections due to Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae as well as in those caused by Leptospira pomona. Thrombocytopenia is a constant feature and its finding can be useful for the diagnosis. Attempts to demonstrate the presence of a toxin in leptospires were unsuccessful. A few years ago, a syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation was associated with the physiopathogenesis of experimental leptospirosis with L. icterohaemorrhagiae. More recently, this syndrome was identified in cases of human leptospirosis and in hamsters infected with L. pomona. It appears now that other spirochetal infections (borreliosis) have a similar pathogenesis. Nonetheless, many points are still unclear: the primary cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation is unknown, as well as the virulence factors of spirochetes. Some points favor the presence of a toxic factor in leptospires: vascular damage that occurs in the absence of leptospires in damaged areas and the fact that antibiotic therapy is ineffective unless treatment is initiated early in the disease.
PMCID: PMC1789976  PMID: 7044515
6.  Targeted Mutagenesis in Pathogenic Leptospira Species: Disruption of the LigB Gene Does Not Affect Virulence in Animal Models of Leptospirosis▿  
Infection and Immunity  2008;76(12):5826-5833.
The pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira interrogans, the causal agent of leptospirosis, remain largely unknown. This is mainly due to the lack of tools for genetically manipulating pathogenic Leptospira species. Thus, homologous recombination between introduced DNA and the corresponding chromosomal locus has never been demonstrated for this pathogen. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like repeat (Lig) proteins were previously identified as putative Leptospira virulence factors. In this study, a ligB mutant was constructed by allelic exchange in L. interrogans; in this mutant a spectinomycin resistance (Spcr) gene replaced a portion of the ligB coding sequence. Gene disruption was confirmed by PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunofluorescence studies. The ligB mutant did not show decrease virulence compared to the wild-type strain in the hamster model of leptospirosis. In addition, inoculation of rats with the ligB mutant induced persistent colonization of the kidneys. Finally, LigB was not required to mediate bacterial adherence to cultured cells. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence of site-directed homologous recombination in pathogenic Leptospira species. Furthermore, our data suggest that LigB does not play a major role in dissemination of the pathogen in the host and in the development of acute disease manifestations or persistent renal colonization.
doi:10.1128/IAI.00989-08
PMCID: PMC2583567  PMID: 18809657
7.  Evaluation of Immunoprotective Activity of Six Leptospiral Proteins in the Hamster Model of Leptospirosis 
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira. The whole-genome sequence of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni together with bioinformatics tools represent a great opportunity to search for novel antigen candidates that could be used as subunit vaccine against leptospirosis. We focused on six genes encoding for conserved hypothetical proteins predicted to be exported to the outer membrane. The genes were amplified by PCR from Leptospira interrogans genomic DNA and were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine were purified by metal-charged chromatography. The immunization of hamsters followed by challenge with lethal dose of virulent strain of Leptospira showed that the recombinant proteins Lsa21, Lsa66 and rLIC11030 elicited partial protection to animals. These proteins could be used combined or in a mixture with novel adjuvants in order to improve their effectiveness.
doi:10.2174/1874285801206010079
PMCID: PMC3502890  PMID: 23173023
Leptospira interrogans; leptospirosis; recombinant protein; vaccine.
8.  Identification of the Hemolysis-Associated Protein 1 as a Cross-Protective Immunogen of Leptospira interrogans by Adenovirus-Mediated Vaccination 
Infection and Immunity  2001;69(11):6831-6838.
New vaccine strategies are needed for the prevention of leptospirosis, a widespread human and animal disease caused by pathogenic leptospires. Our previous work determined that a protein leptospiral extract conferred cross-protection in a gerbil model of leptospirosis. The 31- to 34-kDa protein fraction of Leptospira interrogans serovar autumnalis was shown sufficient for this purpose. In the present study, N-terminal sequencing of a 32-kDa fraction and Southern blotting of genomic DNA with corresponding degenerated oligonucleotide probes identified two of its constituents: hemolysis-associated protein 1 (Hap1) and the outer membrane Leptospira protein 1 (OmpL1). Adenovirus-mediated Hap1 vaccination induces significant protection against a virulent heterologous Leptospira challenge in gerbils, whereas a similar OmpL1 construct failed to protect the animals. These data indicate that Hap1 could be a good candidate for developing a new generation of vaccines able to induce broad protection against leptospirosis disease.
doi:10.1128/IAI.69.11.6831-6838.2001
PMCID: PMC100061  PMID: 11598056
9.  Protection against Lethal Leptospirosis after Vaccination with LipL32 Coupled or Coadministered with the B Subunit of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin 
Leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonosis, lacks an effective, safe, and cross-protective vaccine. LipL32, the most abundant, immunogenic, and conserved surface lipoprotein present in all pathogenic species of Leptospira, is a promising antigen candidate for a recombinant vaccine. However, several studies have reported a lack of protection when this protein is used as a subunit vaccine. In an attempt to enhance the immune response, we used LipL32 coupled to or coadministered with the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) in a hamster model of leptospirosis. After homologous challenge with 5× the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of Leptospira interrogans, animals vaccinated with LipL32 coadministered with LTB and LTB::LipL32 had significantly higher survival rates (P < 0.05) than animals from the control group. This is the first report of a protective immune response afforded by a subunit vaccine using LipL32 and represents an important contribution toward the development of improved leptospirosis vaccines.
doi:10.1128/CVI.05720-11
PMCID: PMC3346321  PMID: 22379066
10.  Host immunological mechanisms in the resistance of mice to leptospiral infections. 
Infection and Immunity  1977;17(1):67-72.
Several serovars of Leptospira virulent for hamsters and guinea pigs caused acute lethal leptospirosis in mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide. Neither BCG vaccine nor Corynebacterium parvum suspension influenced the course of leptospiral infection in either immunosuppressed or normal BALB/c mice. Nude athymic mice produced anti-leptospiral antibody and were therefore resistant to infection with leptospires. Nude mice were made susceptible with cyclophosphamide but were immune if they had acquired antibody from previous infection or immunization. The evidence suggests that mechanisms of resistance to primary infection and immunity to reinfection are exclusively humorally mediated in mice. The roles of host and microbial factors in the outcome of infection are discussed.
PMCID: PMC421082  PMID: 885617
11.  Subunit Approach to Evaluation of the Immune Protective Potential of Leptospiral Antigens ▿ 
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2011;18(12):2026-2030.
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Current vaccines are based on whole-cell preparations that cause severe side effects and do not induce satisfactory immunity. In light of the leptospiral genome sequences recently made available, several studies aimed at identification of protective recombinant immunogens have been performed; however, few such immunogens have been identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate 27 recombinant antigens to determine their potential to induce an immune response protective against leptospirosis in the hamster model. Experiments were conducted with groups of female hamsters immunized with individual antigen preparations. Hamsters were then challenged with a lethal dose of Leptospira interrogans. Thirteen antigens induced protective immune responses; however, only recombinant proteins LIC10325 and LIC13059 induced significant protection against mortality. These results have important implications for the development of an efficacious recombinant subunit vaccine against leptospirosis.
doi:10.1128/CVI.05297-11
PMCID: PMC3232701  PMID: 22030369
12.  An imprint method for detecting leptospires in the hamster model of vaccine-mediated immunity for leptospirosis 
Journal of Medical Microbiology  2009;58(Pt 12):1632-1637.
In determining the efficacy of new vaccine candidates for leptospirosis, the primary end point is death and an important secondary end point is sterilizing immunity. However, evaluation of this end point is often hampered by the time-consuming demands and complexity of methods such as culture isolation (CI). In this study, we evaluated the use of an imprint (or touch preparation) method (IM) in detecting the presence of leptospires in tissues of hamsters infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. In a dissemination study, compared to CI, the IM led to equal or improved detection of leptospires in kidney, liver, lung and blood samples collected post-infection and overall concordance was good (κ=0.61). Furthermore, in an evaluation of hamsters immunized with a recombinant leptospiral protein-based vaccine candidate and subsequently challenged, the agreement between the CI and IM was very good (κ=0.84). These findings indicate that the IM is a rapid method for the direct observation of Leptospira spp. that can be readily applied to evaluating infection in experimental animals and determining sterilizing immunity when screening potential vaccine candidates.
doi:10.1099/jmm.0.014050-0
PMCID: PMC2887544  PMID: 19679685
13.  Serum Activity of Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Is a Potential Clinical Marker for Leptospirosis Pulmonary Hemorrhage 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(1):e4181.
Pulmonary hemorrhage has been recognized as a major, often lethal, manifestation of severe leptospirosis albeit the pathogenesis remains unclear. The Leptospira interrogans virulent serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Lai encodes a protein (LA2144), which exhibited the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity in vitro similar to that of human serum with respect to its substrate affinity and specificity and thus designated L-PAF-AH. On the other hand, the primary amino acid sequence of L-PAF-AH is homologous to the α1-subunit of the bovine brain PAF-AH isoform I. The L-PAF-AH was proven to be an intracellular protein, which was encoded unanimously and expressed similarly in either pathogenic or saprophytic leptospires. Mongolian gerbil is an appropriate experimental model to study the PAF-AH level in serum with its basal activity level comparable to that of human while elevated directly associated with the course of pulmonary hemorrhage during severe leptospirosis. Mortality occurred around the peak of pulmonary hemorrhage, along with the transition of the PAF-AH activity level in serum, from the increasing phase to the final decreasing phase. Limited clinical data indicated that the serum activity of PAF-AH was likely to be elevated in the patients infected by L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, but not in those infected by other less severe serogroups. Although L-PAF-AH might be released into the micro-environment via cell lysis, its PAF-AH activity apparently contributed little to this elevation. Therefore, the change of PAF-AH in serum not only may be influential for pulmonary hemorrhage, but also seems suitable for disease monitoring to ensure prompt clinical treatment, which is critical for reducing the mortality of severe leptospirosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004181
PMCID: PMC2615213  PMID: 19145243
14.  Protection against Leptospira interrogans Sensu Lato Challenge by DNA Immunization with the Gene Encoding Hemolysin-Associated Protein 1  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(7):4062-4069.
The use of DNA constructs encoding leptospiral proteins is a promising new approach for vaccination against leptospirosis. In previous work we determined that immunization with hemolysis-associated protein 1 (Hap1) (LipL32) expressed by adenovirus induced significant protection against a virulent Leptospira challenge in gerbils. To avoid the use of the adenovirus vector, we checked for clinical protection against lethal challenge by DNA vaccination. A DNA vaccine expressing Hap1 was designed to enhance the direct gene transfer of this protein into gerbils. A challenge was performed 3 weeks after the last immunization with a virulent strain of serovar canicola. Our results show that the cross-protective effect with pathogenic strains of Leptospira, shared by Hap1, could be mediated by the DNA plasmid vector. This finding should facilitate the design and development of a new generation of vaccines against bacteria, particularly Leptospira interrogans sensu lato.
doi:10.1128/IAI.73.7.4062-4069.2005
PMCID: PMC1168576  PMID: 15972494
15.  Leptospiral LruA Is Required for Virulence and Modulates an Interaction with Mammalian Apolipoprotein AI 
Infection and Immunity  2013;81(10):3872-3879.
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. While understanding of pathogenesis remains limited, the development of mutagenesis in Leptospira has provided a powerful tool for identifying novel virulence factors. LruA is a lipoprotein that has been implicated in leptospiral uveitis as a target of the immune response. In this study, two lruA mutants, M754 and M765, generated by transposon mutagenesis from Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae, were characterized. In M754, the transposon inserted in the middle of lruA, resulting in no detectable expression of LruA. In M765, the transposon inserted toward the 3′ end of the gene, resulting in expression of a truncated protein. LruA was demonstrated to be on the cell surface in M765 and the wild type (WT). M754, but not M765, was attenuated in a hamster model of acute infection. A search for differential binding to human serum proteins identified a serum protein of around 30 kDa bound to the wild type and the LruA deletion mutant (M754), but not to the LruA truncation mutant (M765). Two-dimensional separation of proteins from leptospiral cells incubated with guinea pig serum identified the 28-kDa apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) as a major mammalian serum protein that binds Leptospira in vitro. Interestingly, M754 (with no detectable LruA) bound more ApoA-I than did the LruA-expressing strains Manilae wild type and M765. Our data thus identify LruA as a surface-exposed leptospiral virulence factor that contributes to leptospiral pathogenesis, possibly by modulating cellular interactions with serum protein ApoA-I.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01195-12
PMCID: PMC3811782  PMID: 23918777
16.  Characterization of the ompL1 gene of pathogenic Leptospira species in China and cross-immunogenicity of the OmpL1 protein 
BMC Microbiology  2008;8:223.
Background
The usefulness of available vaccine and serological tests for leptospirosis is limited by the low cross-reactivity of antigens from numerous serovars of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Identification of genus-specific protein antigens (GP-Ag) of Leptospira would be important for development of universal vaccines and serodiagnostic methods. OmpL1, a transmembrane porin of pathogenic leptospires, was identified as a possible GP-Ag, but its sequence diversity and immune cross-reactivity among different serovars of pathogenic leptospires remains largely unknown.
Results
PCR analysis demonstrated that the ompL1 gene existed in all 15 official Chinese standard strains as well as 163 clinical strains of pathogenic leptospires isolated in China. In the standard strains, the ompL1 gene could be divided into three groups (ompL1/1, ompL1/2 and ompL1/3) according to their sequence identities. Immune electron microscopy demonstrated that all products of the different gene types of ompL1 are located on the surface of leptospires. The microscopic agglutination test revealed extensive yet distinct cross-immunoagglutination among the antisera against recombinant OmpL1 (rOmpL1) and leptospiral strains belonging to different ompL1 gene types. These cross-immunoreactions were further verified by ELISAs using the OmpL1 proteins as the coated antigens in serum samples from 385 leptospirosis patients. All the antisera against rOmpL1 proteins could inhibit L. interrogans strain Lai from adhering to J774A.1 cells. Furthermore, immunization of guinea pigs with each of the rOmpL1 proteins could cause cross-immunoprotection against lethal challenge with leptospires from different ompL1 gene types.
Conclusion
Three types of the ompL1 gene are present in pathogenic leptospires in China. OmpL1 is an immunoprotective GP-Ag which should be considered in the design of new universal vaccines and serodiagnostic methods against leptospirosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-8-223
PMCID: PMC2632671  PMID: 19087358
17.  Changes in Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen Distinguish Acute versus Chronic Leptospira interrogans Infections  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(6):3251-3260.
Leptospirosis is the most geographically widespread zoonotic disease in the world. A severe pulmonary form of leptospirosis (SPFL) is being recognized with increased frequency. We have reported that human SPFL isolates of Leptospira cause acute lethal infection with prominent pulmonary hemorrhage in guinea pigs. We have found that the same SPFL strains cause asymptomatic infection and chronic renal shedding in rats, where infection is restricted to the renal tubules. To address the antigenic composition of host tissue-derived Leptospira (HTL), motile leptospires were purified from guinea pig liver by centrifugation on Percoll density gradients and compared to Percoll-purified in vitro-cultivated Leptospira (IVCL). The lipopolysaccharide O antigen (Oag) content of guinea pig liver-derived HTL was markedly reduced compared to that of IVCL, as demonstrated both by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody that was serovar specific for Oag and by periodate-silver staining. Confocal microscopy of HTL in guinea pig liver and kidney with the Oag-specific monoclonal antibody provided further evidence that diminution of the Oag content occurred in situ during lethal infection. In contrast, the Oag content of HTL in chronically infected rat renal tubules was indistinguishable from that of IVCL. These findings suggest that there may be regulation of Oag synthesis by Leptospira specific to the animal host infected. The hypothesis that the Oag content is related to whether lethal infection or chronic renal tubular colonization occurs remains to be tested.
doi:10.1128/IAI.73.6.3251-3260.2005
PMCID: PMC1111870  PMID: 15908349
18.  The OmpA-Like Protein Loa22 Is Essential for Leptospiral Virulence 
PLoS Pathogens  2007;3(7):e97.
Pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira interrogans, the causal agent of leptospirosis, remain largely unknown. This is mainly due to the lack of tools for genetic manipulations of pathogenic species. In this study, we characterized a mutant obtained by insertion of the transposon Himar1 into a gene encoding a putative lipoprotein, Loa22, which has a predicted OmpA domain based on sequence identity. The resulting mutant did not express Loa22 and was attenuated in virulence in the guinea pig and hamster models of leptospirosis, whereas the genetically complemented strain was restored in Loa22 expression and virulence. Our results show that Loa22 was expressed during host infection and exposed on the cell surface. Loa22 is therefore necessary for virulence of L. interrogans in the animal model and represents, to our knowledge, the first genetically defined virulence factor in Leptospira species.
Author Summary
The spirochetes, which include medically important pathogens such as the causative agents of Lyme disease, syphilis, and leptospirosis, constitute an evolutionarily unique group of bacteria. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that causes a high rate of mortality and morbidity in humans and animals throughout the world each year. The year 2007 marks the centenary of the discovery of the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospira interrogans. Until now, the genetic obstacles posed by leptospires (principally, the difficulties in generating targeted mutants) have hampered the identification of virulence genes. In this study, we describe an avirulent mutant in a pathogenic Leptospira that was obtained via disruption of loa22, a gene that encodes an outer membrane protein containing an OmpA domain. This mutation resulted in an avirulent mutant in the guinea pig model, and reintroduction of loa22 into the mutant restored Leptospira's ability to kill guinea pigs. Our results therefore indicate that loa22 is a virulence determinant that is, to our knowledge, the first identified for this pathogen.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030097
PMCID: PMC1914066  PMID: 17630832
19.  Serologic and Molecular Studies of Leptospira and Leptospirosis among Rats in the Philippines 
Rats are known to be the most important reservoirs and transmission sources of leptospirosis. However, the status of leptospirosis in the Philippines regarding reservoirs and transmission remains unknown. A survey was conducted in Metro Manila and Laguna that analyzed samples obtained from 106 rats. Using the microscopic agglutination test, we found that 92% of rat serum samples were positive for anti-Leptospira antibodies; the most common infecting serovars were Manilae, Hebdomadis, and Losbanos. On the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gyrase B gene sequence analyses, four groups of rat kidney isolates were found: L. interrogans serovar Manilae, serovar Losbanos, and serogroup Grippotyphosa, and L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica. Most isolates were lethal after experimental infection of golden Syrian hamsters. Results showed that these four Leptospira serovars and serogroups are circulating among rats, and that these animals may be one of the possible transmission sources of leptospirosis in the Philippines.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0711
PMCID: PMC2861393  PMID: 20439972
20.  Leptospiral Outer Membrane Proteins OmpL1 and LipL41 Exhibit Synergistic Immunoprotection 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(12):6572-6582.
New vaccine strategies are needed for prevention of leptospirosis, a widespread human and veterinary disease caused by invasive spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. We have examined the immunoprotective capacity of the leptospiral porin OmpL1 and the leptospiral outer membrane lipoprotein LipL41 in the Golden Syrian hamster model of leptospirosis. Specialized expression plasmids were developed to facilitate expression of leptospiral proteins in Escherichia coli as the membrane-associated proteins OmpL1-M and LipL41-M. Although OmpL1-M expression is highly toxic in E. coli, this was accomplished by using plasmid pMMB66-OmpL1, which has undetectable background expression without induction. LipL41-M expression and processing were enhanced by altering its lipoprotein signal peptidase cleavage site to mimic that of the murein lipoprotein. Active immunization of hamsters with E. coli membrane fractions containing a combination of OmpL1-M and LipL41-M was found to provide significant protection against homologous challenge with Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. At 28 days after intraperitoneal inoculation, survival in animals vaccinated with both proteins was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53 to 89%), compared with only 25% (95% CI, 8 to 42%) in the control group (P < 0.001). On the basis of serological, histological, and microbiological assays, no evidence of infection was found in the vaccinated survivors. The protective effects of immunization with OmpL1-M and LipL41-M were synergistic, since significant levels of protection were not observed in animals immunized with either OmpL1-M or LipL41-M alone. In contrast to immunization with the membrane-associated forms of leptospiral proteins, hamsters immunized with His6-OmpL1 and His6-LipL41 fusion proteins, either alone or in combination, were not protected. These data indicate that the manner in which OmpL1 and LipL41 associates with membranes is an important determinant of immunoprotection.
PMCID: PMC97069  PMID: 10569777
21.  Differential In Vivo Gene Expression of Major Leptospira Proteins in Resistant or Susceptible Animal Models 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2012;78(17):6372-6376.
Transcripts of Leptospira 16S rRNA, FlaB, LigB, LipL21, LipL32, LipL36, LipL41, and OmpL37 were quantified in the blood of susceptible (hamsters) and resistant (mice) animal models of leptospirosis. We first validated adequate reference genes and then evaluated expression patterns in vivo compared to in vitro cultures. LipL32 expression was downregulated in vivo and differentially regulated in resistant and susceptible animals. FlaB expression was also repressed in mice but not in hamsters. In contrast, LigB and OmpL37 were upregulated in vivo. Thus, we demonstrated that a virulent strain of Leptospira differentially adapts its gene expression in the blood of infected animals.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00911-12
PMCID: PMC3416592  PMID: 22729538
22.  The terminal portion of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein LigA confers protective immunity against lethal infection in the hamster model of leptospirosis 
Vaccine  2007;25(33):6277-6286.
Subunit vaccines are a potential intervention strategy against leptospirosis, which is a major public health problem in developing countries and a veterinary disease in livestock and companion animals worldwide. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are a family of surface-exposed determinants that have Ig-like repeat domains found in virulence factors such as intimin and invasin. We expressed fragments of the repeat domain regions of LigA and LigB from Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Immunization of Golden Syrian hamsters with Lig fragments in Freund’s adjuvant induced robust antibody responses against recombinant protein and native protein, as detected by ELISA and immunoblot, respectively. A single fragment, LigANI, which corresponds to the six carboxy-terminal Ig-like repeat domains of the LigA molecule, conferred immunoprotection against mortality (67-100%, P <0.05) in hamsters which received a lethal inoculum of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni. However, immunization with this fragment did not confer sterilizing immunity. These findings indicate that the carboxy-terminal portion of LigA is an immunoprotective domain and may serve as a vaccine candidate for human and veterinary leptospirosis.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.05.053
PMCID: PMC1994161  PMID: 17629368
Leptospirosis; subunit vaccine; Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein; recombinant protein; immunity; antibodies; hamsters
23.  Immune Evasion of Leptospira Species by Acquisition of Human Complement Regulator C4BP▿  
Infection and Immunity  2008;77(3):1137-1143.
Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonotic disease of global distribution with a high incidence in tropical regions. In the last 15 years it has been recognized as an important emerging infectious disease due to the occurrence of large outbreaks in warm-climate countries and, occasionally, in temperate regions. Pathogenic leptospires efficiently colonize target organs after penetrating the host. Their invasiveness is attributed to the ability to multiply in blood, adhere to host cells, and penetrate into tissues. Therefore, they must be able to evade the innate host defense. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate how several Leptospira strains evade the protective function of the complement system. The serum resistance of six Leptospira strains was analyzed. We demonstrate that the pathogenic strain isolated from infected hamsters avoids serum bactericidal activity more efficiently than the culture-attenuated or the nonpathogenic Leptospira strains. Moreover, both the alternative and the classical pathways of complement seem to be responsible for the killing of leptospires. Serum-resistant and serum-intermediate strains are able to bind C4BP, whereas the serum-sensitive strain Patoc I is not. Surface-bound C4BP promotes factor I-mediated cleavage of C4b. Accordingly, we found that pathogenic strains displayed reduced deposition of the late complement components C5 to C9 upon exposure to serum. We conclude that binding of C4BP contributes to leptospiral serum resistance against host complement.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01310-08
PMCID: PMC2643629  PMID: 19114549
24.  Efficacy of Macrolides and Telithromycin against Leptospirosis in a Hamster Model 
Human studies support the use of β-lactams and tetracyclines in the treatment of leptospirosis. Additional agents from these and other classes of antimicrobials also have in vitro activity against Leptospira species, though corroborating in vivo data are limited or lacking. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and telithromycin in a lethal hamster model of leptospirosis using Leptospira interrogans serogroup Canicola serovar Portlandvere. A range of dosages for each antimicrobial was given to the infected animals on days 2 through 7 (5 days) of the 21-day survival model. All untreated control animals survived less than 10 days from infection. Ninety to 100% of doxycycline controls, treated for 5 days with 5 mg/kg of body weight of drug, survived to 21 days. Treatment with azithromycin (daily dose: 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) resulted in 100% survival at all evaluated doses. Animals receiving 20 mg/kg or more of clarithromycin (daily dose: 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, or 100 mg/kg) had improved survival. Ninety-eight percent of animals treated with telithromycin (daily dose: 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 40 mg/kg) survived. We conclude that all agents tested have demonstrated in vivo efficacy in treating acute leptospirosis. These results provide support for further evaluation of macrolide and ketolide antimicrobial agents in human trials.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01467-05
PMCID: PMC1479122  PMID: 16723556
25.  Similarities in Leptospira Serogroup and Species Distribution in Animals and Humans in the Indian Ocean Island of Mayotte 
Our objective was to identify local animal reservoirs of leptospirosis to explain the unusual features of Leptospira strains recently described among patients on the island of Mayotte. By means of a microscopic agglutination test using local clinical isolates, we found that 11.2% of black rats were seropositive to Leptospira, whereas 10.2% of flying foxes, 2% of lemurs, 93.1% of domestic dogs, and 87.5% of stray dogs were seropositive. As observed in humans, Mini was the main serogroup circulating in animals, whereas serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was absent. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we also showed that 29.8% of rats carried leptospires in their kidneys. The sequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences of Leptospira found in black rat kidneys identified four genomospecies (Leptospira borgpetersenii, Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira kirschneri, and L. borgpetersenii group B), which established black rats as the major source of leptospirosis transmission to humans. The origins of such a genetic diversity in Leptospira strains are discussed.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0012
PMCID: PMC3391038  PMID: 22764304

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