Diet and nutritional factors play a large role in influencing both the quality and quantity of life after the diagnosis of cancer. The oncology nurse is well-positioned to: 1) oversee that the nutritional needs of patients who are newly-diagnosed, undergoing active treatment, or those with advanced disease are met; 2) facilitate referrals of patients with more intensive nutritional needs to registered dietitians; and 3) promote the importance of weight management and a healthful plant-based diet, low in saturated fat and simple sugars, and high in fruits and vegetables and unrefined whole grains, to patients who are likely to join the ranks of ever-expanding population of cancer survivors who now constitute roughly 4% of the U.S. population and who number over 11 million.
Oncology nurses are playing an important role in the provision of survivorship care. Their involvement includes educating and coordinating multidiscipline teams to initiate and provide care to patients and families. Oncology nurses participate in this evolving model of care in a variety of ways. Using the IOM report recommendations for the provision of quality cancer care nurses provide care based on the specific characteristics of individual health care settings and the populations they serve. Evaluating the settings resources and goals for desired survivorship activities as part of the planning process can be the difference between success and failure. Collaborating with local and national resources for cancer survivors can help expand services for a setting in an efficient and cost effective manner.
Models of care vary and resources and communication differs among cancer care settings. Survivorship care differs as a result, across different models. Nurses are key to the dissemination and coordination of survivorship activities and are critical in facilitating communication between health care providers, the patients and caregivers. Nurses have a significant role in the dissemination and coordination of information between the patient and other health care providers. Oncology care does not end when treatment ends.
Survivorship care plans have been recommended by the Institute of Medicine for all cancer survivors. We implemented an Internet-based tool for creation of individualized survivorship care plans. To our knowledge, this is the first tool of this type to be designed and made publicly accessible.
To investigate patterns of use and satisfaction with an Internet-based tool for creation of survivorship care plans.
OncoLife, an Internet-based program for creation of survivorship care plans, was designed by a team of dedicated oncology nurses and physicians at the University of Pennsylvania. The program was designed to provide individualized, comprehensive health care recommendations to users responding to queries regarding demographics, diagnosis, and cancer treatments. After being piloted to test populations, OncoLife was made publicly accessible via Oncolink, a cancer information website based at the University of Pennsylvania which averages 3.9 million page views and over 385,000 unique visits per month. Data entered by anonymous public users was maintained and analyzed.
From May 2007 to November 2008, 3343 individuals utilized this tool. Most (63%) identified themselves as survivors, but also health care providers (25%) and friends/family of survivors (12%). Median age at diagnosis was 48 years (18 - 100+), and median current age 51 (19 - 100+). Most users were Caucasian (87%), female (71%), and college-educated (82%). Breast cancer was the most common diagnosis (46%), followed by hematologic (12%), gastrointestinal (11%), gynecologic (9%), and genitourinary (8%). Of all users, 84% had undergone surgery, 80% chemotherapy, and 60% radiotherapy. Half of users (53%) reported receiving follow-up care from only an oncologist, 13% only a primary care provider (PCP), and 32% both; 12% reported having received survivorship information previously. Over 90% of users, both survivors and health care providers, reported satisfaction levels of “good” to “excellent” using this tool.
Based on our experience with implementation of what is, to our knowledge, the first Web-based program for creation of survivorship care plans, survivors and health care providers appear both willing to use this type of tool and satisfied with the information provided. Most users have never before received survivorship information. Future iterations will focus on expanding accessibility and improving understanding of the needs of cancer survivors in the era of the Internet.
Survivors; cancer survivor; patient care planning; survivorship care plan; late effects from cancer treatment; survivor issues; Internet
When the clinical care of minority breast cancer survivors is transferred from oncology settings to primary care, quality of care may be compromised if their primary care providers do not have adequate cancer treatment records and follow-up care guidelines. Survivorship care plans (SCPs) given to survivors before they transition to primary care settings are designed to improve the transfer of this information. This study examined these issues in a sample of minority breast cancer survivors.
During four focus groups with minority breast cancer survivors, data were collected about the types of information survivors remember receiving from their oncologists about follow-up health care needs. Survivors were also asked their opinions on the value and content of a survivorship care plan.
Minority breast cancer survivors received variable amounts of information about their cancer treatments. They were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received on cancer-related side-effects, including race-specific information. The American Society of Clinical Oncology’s breast cancer survivorship care plan was viewed as important, but too highly technical and limited in information on side-effects and self-care approaches.
Survivorship care plans may help increase information transfer from oncologists to patients and primary care providers, but the content of care plans needs to be adapted to minority patients’ concerns. Primary care physicians may be challenged by survivors to explain recommended surveillance guidelines and to respond to untreated physical and psychosocial problems.
breast cancer; primary care; minority; survivorship
Our goal was to develop evidence-based recommendations for the organization and structure of cancer survivorship services, and best-care practices to optimize the health and well-being of post–primary treatment survivors. This review sought to determine the optimal organization and care delivery structure for cancer survivorship services, and the specific clinical practices and interventions that would improve or maximize the psychosocial health and overall well-being of adult cancer survivors.
We conducted a systematic search of the Inventory of Cancer Guidelines at the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Canadian Medical Association InfoBase, medline (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), embase (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), Psychinfo (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), the Cochrane Library (ovid; Issue 1, 2009), and cinahl (ebsco: 1999 through December 2009). Reference lists of related papers and recent review articles were scanned for additional citations.
Articles were selected for inclusion as evidence in the systematic review if they reported on organizational system components for survivors of cancer, or on psychosocial or supportive care interventions HOWELL et al. designed for survivors of cancer. Articles were excluded from the systematic review if they focused only on pediatric cancer survivor populations or on populations that transitioned from pediatric cancer to adult services; if they addressed only pharmacologic interventions or diagnostic testing and follow-up of cancer survivors; if they were systematic reviews with inadequately described methods; if they were qualitative or descriptive studies; and if they were opinion papers, letters, or editorials.
Data Extraction and Synthesis
Evidence was selected and reviewed by three members of the Cancer Journey Survivorship Expert Panel (SM, TC, TKO). The resulting summary of the evidence was guided further and reviewed by the members of Cancer Journey Survivorship Expert Panel. Fourteen practice guidelines, eight systematic reviews, and sixty-thee randomized controlled trials form the evidence base for this guidance document. These publications demonstrate that survivors benefit from coordinated post-treatment care, including interventions to address specific psychosocial, supportive care, and rehabilitative concerns.
Ongoing high-quality research is essential to optimize services for cancer survivors. Interventions that promote healthy lifestyle behaviours or that address psychosocial concerns and distress appear to improve physical functioning, psychosocial well-being, and quality of life for survivors.
Psychosocial; supportive care; cancer survivor; survivorship; organization of care; care plan
The objective of this review is to summarize the potential issues faced by cancer survivors, define a conceptual framework for cancer survivorship, describe challenges associated with improving the quality of survivorship care, and outline proposed survivorship programs that may be implemented going forward.
We performed a non-systematic review of current cancer survivorship literature. Given its comprehensive scope and high profile, the Institute of Medicine’s recent report From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition served as the principal guide for the review.
In recognition of the growing number of cancer survivors in the United States, survivorship has become an important health care concern. The Institute of Medicine’s recent report comprehensively outlined deficits in the care provided to cancer survivors and proposed mechanisms to improve the coordination and quality of follow-up care provided to this growing number of Americans. Measures to achieve these objectives include improving communication between health care providers through a Survivorship Care Plan, providing evidence-based surveillance guidelines, and assessing different models of survivorship care. Implementing coordinated survivorship care broadly will require additional health care resources and commitment from both health-care providers and payers. Research aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of survivorship care will be important on this front.
Potential shortcomings in the recognition and management of ongoing issues faced by cancer survivors may impact the overall quality of long-term care in this growing population. Although programs to address these issues have been proposed, there is substantial work to be done in this area.
As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if interventions are well standardized. Some protocols are better suited to cooperative groups than are others, and there are advantages and disadvantages to conducting survivorship research within the cooperative group setting. Behavioral researchers currently involved in cooperative groups, as well as program staff within the NCI, can serve as sources of information for those wishing to pursue symptom management and survivorship studies within the clinical trial setting. The structure of the cooperative groups is currently changing, but going forward, survivorship is bound to be a topic of interest and one that perhaps may be more easily addressed using the proposed more centralized structure.
The number of cancer survivors is increasing dramatically. Many cancer survivors face lifetime risks associated with their cancer therapy, with a significant proportion at risk for serious morbidity and premature mortality. Concerns regarding the long-term physical, psychosocial, and economic effects of cancer treatment on cancer survivors and their families are increasingly being recognized and addressed by public and private sector. This article summarizes economic burden of cancer survivors, main post-treatment health problems including secondary primary cancer and comorbidities, health behaviors such as smoking, exercise and physical activity, nutrition, and psychosocial problems. Faced with various health and psychosocial problems specific to this population, several healthcare and policy models are being suggested to address these issues, including 'shared care model' and 'integrative supportive care service delivery system for cancer survivors'. More effort is needed to make the cancer survivorship agenda a reality, attended by a wide variety of stakeholders including researchers, patients, providers, and policy makers.
Cancer; Survivors; Second Primary Neoplasm; Korea
This article discusses the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) guidelines on the management of prostate cancer in senior age groups.
Largely a disease of older men, prostate cancer is likely to become a growing burden in the developed world as the population ages and overall life expectancy increases. Furthermore, prostate cancer management in older men is not optimal, reflecting the lack of training dedicated to senior adults in fellowship programs and the lack of specific guidelines to manage senior adults. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) convened a multidisciplinary Prostate Cancer Working Group to review the evidence base and provide advice on the management of the disease in senior age groups. The Working Group reported that advancing age, by itself, is not a reliable guide to treatment decision making for men with either localized or advanced prostate cancer. Instead, the SIOG guidelines advise health care teams to assess the patient's underlying health status, which is largely dictated by associated comorbid conditions, but also by dependency in activities of daily living and nutritional status, and to use the findings to categorize the individual into one of four groups: healthy, vulnerable, frail, or terminally ill. The guidelines recommend that a patient categorized as healthy or vulnerable (i.e., with reversible problems following geriatric intervention) should receive the same approach to treatment as a younger patient. Frail patients should be managed using adapted treatment strategies, and the terminally ill should receive symptomatic/palliative care only. The guidelines may have ongoing relevance as the treatment options for prostate cancer expand.
Evidence-based guidelines; Treatment outcomes; Senior adults
Colorectal cancer survivorship begins at diagnosis and continues throughout life. After diagnosis, survivors face the possibility of second cancers, long-term effects of cancer treatment, and comorbid conditions. Interventions that can provide primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in this population are important. Physical activity has been demonstrated to lower colon cancer incidence and recurrence risk as well as improve quality of life and non-cancer health outcomes including cardiovascular fitness in colon cancer survivors. The data are less robust for rectal cancer incidence and recurrence, although improvements in quality of life and health outcomes in rectal cancer survivors are also seen. Potential mechanisms for this benefit may occur through inflammatory or insulin-like growth factor pathways. The issues of colorectal cancer survivorship and the impact of physical activity on these issues are reviewed, with discussion of possible biologic mechanisms, barriers to physical activity intervention studies, and future research directions for physical activity in this burgeoning survivor population.
Colorectal cancer; colon cancer; survivorship; physical activity; exercise
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends the use of survivorship care plans (SCPs) for all cancer survivors. Developing useful SCPs requires understanding what survivors and their providers need and how SCPs can be implemented in practice.
We reviewed published studies investigating the perspectives of stakeholders (survivors, primary care providers, and oncology providers) regarding the content and use of SCPs. We surveyed all NCI-designated cancer centers about the extent to which SCPs for breast and colorectal cancer survivors are in use, their concordance with the IOM's recommendation, and details about SCP delivery.
Survivors and primary care providers typically lack the information the IOM suggested should be included in SCPs. Oncology providers view SCPs favorably but express concerns about feasibility of their implementation. Fewer than half (43%) of NCI-designated cancer centers deliver SCPs to their breast or colorectal cancer survivors. Of those that do, none deliver SCPs that include all components recommended by the IOM.
Survivors’ and providers’ opinions about the use of SCPs are favorable, but there are barriers to implementation. SCPs are not widely used in NCI-designated cancer centers. Variation in practice is substantial, and many components recommended by the IOM framework are rarely included.
There is a need for improvement of information provision and post-treatment care for cancer survivors. A Survivorship Care Plan (SCP) is recommended by the American Institute of Medicine and the Dutch Health Council, which is a summary of patients' course of treatment as a formal document, and includes recommendations for subsequent cancer surveillance, management of late effects, and strategies for health promotion. Until now, evidence on the effects of implementing the SCP in clinical practice is lacking. The rationale and study design of a pragmatic cluster randomized trial, aiming to assess the impact of SCP care in routine clinical practice, is presented.
A web-based patient registration system 'Registrationsystem Oncological GYnecology' (ROGY) is used by gynecologists in the South of the Netherlands since 2006. A personalized SCP can automatically be generated out of ROGY. In this pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitals are randomized to either 'usual care' or 'SCP care'. In patients with 'usual care', the gynecologist provides care as usual. In patients with 'SCP care', information about the tumor stage and treatment is personally discussed with the patient and a document is handed to the patient. Prospectively, all patients diagnosed with endometrial or ovarian cancer in the participating hospitals will be approached for study participation. Patients will complete questionnaires after surgery, and before additional treatment, and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. In addition, health care providers will be asked their opinion about implementation of SCP care. Primary outcome is defined as patient satisfaction with information provision and care. Secondary outcomes are illness perception, health-related quality of life, health care use, prevalence, course and referral rate of survivors with psychosocial distress, and health care providers' evaluation of SCP care.
The ROGY Care trial will help to gain insight into the impact of SCP care on patient reported outcomes, and on the evaluation of cancer survivors and health care providers of the different elements of the SCP. Therefore, results will contribute to efforts to improve quality of care for cancer survivors.
Trial Registration: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01185626
Medical Research Ethics Committee Reference Number: NL33429.008.10 Grant Reference Number: UVT2010-4743
Survivorship Care Plan; Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial; Gynecological cancer survivors; Endometrial cancer; Ovarian cancer; Health care providers; Patient Reported Outcomes; Satisfaction with information provision; Satisfaction with care; Health- Related Quality of Life
Survivorship navigation is a relatively new concept in the field of patient navigation, but an important one. This paper highlights the essential functions of the survivorship navigator and defines core outcomes and measures for navigation in the survivorship period. Barriers to access to care experienced by patients during active cancer treatment can continue into the post-treatment period, affecting quality follow-up care for survivors. These barriers to care can be particularly acute for non-English speakers, immigrants, the uninsured, the underinsured and other vulnerable populations. The survivorship navigator can help reduce barriers and facilitate access to survivorship care and services through communication and information exchange for patients. Survivorship navigation may improve appropriate health care utilization through education and care coordination, potentially improving health outcomes and quality of life of survivors while reducing cost to the health care system. Survivorship navigators can also educate survivors on how to improve their overall wellness, thereby directly impacting the health of a growing population of cancer survivors.
patient navigation; survivorship; outcome measures
Older adult cancer survivors are at great er risk of cancer recurrence and other comorbidities that may be prevented through improved diet and weight management. The tertiary prevention needs of rural-dwelling survivors may be even greater, yet little is known about rural and urban differences in lifestyle factors among this high risk population.
To compare dietary patterns of urban and rural cancer survivors and to examine associations of dietary patterns with BMI.
A secondary analysis was performed of baseline data from the Reach Out to Enhance Wellness (RENEW) trial, a diet and exercise intervention among overweight, long-term (> 5y) older survivors of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Survivors in the present analysis (n = 729) underwent two 45–60 minute telephone surveys, which included two 24-hour dietary recalls. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and multivariable general linear models were used to derive dietary patterns and to evaluate associations between dietary patterns and BMI, respectively.
PCA identified three primary dietary patter ns among rural dwellers (“high sweets and starches”, “high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits”, and “mixed”) and three among urban dwellers (“high fruits and vegetables”, “high meat and refined grains”, and “high sugar-sweetened beverages”). Among rural survivors, greater adherence to the “high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits” pattern was positively associated with lower BMI (p-trend < 0.05) whereas higher scores on the “mixed” pattern was associated with greater BMI (p-trend < 0.05). Greater adherence to the “high fruits and vegetables” pattern among urban survivors was inversely associated with BMI (p-trend < 0.05).
Urban and rural differences in dietary intake behavior should be considered in designing public health interventions among the increasing population of older cancer survivors. Furthermore, targeting overall dietary patterns may be one approach to help reduce the burden of obesity among this population.
dietary patterns; cancer survivors; body mass index; geographic residence
In 2007, an estimated 1.6 million North Americans will be diagnosed with cancer. Given significant improvements in early detection and treatment, increasing numbers of patients can expect to be alive in five years. With improving longevity, the late-occurring adverse effects of cancer and its treatment are becoming increasingly apparent. As in other clinical populations, healthy lifestyle behaviors encompassing weight management, a healthy diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation have the potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. This review will address: (1) the strength of evidence for recommendations in areas of weight management, diet, exercise and smoking cessation; and (2) the current evidence examining the efficacy of various intervention approaches to promote health behavior changes among adult cancer survivors.
Neoplasms; Survivors; Life Style; Diet; Exercise; Smoking Cessation
The primary goal of palliative cancer care is typically to relieve suffering and improve quality of life. Most approaches to diet in this setting have focused only on eating as many calories as possible to avoid cachexia. However, as the concept of palliative care has evolved to include all aspects of cancer survivorship and not just end of life care, there is an increasing need to thoughtfully consider diet and nutrition approaches that can impact not only quality of life but overall health outcomes and perhaps even positively affect cancer recurrence and progression. In this regard, there has been a recent emphasis in the literature on nutrition and cancer as an important factor in both quality of life and in the pathophysiology of cancer. Hence, the primary purpose of this paper is to review the current data on diet and nutrition as it pertains to a wide range of cancer patients in the palliative care setting.
Increasingly, oncology practitioners are realizing that despite the “success” of cancer therapies, cancer survivors are facing previously unrecognized issues related to survivorship, including physical and psychosocial side-effects of the cancer and its treatment, second cancers, and practical and economic issues related to adjusting to life after their cancer diagnosis. In gastrointestinal cancers, traditionally, the medical and surgical oncologists charged with the care of the patient are not well-equipped to deal with these survivorship issues. At the Penn State Cancer Institute’s newly formed Gastrointestinal Cancer Survivorship Clinic, we provide a full array of services to optimize care through a multi-disciplinary approach. By utilizing a multi-disciplinary model with the primary medical and surgical oncologists spearheading the survivorship initiative and psychological and pastoral support as a priority, we hope to optimize cancer survivor care and patient quality of life.
cancer; survivorship; oncology; gastrointestinal
Cure rates for cancer are increasing, especially for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Despite positive trends in survivorship, a cancer diagnosis can trigger accelerated functional decline that can threaten independence, reduce quality-of-life and increase health care costs, especially among the elderly who comprise the majority of survivors. Lifestyle interventions may hold promise in reorienting functional decline in older cancer survivors, but few studies have been conducted.
We describe the design and methods of a randomized controlled trial, RENEW (Reach out to ENhancE Wellness), that tests whether a home-based multi-behavior intervention focused on exercise, and including a low-saturated fat, plant-based diet, would improve physical functioning among 641 older, long-term (≥5 years post-diagnosis) survivors of breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Challenges to recruitment are examined.
20,015 cases were approached, and screened using a two-step screening process to assure eligibility. This population of long-term, elderly cancer survivors had lower rates of response (∼11%) and higher rates of ineligibility (∼70%) than our previous intervention studies conducted on adults with newly diagnosed cancer. Significantly higher response rates were noted among survivors who were white, younger, and more proximal to diagnosis and breast cancer survivors (p-values < 0.001).
Older cancer survivors represent a vulnerable population for whom lifestyle interventions may hold promise. RENEW may provide guidance in allocating limited resources in order to maximize recruitment efforts aimed at this needy, but hard-to-reach population.
cancer; oncology; exercise; diet; randomized controlled trial
Adolescents and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer are an understudied population with unique developmental and medical needs that extend well beyond their active treatment. Survivors diagnosed as AYAs may experience both physical and emotional late effects. In particular, the experiences of Latino cancer survivors have not been explored.
The purpose of this study was to conduct interviews with AYA Latino cancer survivors to inform professionals working with these survivors.
A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was selected based on the focus on experiences and meanings of Latino adolescents’ cancer survivorship. Phenomenology allows for understanding the subjective meaning and lived experience of populations that are understudied or marginalized. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants
Latino AYAs between the ages of 14–21 who were all post treatment.
Interviews revealed seven themes regarding the experience and meaning of survivorship for this population: gratitude, humor/positive attitude, empathy for younger children with cancer, god and faith, cancer happens for a reason/cancer changed my life/, familial support, and staff relationships.
Latino adolescent and young adult cancer survivors develop meaning out of unique cancer experiences. Programs need to be developed specifically to address Latino adolescents and young adult survivors of cancer.
The Integrating Wellness into Cancer Care conference was held at the University of Toronto, October 4–5, 2007, and was dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Véronique Benk. This article summarizes the workshops at that conference.
The notion of wellness and an integrated approach should be introduced from the outset as part of the cancer patient’s management. Having wellness as part of the treatment sets a standard for taking care of the patient’s emotional, spiritual, physical, and nutritional needs, and for providing information on complementary therapies. A focus on holistic supportive care during treatment and survivorship is important.
The whole medical team should support an integrative program. Referral to an education program and one-to-one assessments by a point person such as an advanced nurse practitioner, a social worker, or a psychological counsellor with appropriate special training should be mandatory. The concept of a pathfinder or cancer guide was discussed.
Integrative oncology; holistic cancer treatment
To explore the experience of living with a cancer diagnosis within the context of a pre-existing functional disability and to identify strategies to promote health in this growing population of cancer survivors.
Four sites in the United States
19 female cancer survivors with pre-existing disabling conditions
Four focus groups were conducted. The audiotapes were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis techniques.
Main Research Variables
cancer survivor, disability, health promotion
Analytic categories included living with a cancer diagnosis, health promotion strategies, and wellness program development for survivors with pre-existing functional limitations. Participants described many challenges associated with managing a cancer diagnosis on top of living with a chronic disabling functional limitation. They identified strategies they used to maintain their health and topics to be included in health promotion programs tailored for this unique group of cancer survivors.
The “double whammy” of a cancer diagnosis for persons with pre-existing functional limitations requires modification of health promotion strategies and programs to promote wellness in this group of cancer survivors.
Nurses and other health care providers must attend to patients’ pre-existing conditions as well as the challenges of the physical, emotional, social, and economic sequelae of a cancer diagnosis.
cancer; functional disability; health promotion; survivor
Survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk for reduced quality of life (QOL), yet few studies have explored factors associated with improving health-related QOL (HRQOL) in this population. We thus explored the relationship between physical activity (PA) and HRQOL among survivors of childhood cancer.
A total of 215 survivors of childhood lymphoma, leukemia, and central nervous system (CNS) cancers completed mailed surveys that elicited information regarding leisure-time PA (LTPA) measured in metabolic equivalents, HRQOL, and diagnostic and demographic factors. Correlations and adjusted regression models were use to explore the relationship between LTPA and HRQOL.
In the total sample, modest yet significant linear associations were observed between LTPA and overall HRQOL (β = 0.17, p < 0.01) as well as each of the respective subscales (β = 0.11–0.23 and p < 0.05 to < 0.001). Among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer, LTPA was significantly associated with overall HRQOL (β = 0.27), cancer worry (β = 0.36), cognitive function (β = 0.32), body appearance (β = 0.29), and social function (β = 0.27) (all p < 0.05). Among adult survivors of childhood cancer, LTPA was only significantly associated with physical function (β = 0.28, p < 0.001).
Significant associations exist between LTPA and HRQOL; however, the association was stronger and observed in more domains for adolescent survivors of childhood cancer. More research is needed to determine the antecedents and consequences of physical activity in this population.
childhood; neoplasms; physical activity; quality of life; survivor
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer and cancer-killer in Hong Kong with an alarming increasing incidence in recent years. The latest World Cancer Research Fund report concluded that foods low in fibre, and high in red and processed meat cause colorectal cancer whereas physical activity protects against colon cancer. Yet, the influence of these lifestyle factors on cancer outcome is largely unknown even though cancer survivors are eager for lifestyle modifications. Observational studies suggested that low intake of a Western-pattern diet and high physical activity level reduced colorectal cancer mortality. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Health Action Process Approach have guided the design of intervention models targeting a wide range of health-related behaviours.
We aim to demonstrate the feasibility of two behavioural interventions intended to improve colorectal cancer outcome and which are designed to increase physical activity level and reduce consumption of a Western-pattern diet. This three year study will be a multicentre, randomised controlled trial in a 2x2 factorial design comparing the “Moving Bright, Eating Smart” (physical activity and diet) programme against usual care. Subjects will be recruited over a 12-month period, undertake intervention for 12 months and followed up for a further 12 months. Baseline, interim and three post-intervention assessments will be conducted.
Two hundred and twenty-two colorectal cancer patients who completed curative treatment without evidence of recurrence will be recruited into the study. Primary outcome measure will be whether physical activity and dietary targets are met at the end of the 12-month intervention. Secondary outcome measures include the magnitude and mechanism of behavioural change, the degree and determinants of compliance, and the additional health benefits and side effects of the intervention.
The results of this study will establish the feasibility of targeting the two behaviours (diet and physical activity) and demonstrate the magnitude of behaviour change. The information will facilitate the design of a further larger phase III randomised controlled trial with colorectal cancer outcome as the study endpoint to determine whether this intervention model would reduce colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality.
ClinicalTrials.gov No: NCT01708824
Colorectal cancer; Cancer survivor; Diet; Meat; Grains; Physical activity; Behavioural intervention; Feasibility; Acceptability; Randomised
The IOM recommended that all patients receive survivorship care plans (SCPs) post-treatment to improve quality of follow-up care. However, little is known regarding how survivors utilize SCPs and the congruency between providers' and survivors' perspectives. Feedback from colorectal cancer survivors (in receipt of a personalized/individualized SCP) and oncology providers was obtained via interviews. Survivors noted SCPs benefits of reduced duplicative procedures and cancer worry with the synthesized treatment information. Providers noted billing/reimbursement and time investiture (for form completion) as potential barriers. Further investigation of survivorship care plans is warranted regarding utility prior to widespread adoption in follow-up care.
Oncology nursing continues to evolve in response to advances in cancer treatment, information and biotechnology. As new scientific and technological discoveries are integrated into cancer care, oncology nurses need to play a key role in the management of this patient population. The role of the oncology nurse has expanded significantly and can differ greatly across cultures. Sophisticated treatments and the growth of targeted therapies will create the challenge of ensuring that all nurses working in this arena are well-educated, independent thinkers. Thus the future success of oncology nurses will focus on enhancement of nursing practice through advanced education. The increased globalisation of healthcare offers exciting opportunities to accomplish this goal by allowing for collaborative relationships among oncology nurses across the globe.
Nursing; cancer; oncology