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1.  Two Genetic Loci for Resistance to Kasugamycin in Escherichia coli 
Journal of Bacteriology  1973;113(2):704-710.
There are two loci for resistance to the antibiotic kasugamycin (Ksg) in Escherichia coli. Mutations at ksgA resulted in 30S ribosomal subunit resistance to Ksg. The map location of ksgA was near minute 0.5: ksgA was 95% cotransducible with pdxA, and the apparent gene order was thr... ksgA... pdxA. Studies in stable ksgA/ksgA+ merodiploids showed that sensitivity was dominant over resistance. Mutations at a second gene (ksgB), located between minutes 25 and 39, resulted in phenotypic KsgR indistinguishable from ksgA mutations, but ribosomes from ksgB strains were sensitive to the drug in vitro. Spontaneous and induced mutations to KsgR were usually of the ksgA (ribosomal) type.
PMCID: PMC285284  PMID: 4570603
2.  The chlamydial functional homolog of KsgA confers kasugamycin sensitivity to Chlamydia trachomatis and impacts bacterial fitness 
BMC Microbiology  2009;9:279.
Background
rRNA adenine dimethyltransferases, represented by the Escherichia coli KsgA protein, are highly conserved phylogenetically and are generally not essential for growth. They are responsible for the post-transcriptional transfer of two methyl groups to two universally conserved adenosines located near the 3'end of the small subunit rRNA and participate in ribosome maturation. All sequenced genomes of Chlamydia reveal a ksgA homolog in each species, including C. trachomatis. Yet absence of a S-adenosyl-methionine synthetase in Chlamydia, the conserved enzyme involved in the synthesis of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine, raises a doubt concerning the activity of the KsgA homolog in these organisms.
Results
Lack of the dimethylated adenosines following ksgA inactivation confers resistance to kasugamycin (KSM) in E. coli. Expression of the C. trachomatis L2 KsgA ortholog restored KSM sensitivity to the E. coli ksgA mutant, suggesting that the chlamydial KsgA homolog has specific rRNA dimethylase activity. C. trachomatis growth was sensitive to KSM and we were able to isolate a KSM resistant mutant of C. trachomatis containing a frameshift mutation in ksgA, which led to the formation of a shorter protein with no activity. Growth of the C. trachomatis ksgA mutant was negatively affected in cell culture highlighting the importance of the methylase in the development of these obligate intracellular and as yet genetically intractable pathogens.
Conclusion
The presence of a functional rRNA dimethylase enzyme belonging to the KsgA family in Chlamydia presents an excellent chemotherapeutic target with real potential. It also confirms the existence of S-adenosyl-methionine - dependent methylation reactions in Chlamydia raising the question of how these organisms acquire this cofactor.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-279
PMCID: PMC2807437  PMID: 20043826
3.  Inactivation of KsgA, a 16S rRNA Methyltransferase, Causes Vigorous Emergence of Mutants with High-Level Kasugamycin Resistance ▿  
The methyltransferases RsmG and KsgA methylate the nucleotides G535 (RsmG) and A1518 and A1519 (KsgA) in 16S rRNA, and inactivation of the proteins by introducing mutations results in acquisition of low-level resistance to streptomycin and kasugamycin, respectively. In a Bacillus subtilis strain harboring a single rrn operon (rrnO), we found that spontaneous ksgA mutations conferring a modest level of resistance to kasugamycin occur at a high frequency of 10−6. More importantly, we also found that once cells acquire the ksgA mutations, they produce high-level kasugamycin resistance at an extraordinarily high frequency (100-fold greater frequency than that observed in the ksgA+ strain), a phenomenon previously reported for rsmG mutants. This was not the case for other antibiotic resistance mutations (Tspr and Rifr), indicating that the high frequency of emergence of a mutation for high-level kasugamycin resistance in the genetic background of ksgA is not due simply to increased persistence of the ksgA strain. Comparative genome sequencing showed that a mutation in the speD gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase is responsible for the observed high-level kasugamycin resistance. ksgA speD double mutants showed a markedly reduced level of intracellular spermidine, underlying the mechanism of high-level resistance. A growth competition assay indicated that, unlike rsmG mutation, the ksgA mutation is disadvantageous for overall growth fitness. This study clarified the similarities and differences between ksgA mutation and rsmG mutation, both of which share a common characteristic—failure to methylate the bases of 16S rRNA. Coexistence of the ksgA mutation and the rsmG mutation allowed cell viability. We propose that the ksgA mutation, together with the rsmG mutation, may provide a novel clue to uncover a still-unknown mechanism of mutation and ribosomal function.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00873-08
PMCID: PMC2612157  PMID: 19001112
4.  Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli have disparate dependences on KsgA for growth and ribosome biogenesis 
BMC Microbiology  2012;12:244.
Background
The KsgA methyltransferase has been conserved throughout evolution, methylating two adenosines in the small subunit rRNA in all three domains of life as well as in eukaryotic organelles that contain ribosomes. Understanding of KsgA’s important role in ribosome biogenesis has been recently expanded in Escherichia coli; these studies help explain why KsgA is so highly conserved and also suggest KsgA’s potential as an antimicrobial drug target.
Results
We have analyzed KsgA’s contribution to ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in Staphylococcus aureus. We found that deletion of ksgA in S. aureus led to a cold-sensitive growth phenotype, although KsgA was not as critical for ribosome biogenesis as it was shown to be in E. coli. Additionally, the ksgA knockout strain showed an increased sensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive KsgA mutant was deleterious in the knockout strain but not the wild-type strain; this negative phenotype disappeared at low temperature.
Conclusions
This work extends the study of KsgA, allowing comparison of this aspect of ribosome biogenesis between a Gram-negative and a Gram-positive organism. Our results in S. aureus are in contrast to results previously described in E. coli, where the catalytically inactive protein showed a negative phenotype in the presence or absence of endogenous KsgA.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-244
PMCID: PMC3534330  PMID: 23095113
KsgA; Ribosome biogenesis; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli; Methyltransferase
5.  Dissection of 16S rRNA Methyltransferase (KsgA) Function in Escherichia coli▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2007;189(23):8510-8518.
A 16S rRNA methyltransferase, KsgA, identified originally in Escherichia coli is highly conserved in all living cells, from bacteria to humans. KsgA orthologs in eukaryotes possess functions in addition to their rRNA methyltransferase activity. E. coli Era is an essential GTP-binding protein. We recently observed that KsgA functions as a multicopy suppressor for the cold-sensitive cell growth of an era mutant [Era(E200K)] strain (Q. Lu and M. Inouye, J. Bacteriol. 180:5243-5246, 1998). Here we observed that although KsgA(E43A), KsgA(G47A), and KsgA(E66A) mutations located in the S-adenosylmethionine-binding motifs severely reduced its methyltransferase activity, these mutations retained the ability to suppress the growth defect of the Era(E200K) strain at a low temperature. On the other hand, a KsgA(R248A) mutation at the C-terminal domain that does not affect the methyltransferase activity failed to suppress the growth defect. Surprisingly, E. coli cells overexpressing wild-type KsgA, but not KsgA(R248A), were found to be highly sensitive to acetate even at neutral pH. Such growth inhibition also was observed in the presence of other weak organic acids, such as propionate and benzoate. These chemicals are known to be highly toxic at acidic pH by lowering the intracellular pH. We found that KsgA-induced cells had increased sensitivity to extreme acid conditions (pH 3.0) compared to that of noninduced cells. These results suggest that E. coli KsgA, in addition to its methyltransferase activity, has another unidentified function that plays a role in the suppression of the cold-sensitive phenotype of the Era(E200K) strain and that the additional function may be involved in the acid shock response. We discuss a possible mechanism of the KsgA-induced acid-sensitive phenotype.
doi:10.1128/JB.01259-07
PMCID: PMC2168933  PMID: 17890303
6.  Structural rearrangements in the active site of the Thermus thermophilus 16S rRNA methyltransferase KsgA in a binary complex with 5’-methylthio-adenosine 
Journal of molecular biology  2009;388(2):271-282.
Post-transcriptional modification of ribosomal RNA occurs in all kingdoms of life. The S-adenosyl-L-me-thionine-dependent methyltransferase KsgA introduces the most highly conserved ribosomal RNA modification, the dimethylation of A1518 and A1519 of 16S rRNA. Loss of this dimethylation confers resistance to the antibiotic kasugamycin. Here, we report biochemical studies and high-resolution crystal structures of KsgA from Thermus thermophilus. Methylation of 30S ribosomal subunits by T. thermophilus KsgA is more efficient at low concentrations of magnesium ions suggesting that partially unfolded RNA is the preferred substrate. The overall structure is similar to other methyltransferases but contains an additional α-helix in a novel N-terminal extension. Comparison of the apo-enzyme with complex structures with 5’-methylthioadenosine or adenosine bound in the cofactor-binding site reveal novel features when compared to related enzymes. Several mobile loop regions are observed that restrict access to the cofactor-binding site. In addition, the orientation of residues in the substrate-binding site indicates that conformational changes are required for binding two adjacent residues of the substrate rRNA.
doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.02.066
PMCID: PMC2679894  PMID: 19285505
ribosome modification; 16S rRNA; 30S ribosomal subunit; rRNA methyltransferase; kasugamycin
7.  Mechanistic insight into the ribosome biogenesis functions of the ancient protein KsgA 
Molecular microbiology  2008;70(5):1062-1075.
Summary
While the general blueprint of ribosome biogenesis is evolutionarily conserved, most details have diverged considerably. A striking exception to this divergence is the universally conserved KsgA/Dim1p enzyme family, which modifies two adjacent adenosines in the terminal helix of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA). While localization of KsgA on 30S subunits (SSUs) and genetic interaction data have suggested that KsgA acts as a ribosome biogenesis factor, mechanistic details and a rationale for its extreme conservation are still lacking. To begin to address these questions we have characterized the function of E. coli KsgA in vivo using both a ksgA deletion strain and a methyltransferase deficient form of this protein. Our data reveals cold sensitivity and altered ribosomal profiles are associated with a ΔksgA genotype in E. coli. Our work also indicates that loss of KsgA alters 16S rRNA processing. These findings allow KsgAs role in SSU biogenesis to be integrated into the network of other identified factors. Moreover, a methyltransferase-inactive form of KsgA, which we show to be deleterious to cell growth, profoundly impairs ribosome biogenesis prompting discussion of KsgA as a possible anti-microbial drug target. These unexpected data suggest that methylation is a second layer of function for KsgA and that its critical role is as a supervisor of biogenesis of SSUs in vivo. These new findings and this proposed regulatory role offer a mechanistic explanation for the extreme conservation of the KsgA/Dim1p enzyme family.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06485.x
PMCID: PMC2709978  PMID: 18990185
KsgA; Dim1p; rRNA processing; ribosome biogenesis
8.  Structural analysis of kasugamycin inhibition of translation 
The prokaryotic ribosome is an important target of antibiotic action. We determined the X-ray structure of the aminoglycoside kasugamycin (Ksg) in complex with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome at 3.5-Å resolution. The structure reveals that the drug binds within the messenger RNA channel of the 30S subunit between the universally conserved G926 and A794 nucleotides in 16S ribosomal RNA, which are sites of Ksg resistance. To our surprise, Ksg resistance mutations do not inhibit binding of the drug to the ribosome. The present structural and biochemical results indicate that inhibition by Ksg and Ksg resistance are closely linked to the structure of the mRNA at the junction of the peptidyl-tRNA and exit-tRNA sites (P and E sites).
doi:10.1038/nsmb1150
PMCID: PMC2636691  PMID: 16998486
9.  Diversity of Substitutions within or Adjacent to Conserved Amino Acid Motifs of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2X in Cephalosporin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates 
The sequence of an approximately 1.1-kb DNA fragment of the pbp2x gene, which encodes the transpeptidase domain, was determined for 35 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae for which the cefotaxime (CTX) MICs varied. Strains with substitutions within a conserved amino acid motif changing STMK to SAFK and a Leu-to-Val change just before the KSG motif were highly resistant to CTX (MIC, ≧2 μg/ml). Strains with substitutions adjacent to SSN or KSG motifs had low-level resistance. The amino acid substitutions were plotted on the three-dimensional crystallographic structure of the transpeptidase domain of PBP2X. Transformants containing pbp2x from strains with high-level CTX resistance increased the CTX MIC from 0.016 μg/ml to 0.5 to 1.0 μg/ml.
PMCID: PMC89251  PMID: 10223944
10.  Transductional mapping of ksgB and a new Tn5-induced kasugamycin resistance gene, ksgD, in Escherichia coli K-12. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1981;145(2):914-919.
We have mapped the Escherichia coli ksgB gene to min 36.5, 0.8 min from man and 0.7 min from aroD. A new kasugamycin resistance (Ksgr) gene, ksgD, has been isolated, using a transposon, Tn5. ksgD::TN5 is 44% cotransducible with sbcA, unlinked to trp, and unlinked to man (by P1 transduction). The ksgD::Tn5 has a late time of entry from HfrB7 (PO43). These data place ksgD clockwise from sbcA (which enters early from HfrB7) at min 30.4. The reistance of ksgB ksgD single and double mutant strains has been quantitated. Single mutations, ksgB or ksgD, gave resistance to 600 micrograms of kasugamycin per ml, whereas a ksgB ksgD strain was able to grow in the presence of kasugamycin levels in excess of 3,000 micrograms/ml. This indicates that the mechanisms of resistance coded for by the two genes are independent and synergistic.
PMCID: PMC217198  PMID: 6257656
11.  Structural basis for S-adenosylmethionine binding and methyltransferase activity by mitochondrial transcription factor B1 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(16):7947-7959.
Eukaryotic transcription factor B (TFB) proteins are homologous to KsgA/Dim1 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methyltransferases. The mammalian TFB1, mitochondrial (TFB1M) factor is an essential protein necessary for mitochondrial gene expression. TFB1M mediates an rRNA modification in the small ribosomal subunit and thus plays a role analogous to KsgA/Dim1 proteins. This modification has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunctions leading to maternally inherited deafness, aminoglycoside sensitivity and diabetes. Here, we present the first structural characterization of the mammalian TFB1 factor. We have solved two X-ray crystallographic structures of TFB1M with (2.1 Å) and without (2.0 Å) its cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine. These structures reveal that TFB1M shares a conserved methyltransferase core with other KsgA/Dim1 methyltransferases and shed light on the structural basis of S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding and methyltransferase activity. Together with mutagenesis studies, these data suggest a model for substrate binding and provide insight into the mechanism of methyl transfer, clarifying the role of this factor in an essential process for mitochondrial function.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt547
PMCID: PMC3763538  PMID: 23804760
12.  The Gene for 16S rRNA Methyltransferase (ksgA) Functions as a Multicopy Suppressor for a Cold-Sensitive Mutant of Era, an Essential RAS-Like GTP-Binding Protein in Escherichia coli 
Journal of Bacteriology  1998;180(19):5243-5246.
Era, a Ras-like GTP-binding protein in Escherichia coli, has been shown to be essential for growth. However, its cellular functions still remain elusive. In this study, a genetic screening of an E. coli genomic library was performed to identify those genes which can restore the growth ability of a cold-sensitive mutant, Era(Cs) (E200K), at a restrictive temperature when expressed in a multicopy plasmid. Among eight suppressors isolated, six were located at 1 min of the E. coli genomic map, and the gene responsible for the suppression of Era(Cs) (E200K) was identified as the ksgA gene for 16S rRNA transmethylase, whose mutation causes a phenotype of resistance to kasugamycin, a translation initiation inhibitor. This is the first demonstration of suppression of impaired function of Era by overproduction of a functional enzyme. A possible mechanism of the suppression of the Era cold-sensitive phenotype by KsgA overproduction is discussed.
PMCID: PMC107565  PMID: 9748462
13.  Overexpression of RbfA in the absence of the KsgA checkpoint results in impaired translation initiation 
Molecular microbiology  2013;87(5):968-981.
Summary
KsgA, a universally conserved small ribosomal subunit (SSU) rRNA methyltransferase, has recently been shown to facilitate a checkpoint within the ribosome maturation pathway. Under standard growth conditions removal of the KsgA checkpoint has a subtle impact on cell growth, yet upon overexpresssion of RbfA, a ribosome maturation factor, KsgA becomes essential. Our results demonstrate the requirement of KsgA, in the presence of excess RbfA, for both the incorporation of ribosomal protein S21 to the developing SSU, and for final maturation of SSU rRNA. Also, when SSU biogenesis is perturbed by an imbalance in KsgA and RbfA, a population of 70S-like particles accumulate that are compositionally, functionally and structurally distinct from mature 70S ribosomes. Thus, our work suggests that KsgA and RbfA function together and are required for SSU maturation, and that additional checkpoints likely act to modulate malfunctional 70S particle formation in vivo.
doi:10.1111/mmi.12145
PMCID: PMC3583373  PMID: 23387871
KsgA; RbfA; rRNA processing; ribosome biogenesis; translation initiation
14.  Positive Growth Rate-Dependent Regulation of the pdxA, ksgA, and pdxB Genes of Escherichia coli K-12 
Journal of Bacteriology  2002;184(5):1359-1369.
We found that transcription of the pdxA and pdxB genes, which mediate steps in the biosynthesis of the essential coenzyme pyridoxal 5"-phosphate, and the ksgA gene, which encodes an rRNA modification enzyme and is partly cotranscribed with pdxA, is subject to positive growth rate regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. The amounts of the pdxA-ksgA cotranscript and pdxB- and ksgA-specific transcripts and expression from pdxA- and pdxB-lacZ fusions increased as the growth rate increased. The half-lives of ksgA- and pdxB-specific transcripts were not affected by the growth rate, whereas the half-life of the pdxA-ksgA cotranscript was too short to be measured accurately. A method of normalization was applied to determine the amount of mRNA synthesized per gene and the rate of protein accumulation per gene. Normalization removed an apparent anomaly at fast growth rates and demonstrated that positive regulation of pdxB occurs at the level of transcription initiation over the whole range of growth rates tested. RNA polymerase limitation and autoregulation could not account for the positive growth rate regulation of pdxA, pdxB, and ksgA transcription. On the other hand, growth rate regulation of the amount of the pdxA-ksgA cotranscript was abolished by a fis mutation, suggesting a role for the Fis protein. In contrast, the fis mutation had no effect on pdxB- or ksgA-specific transcript amounts. The amounts of the pdxA-ksgA cotranscript and ksgA-specific transcript were repressed in the presence of high intracellular concentrations of guanosine tetraphosphate; however, this effect was independent of relA function for the pdxA-ksgA cotranscript. Amounts of the pdxB-specific transcript remained unchanged during amino acid starvation in wild-type and relA mutant strains.
doi:10.1128/JB.184.5.1359-1369.2002
PMCID: PMC134838  PMID: 11844765
15.  Autogenous regulation of the Escherichia coli ksgA gene at the level of translation. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1989;171(7):4002-4008.
Various plasmids that contain the Escherichia coli ksgA gene, which encodes a 16S rRNA adenosine dimethyltransferase (methylase), were constructed. In one of these plasmids, the DNA encoding the N-terminal part of the methylase was fused to the lacZ gene, and in another construct, the ksgA gene contained a deletion which resulted in a truncated version of the methylase. When a cell contained one plasmid directing the synthesis of the intact, active methylase and another plasmid encoding the methylase-beta-galactosidase protein, production of the latter product became strongly reduced. Likewise, synthesis of the truncated version of the methylase was diminished when the cell at the same time contained a plasmid producing the complete enzyme. These results were partly substantiated by in vitro experiments with a coupled transcription-translation assay system. By using a recently developed gel electrophoresis system for measuring protein-nucleic acid interactions, a specific binding of the ksgA methylase with its own mRNA could be established. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the ksgA gene can be, at least partly, autogenously controlled at the level of translation.
Images
PMCID: PMC210154  PMID: 2500421
16.  Partial methylation of two adjacent adenosines in ribosomes from Euglena gracilis chloroplasts suggests evolutionary loss of an intermediate stage in the methyl-transfer reaction. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1984;12(23):9205-9208.
Bacterial, cytoplasmic and organellar ribosomes from a wide phylogenetic spectrum of organisms have a characteristic m6(2)Am6(2)A structure near the 3' end of the RNA of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU). We have studied one of the few exceptions to this extremely conserved post-transcriptionally modified sequence, i.e. dimethylation of only one of the two A's in chloroplasts from Euglena gracilis. It was established that only the A closest to the 5' end is dimethylated, the other one being unmodified. The methylation reaction was studied in vitro using ribosomes from a kasugamycin resistant mutant (ksgA) of Escherichia coli and purified methyl-transferase. Using limited amounts of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) a partial level of methylation (50% of control) was attained. It is shown that in this case the 3' proximal A is dimethylated while the other is not. This suggests that dimethylation takes place in two successive stages. Apparently in E. gracilis chloroplasts the first stage of methylation does not occur.
Images
PMCID: PMC320449  PMID: 6440121
17.  The Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Kanamycin Damages DNA Bases in Escherichia coli: Caffeine Potentiates the DNA-Damaging Effects of Kanamycin while Suppressing Cell Killing by Ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis 
The distribution of mutants in the Keio collection of Escherichia coli gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to the aminoglycosides kanamycin and neomycin indicates that damaged bases resulting from antibiotic action can lead to cell death. Strains lacking one of a number of glycosylases (e.g., AlkA, YzaB, Ogt, KsgA) or other specific repair proteins (AlkB, PhrB, SmbC) are more sensitive to these antibiotics. Mutants lacking AlkB display the strongest sensitivity among the glycosylase- or direct lesion removal-deficient strains. This perhaps suggests the involvement of ethenoadenine adducts, resulting from reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, since AlkB removes this lesion. Other sensitivities displayed by mutants lacking UvrA, polymerase V (Pol V), or components of double-strand break repair indicate that kanamycin results in damaged base pairs that need to be removed or replicated past in order to avoid double-strand breaks that saturate the cellular repair capacity. Caffeine enhances the sensitivities of these repair-deficient strains to kanamycin and neomycin. The gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to caffeine (dnaQ, holC, holD, and priA knockout mutants) indicate that caffeine blocks DNA replication, ultimately leading to double-strand breaks that require recombinational repair by functions encoded by recA, recB, and recC, among others. Additionally, caffeine partially protects cells of both Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis from killing by the widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00066-12
PMCID: PMC3370725  PMID: 22391551
18.  Structural and functional divergence within the Dim1/KsgA family of rRNA methyltransferases 
Journal of molecular biology  2009;391(5):884-893.
The enzymes of the KsgA/Dim1 family are universally distributed throughout all phylogeny; however, structural and functional differences are known to exist. The well-characterized function of these enzymes is to dimethylate two adjacent adenosines of the small ribosomal subunit in the normal course of ribosome maturation and the structures of KsgA from Escherichia coli and Dim1 from Homo sapiens and Plasmodium falciparum have been determined. To this point no examples of archaeal structures have been reported. Here we report the structure of Dim1 from the thermophilic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. While it shares obvious similarities with the bacterial and eukaryotic orthologs, notable structural differences exist among the three members, particularly in the C-terminal domain. Previous work showed that eukaryotic and archaeal Dim1 were able to robustly complement for KsgA in E. coli. Here we repeated similar experiments to test for complementarity of archaeal Dim1 and bacterial KsgA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, neither the bacterial nor the archaeal ortholog could complement for the eukaryotic Dim1. This might be related to the secondary, non-methyltransferase function that Dim1 is known to play in eukaryotic ribosomal maturation. To further delineate regions of the eukaryotic Dim1 critical to its function, we created and tested KsgA/Dim1 chimeras. Of the chimeras, only one constructed with the N-terminal domain from eukaryotic Dim1 and the C-terminal domain from archaeal Dim1 was able to complement, suggesting that eukaryotic-specific Dim1 function resides in the N-terminal domain also, where few structural differences are observed between members of the KsgA/Dim1 family. Future work is required to identify those determinants directly responsible for Dim1 function in ribosome biogenesis. Finally, we have conclusively established that none of the methyl groups are critically important to growth in yeast under standard conditions at a variety of temperatures.
doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.06.015
PMCID: PMC2753216  PMID: 19520088
Dim1; KsgA; Archaea; dimethyltransferase; rRNA methylation
19.  A Third Kasugamycin Resistance Locus, ksgC, Affecting Ribosomal Protein S2 in Escherichia coli K-12 
Journal of Bacteriology  1975;122(2):796-797.
A third kasugamycin-resistant mutant affecting ribosomal protein S2 has been isolated from Escherichia coli K-12. Mating and transduction revealed that this newly recognized kasugamycin resistance locus, designated as ksgC, is located at 0.1 to 0.2 min from purE.
PMCID: PMC246122  PMID: 1092672
20.  Complete Sequences of Six Penicillin-Binding Protein Genes from 40 Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Collected in Japan 
All six penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes, namely, pbp1a, pbp1b, pbp2a, pbp2b, pbp2x, and pbp3, of 40 Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates, including penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates collected in Japan, were completely sequenced. The MICs of penicillin for these strains varied between 0.015 and 8 μg/ml. In PBP 2X, the Thr550Ala mutation close to the KSG motif was observed in only 1 of 40 strains, whereas the Met339Phe mutation in the STMK motif was observed in six strains. These six strains were highly resistant (MICs ≧ 2 μg/ml) to cefotaxime. The MICs of cefotaxime for 27 strains bearing the Thr338Ala mutation tended to increase, but the His394Leu mutation next to the SSN motif did not exist in these strains. In PBP 2B, the Thr451Ala/Phe/Ser and Glu481Gly mutations close to the SSN motif were observed in 24 strains, which showed penicillin resistance and intermediate resistance, and the Thr624Gly mutation close to the KTG motif was observed in 2 strains for which the imipenem MIC (0.5 μg/ml) was the highest imipenem MIC detected. In PBP 1A, the Thr371Ser/Ala mutation in the STMK motif was observed in all 13 strains for which the penicillin MICs were ≧1 μg/ml. In PBP 2A, the Thr411Ala mutation in the STIK motif was observed in one strain for which with the cefotaxime MIC (8 μg/ml) was the highest cefotaxime MIC detected. On the other hand, in PBPs 1B and 3, no mutations associated with resistance were observed. The results obtained here support the concept that alterations in PBPs 2B, 2X, and 1A are mainly involved in S. pneumoniae resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Our findings also suggest that the Thr411Ala mutation in PBP 2A may be associated with β-lactam resistance.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.6.2244-2250.2004
PMCID: PMC415593  PMID: 15155228
21.  Genetic analysis of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1978;133(2):852-859.
The genetics of antibiotic resistance in mutant strains of Streptococcus pyrogenes was studied. Utilizing a type 6 strain (9440) primarily resistant to strepttomycin (Strr), classes of mutant strains were isolated that were resistant to one of the following antibiotics: rifampin (Rifr), erythromycin (Eryr), thiostrepton (Tstr), spiramycin (Sprr), fusidic acid (Fusr), gramicidin (Grcr), ethidium bromide (Ebrr), kanamycin (Kanr), neomycin (Neor), oleandomycin (Oler), gentamicin (Genr), and novobiocin (Novr). Transduction experiments separated antibiotic resistance markers into two distinct groups: transducible markers, including Fusr, Bacr, Ksg+, Spcr, Eryr, Sprr, Rifr, Stlr, and Tstr (Bacr, Ksgr, Spcr, and Stlr refer to resistance to bacitracin, kasugamycin, spectinomycin, and streptolydigan, respectively), and nontransducible markers, including Grcr, Ebrr, Kanr, Neor, Oler, Genr, and Novr. By means of two- and three-point crosses, transducible markers (excluding tst) were located in three separate linkage groups. spr was found to be linked with ery and spc in the order spc-ery-spr, whereas in a separate linkage group the order was determined to be str-fus-bac-ksg. The third linkage group contained the rif and stl markers.
PMCID: PMC222097  PMID: 342510
22.  Structural Basis for Binding of RNA and Cofactor by a KsgA Methyltransferase 
Summary
Among methyltransferases, KsgA and the reaction it catalyzes are conserved throughout evolution. However, the specifics of substrate recognition by the enzyme remain unknown. Here, we report structures of Aquifex aeolicus KsgA, in its ligand-free form, in complex with RNA and in complex with both RNA and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH, reaction product of cofactor S-adenosylmethionine), providing the first pieces of structural information on KsgA-RNA and KsgA-SAH interactions. Moreover, the structures show how conformational changes that occur upon RNA binding create the cofactor-binding site. There are nine conserved functional motifs (motifs I-VIII and X) in KsgA. Prior to RNA binding, motifs I and VIII are flexible, each exhibiting two distinct conformations. Upon RNA binding, the two motifs become stabilized in one of these conformations, which is compatible with the binding of SAH. Motif X, which is also stabilized upon RNA binding, is directly involved in the binding of SAH.
doi:10.1016/j.str.2009.01.010
PMCID: PMC2672589  PMID: 19278652
23.  Sequence and structural evolution of the KsgA/Dim1 methyltransferase family 
BMC Research Notes  2008;1:108.
Background
One of the 60 or so genes conserved in all domains of life is the ksgA/dim1 orthologous group. Enzymes from this family perform the same post-transcriptional nucleotide modification in ribosome biogenesis, irrespective of organism. Despite this common function, divergence has enabled some family members to adopt new and sometimes radically different functions. For example, in S. cerevisiae Dim1 performs two distinct functions in ribosome biogenesis, while human mtTFB is not only an rRNA methyltransferase in the mitochondria but also a mitochondrial transcription factor. Thus, these proteins offer an unprecedented opportunity to study evolutionary aspects of structure/function relationships, especially with respect to our recently published work on the binding mode of a KsgA family member to its 30S subunit substrate. Here we compare and contrast KsgA orthologs from bacteria, eukaryotes, and mitochondria as well as the paralogous ErmC enzyme.
Results
By using structure and sequence comparisons in concert with a unified ribosome binding model, we have identified regions of the orthologs that are likely related to gains of function beyond the common methyltransferase function. There are core regions common to the entire enzyme class that are associated with ribosome binding, an event required in rRNA methylation activity, and regions that are conserved in subgroups that are presumably related to non-methyltransferase functions.
Conclusion
The ancient protein KsgA/Dim1 has adapted to cellular roles beyond that of merely an rRNA methyltransferase. These results provide a structural foundation for analysis of multiple aspects of ribosome biogenesis and mitochondrial transcription.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-1-108
PMCID: PMC2614427  PMID: 18959795
24.  Overlap between pdxA and ksgA in the complex pdxA-ksgA-apaG-apaH operon of Escherichia coli K-12. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1989;171(9):4767-4777.
We report that pdxA, which is required for de novo biosynthesis of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and pyridoxal phosphate, belongs to an unusual, multifunctional operon. The pdxA gene was cloned in the same 3.5-kilobase BamHI-EcoRI restriction fragment that contains ksgA, which encodes the 16S rRNA modification enzyme m6(2)A methyltransferase, and apaH, which encodes diadenosine tetraphosphatase (ApppA hydrolase). Previously, Blanchin-Roland et al. showed that ksgA and apaH form a complex operon (Mol. Gen. Genet. 205:515-522, 1986). The pdxA gene was located on recombinant plasmids by subcloning, complementation, and insertion mutagenesis, and chromosomal insertions at five positions upstream from ksgA inactivated pdxA function. DNA sequence analysis and minicell translation experiments demonstrated that pdxA encoded a 35.1-kilodalton polypeptide and that the stop codon of pdxA overlapped the start codon of ksgA by 2 nucleotides. The translational start codon of pdxA was tentatively assigned based on polypeptide size and on the presence of a unique sequence that was also found near the translational start of PdxB. This conserved sequence may play a role in translational control of certain pyridoxine biosynthetic genes. RNase T2 mapping of chromosomal transcripts confirmed that pdxA and ksgA were members of the same complex operon, yet about half of ksgA transcripts arose in vivo under some culture conditions from an internal promoter mapped near the end of pdxA. Transcript analysis further suggested that pdxA is not the first gene in the operon. These structural features support the idea that pyridoxine-biosynthetic genes are members of complex operons, perhaps to interweave coenzyme biosynthesis genetically with other metabolic processes. The results are also considered in terms of ksgA expression.
Images
PMCID: PMC210278  PMID: 2670894
25.  Scintillation proximity assay for measurement of RNA methylation 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(4):e32.
Methylation of RNA by methyltransferases is a phylogenetically ubiquitous post-transcriptional modification that occurs most extensively in transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Biochemical characterization of RNA methyltransferase enzymes and their methylated product RNA or RNA–protein complexes is usually done by measuring the incorporation of radiolabeled methyl groups into the product over time. This has traditionally required the separation of radiolabeled product from radiolabeled methyl donor through a filter binding assay. We have adapted and optimized a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) to replace the more costly, wasteful and cumbersome filter binding assay and demonstrate its utility in studies of three distinct methyltransferases, RmtA, KsgA and ErmC’. In vitro, RmtA and KsgA methylate different bases in 16S rRNA in 30S ribosomal particles, while ErmC’ most efficiently methylates protein-depleted or protein-free 23S rRNA. This assay does not utilize engineered affinity tags that are often required in SPA, and is capable of detecting either radiolabeled RNA or RNA–protein complex. We show that this method is suitable for quantitating extent of RNA methylation or active RNA methyltransferase, and for testing RNA-methyltransferase inhibitors. This assay can be carried out with techniques routinely used in a typical biochemistry laboratory or could be easily adapted for a high throughput screening format.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkn1038
PMCID: PMC2651799  PMID: 19181706

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