Negative mood increases smoking reinforcement and may do so to a greater degree in smokers vulnerable to negative mood dysregulation.
Adult smokers (N = 71) without current depression were randomly assigned to one of two smoking conditions (nicotine or denic cigarettes, presented blind) maintained across all sessions. Subjects completed one neutral mood session and four negative mood induction sessions. Negative mood inductions included one each of the following: 1) overnight smoking abstinence, 2) challenging computer task, 3) public speech preparation, 4) watching negative mood slides. In each session, subjects took 4 puffs on their assigned cigarette, rated it for “liking” (reward), and then smoked those cigarettes ad libitum (reinforcement) during continued mood induction. Affect was assessed intermittently before and after smoking. Differences in responses were examined as functions of self-reported history of major depression and levels of distress tolerance and anxiety sensitivity.
Smoking reinforcement, but not reward or negative affect relief, was greater in all sessions in those with a history of depression and greater after overnight abstinence in those with lower distress tolerance. Reward and affect relief, but not reinforcement, were greater during speech preparation among those high in anxiety sensitivity.
Low distress tolerance may enhance acute smoking reinforcement due to abstinence, while depression history may broadly increase acute smoking reinforcement regardless of mood. Neither smoking reward nor affect help explain these individual differences in smoking reinforcement.
Smoking; Reinforcement; Nicotine; Depression history; Distress tolerance; Anxiety sensitivity; Negative affect; Mood; Withdrawal
This study investigated the independent and interactive effects of nicotine dose and nicotine dose expectancy on smoking outcomes using a 2 (given nicotine vs. placebo) × 2 (told nicotine vs. placebo) Balanced Placebo Design (BPD). Smokers (N = 148) completed the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task (RVIP) and measures of smoking urge, mood, and cigarette ratings (e.g., satisfying) after smoking a nicotine or placebo cigarette crossed with instructions that the cigarette contained either nicotine or no nicotine. Nicotine cigarettes (0.6 mg nicotine) produced better sustained attention performance than placebos as indicated by RVIP reaction time, hits, and sensitivity (A′). Nicotine cigarettes also produced better mood and greater rewarding subjective effects of the cigarettes on 11 of 11 dimensions compared to placebos. Nicotine instructions resulted in fewer RVIP false alarms, better mood, and greater rewarding subjective effects of the cigarettes on 9 of 11 dimensions compared to placebo instructions. Nicotine dose by nicotine dose expectancy interactions were also observed for urge and tension-anxiety, such that the dose expectancy manipulation produced differential effects only among those who smoked placebo cigarettes. In contrast a significant interaction for self-reported vigor-activity demonstrated that the dose expectancy manipulation produced effects only among those who smoked nicotine cigarettes. This study provides additional evidence that nicotine improves cognitive performance, and provides initial evidence that denicotinized cigarettes smoked under the guise that they contain nicotine influence cognitive performance, albeit with less robust effects than nicotine. These data may inform the development of expectancy-based interventions for tobacco dependence.
smoking; expectancies; placebo; nicotine; cognitive performance
Prior studies have demonstrated that both nicotine administration and cigarette smoking lead to dopamine (DA) release in the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens. In tobacco-dependent individuals, smoking denicotinized cigarettes leads to reduced craving, but less pleasure, than smoking regular cigarettes. Using denicotinized cigarettes and 11C-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, we sought to determine if nicotine is necessary for smoking-induced DA release. Sixty-two tobacco-dependent smokers underwent 11C-raclopride PET scanning, during which they smoked either a regular or denicotinized cigarette (double-blind). Change in 11C-raclopride binding potential (BP) in the ventral striatum from before to after smoking was determined as an indirect measure of DA release. Cigarette craving, anxiety, and mood were monitored during scanning. Smoking a regular cigarette resulted in a significantly greater mean reduction in ventral striatal 11C-raclopride BP than smoking a denicotinized cigarette. Although both groups had reductions in craving and anxiety with smoking, the regular cigarette group had a greater improvement in mood. For the total group, change in BP correlated inversely with change in mood, indicating that greater smoking-induced DA release was associated with more smoking-related mood improvement. Thus, nicotine delivered through cigarette smoking appears to be important for ventral striatal DA release. Study findings also suggest that mood improvement from smoking is specifically related to ventral striatal DA release.
dopamine; nicotine; tobacco; ventral striatum; positron emission tomography; 11C-raclopride
Negative mood situations often increase smoking behavior and reward, effects that may be greater among women and smokers low in tolerance for distress.
Adult dependent smokers (N = 164; 86 men, 78 women) first completed measures of distress tolerance via self-report and by mirror-tracing and breath-holding tasks. They then participated in 2 virtually identical laboratory sessions, involving induction of negative versus neutral mood (control) via pictorial slides and music. They rated negative affect (NA) before and during mood induction and smoked their preferred brand ad libitum during the last 14 min of mood induction. Our aim was to examine mood effects on NA, smoking reward (“liking”), and smoking intake (puff volume and number) as a function of sex and distress tolerance.
Negative mood induction increased NA, as planned, and smoking reward and intake compared with neutral mood. Increases in NA and puff volume due to negative mood were greater in women compared with men, as hypothesized, but no main effects of the self-report or behavioral distress tolerance measures were seen in responses to mood induction. However, unexpectedly, lower self-reported distress tolerance was associated with greater smoking intake due to negative (but not neutral) mood in men and generally due to neutral (but not negative) mood in women.
Negative mood may increase smoking intake more in women compared with men. Yet, low distress tolerance may enhance smoking intake due to negative versus neutral mood differentially between women and men, suggesting that sex and distress tolerance may interact to influence smoking responses to negative mood.
Acute smoking behavior (i.e., puff topography) and subjective responses during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette in the laboratory may provide useful measures of smoking reinforcement and reward, respectively. However, the reliability of such measures is not clear, leaving uncertain the utility of a single assessment of smoking behavior as an individual difference measure.
Dependent smokers (N = 94) smoked normally prior to each of 4 laboratory sessions during which they were instructed to smoke 1 cigarette of their preferred brand in ad libitum and unblinded fashion and then rate it for subjective effects. Puff topography (puff number, total volume, and maximum volume) was assessed via portable Clinical Research Support System device. Subjective reward and perception were assessed by visual analog scales of “liking” and “how strong,” respectively. The reliability of puff topography and subjective measures was determined across days by intra-class correlations (ICCs). Differences due to sex and nicotine dependence (high and low Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score) were also examined.
Reliability was highly significant for each measure. ICCs were .70 for total puff volume, .60 for maximum puff volume, .73 for puff number, .64 for liking, and .78 for how strong. Reliability generally did not differ by sex or dependence, but absolute values for total volume and maximum puff volume were greater in men and in high dependent smokers. Liking was also greater in high dependent smokers.
Puff topography and subjective measures during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette are highly reliable. Smoking responses during a single ad lib smoking session may be useful in identifying stable individual differences in smoking reinforcement and reward.
We recently showed effects of nicotine dose and nicotine expectancy on some responses to cigarette smoking, with generally no influence of induced mood on these effects. The present study extended this line of research to Nicotrol nasal spray, to determine whether formulation (spray vs. smoking) alters responses.
Smokers abstained overnight before each of two virtually identical sessions, involving negative or positive mood induction. They were randomized to one of five groups, four comprising the 2 × 2 balanced placebo design, varying actual and expected dose of nicotine in the nasal spray, and the fifth group a no-spray control. Dependent measures included self-reported affect, craving, withdrawal, and spray ratings of “liking” and “how much nicotine.” Analyses were limited to those whose nicotine expectancies were manipulated successfully (N = 48).
The following results matched those from our smoking study: expecting nicotine increased liking; expected, but not actual, nicotine dose increased dose perception; neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on affect or withdrawal; and mood had no influence on these effects. However, both actual and expected nicotine dose decreased craving in response to spray, contrary to our prior study with smoking.
Formulation made little difference in some effects of nicotine and expectancies, but other effects differed by formulation. Some of these findings, particularly for craving reduction, may have implications for enhancing the acute therapeutic effects of nasal spray and, perhaps, other medications in smokers trying to maintain abstinence after quitting.
Smoking is significantly associated with negative affect, which may play an especially important role in the smoking behavior of women. The purpose of this laboratory study was to examine the role of gender in the relationship of negative mood and smoking maintenance for male and female smokers following an implicit mood induction using music.
Ninety adult smokers (50% female) completed a laboratory session during which they were randomly assigned to a negative mood induction, a positive mood induction, or a neutral mood condition. Latency to smoke and number of cigarettes smoked were assessed during an ad libitumsmoking period following the mood induction.
Female smokers began smoking more quickly following the negative mood induction when compared with males. There were no gender differences in the number of cigarettes smoked or for cravings to smoke by mood condition.
This study demonstrated gender differences in the relationship between negative affect and smoking behavior following an implicit and subtle mood manipulation. A better understanding of gender differences in smoking behavior can provide valuable information about mechanisms that maintain smoking behavior and guide treatment development to help adults quit smoking.
Puffs from cigarettes are the fundamental unit of smoking reward. Here, we examined the extent to which reward from puffs can be derived from the airway sensory effect of nicotine, in the absence of a direct central nervous system effect of nicotine. We did this by assessing the self-reported reward obtained from individual puffs from nicotinized, denicotinized and unlit cigarettes within 7 s of inhalation, which is before nicotine had an opportunity to reach the brain. We also assessed the self-reported strength of airway sensations elicited by the puffs. We found that nicotinized puffs were rated as both stronger and more rewarding than denicotinized and unlit puffs. We also found that the extent to which nicotine elicited reward was directly correlated with the extent to which nicotine elicited airway sensations. This indicates that the airway sensory effects of nicotine contribute to the reward from puffs, above and beyond the reward derived from the airway sensory effects of non-nicotine constituents. These findings have implications for the interpretation of studies that use puffs as experimental units to examine nicotine reward. They also have implications for the use of denicotinized and low nicotine cigarettes as aids to smoking cessation.
Cigarette smoking; Nicotine; Denicotinized cigarettes; Reward; Hedonic impact; Conditioned reinforcement; Airway sensation
The perception that smoking relieves negative affect contributes to smoking persistence. Endogenous opioid neurotransmission, and the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) in particular, plays a role in affective regulation and is modulated by nicotine.
We examined the relationship of µ-opioid receptor binding availability in the amygdala to the motivation to smoke for negative affect relief and to the acute effects of smoking on affective responses.
Twenty-two smokers were scanned on two separate occasions after overnight abstinence using [11C]carfentanil positron emission tomography imaging: after smoking a nicotine-containing cigarette and after smoking a denicotinized cigarette. Self-reports of smoking motives were collected at baseline, and measures of positive and negative affect were collected pre- and post- cigarette smoking.
Higher MOR availability in the amygdala was associated with motivation to smoke to relieve negative affect. However, MOR availability was unrelated to changes in affect after smoking either cigarette.
Increased MOR availability in amygdala may underlie the motivation to smoke for negative affective relief. These results are consistent with previous data highlighting the role of µ-opioid receptor neurotransmission in smoking behavior.
Smoking motivation; µ-opioid receptor; amygdala; affect regulation
Sensorimotor smoking stimuli are important determinants of cigarette use. The present study aimed to determine whether denicotinized cigarettes lose their reinforcing and/or subjective effects over a 9-day outpatient period when they are smoked with or without concurrent transdermal nicotine. After a preferred brand baseline, 68 participants were randomized into one of four conditions based on the dose (mg) of transdermal nicotine and the type of cigarettes (dose/cigarette): 0/nicotine, 0/denicotinized, 7/denicotinized, and 21/denicotinized. Under placebo patch conditions, participants smoked a similar number of nicotine and denicotinized cigarettes and no group differences emerged over repeated testing. The total volume of smoke inhaled was lower in the denicotinized group, although this decrease dissipated over time. Denicotinized cigarettes were rated as having low positive and high negative subjective effects. Compared to placebo, transdermal nicotine decreased the number of denicotinized cigarette smoked, produced a lasting decrease in the total volume of denicotinized cigarette smoke inhaled, but had little effect on the subjective effects of denicotinized cigarettes. Transdermal nicotine attenuated withdrawal during initial smoking abstinence; however, once participants were allowed to smoke withdrawal symptoms were relatively low regardless of patch condition. The persistent use of denicotinized cigarettes may result from the presence of nicotine withdrawal and/or the degree to which smoking becomes somewhat independent of the outcome of the behavior (i.e., habit learning). Additional studies would be useful to determine what factors drive continued use of denicotinized cigarettes, whether their use subsides as withdrawal dissipates, and whether they address motives for smoking distinct from current pharmacotherapy.
conditioning; nicotine replacement therapy; treatment; addiction; dependence; smoking
The airway sensations stimulated by smoking are an important source of hedonic impact (pleasure) for dependent smokers. The learning process by which these sensations become pleasurable is not well understood. The classical conditioning model predicts that airway sensory stimulation will elicit sympathetic arousal that is positively correlated with the hedonic impact that is elicited by airway sensory stimulation. To test this prediction, we measured skin conductance responses (SCRs) and subjective hedonic impact elicited by a series of individual puffs from nicotinized, denicotinized and unlit cigarettes. Nicotinized puffs elicited more subjective hedonic impact than denicotinized and unlit puffs partly as a result of the fact that they provided a greater level of airway sensory stimulation. We found that SCRs were not larger for nicotinized puffs than for denicotinized puffs, but that they were larger for both nicotinized and denicotinized puffs than for unlit puffs. We also found that the average SCR of a subject to denicotinized puffs was positively correlated with the average hedonic impact that a subject obtained from denicotinized puffs. Together, this suggests that SCR magnitude does not reflect within-subject variations in hedonic impact that are due to variations in the level of airway sensory stimulation, but that it does reflect individual differences in the amount of hedonic impact that is derived from a given level of airway sensory stimulation. The results of a post hoc correlation analysis suggest that these individual differences may have been due to variations in the prevailing urge to smoke. The implications of these findings for the classical conditioning model, as well as for other learning models, are discussed.
Skin conductance response (SCR); Airway sensory effects; Nicotinized puffs; Denicotinized puffs; Unlit puffs; Cigarette
Previous laboratory research suggests that stress and anxiety increase smoking motivation and are attenuated by smoking. There is little experimental data, however, on the relationship between depressed or sad mood and smoking. This study investigated if induced sadness would have a differential effect on smoking behavior compared to a neutral mood state. Baseline depression scores were examined as a potential moderator of this relationship. Mood changes were also tested as a potential mediator. Smokers (N = 121) were randomly assigned to receive either a sad mood induction or a neutral mood induction via standardized film clips. There were interactive effects of depression scores and condition on smoking behavior in that smoking duration and the number of cigarette puffs were greater in response to the sad condition among participants with higher depression scores. There was also a marginal interactive effect on the change in expired air carbon monoxide among this subsample, however, no differences in latency to smoke, or craving were observed. The changes in positive mood appeared to partially mediate the effect of condition on smoking behavior among participants with high depression scores. There was no significant modifying effect of gender or mediating effect of negative mood changes. The results provide preliminary support that decreases in positive mood may have a greater influence on smoking behavior among depression prone smokers than less psychiatrically vulnerable smokers.
Smoking; depression; negative mood; positive mood; mood induction
Differentiation among American cigarettes relies primarily on the use of proprietary tobacco blends, menthol, tobacco substitutes, paper porosity, paper additives, and filter ventilation. These characteristics substantially alter per cigarette yields of tar and nicotine in standardized protocols promulgated by government agencies. However, due to compensatory alterations in smoking behavior to sustain a preferred nicotine dose (e.g., by increasing puff frequency, inhaling more deeply, smoking more cigarettes per day, or blocking filter ventilation holes), smokers actually inhale similar amounts of tar and nicotine regardless of any cigarette variable, supporting epidemiological evidence that all brands have comparable disease risk. Consequently, itwould be advantageous to develop assays that realistically compare cigarette smoke (CS)-induced genotoxicity regardless of differences in cigarette construction or smoking behavior. One significant indicator of potentially carcinogenicDNA damage is double strand breaks (DSBs), which can be monitored by measuring Ser 139 phosphorylation on histone H2AX. Previouslywe showed that phosphorylation of H2AX (defined as γH2AX) in exposed lung cells is proportional to CS dose. Thus, we proposed that γH2AX may be a viable biomarker for evaluating genotoxic risk of cigarettes in relation to actual nicotine/tar delivery. Here we tested this hypothesis by measuring γH2AX levels in A549 human lung cells exposed to CS from a range of commercial cigarettes using various smoking regimens. Results show that γH2AX induction, a critical event of the mammalian DNA damage response, provides an assessment of CS-induced DNA damage independent of smoking topography or cigarette type. We conclude that γH2AX induction shows promise as a genotoxic bioassay offering specific advantages over the traditional assays for the evaluation of conventional and nonconventional tobacco products.
Tobacco smoke; H2AX; Double strand breaks; DNA damage
Little is known about overall or gender-specific factors that may influence the relationship between negative affect and smoking behavior such as smoking expectancies. This paper presents a secondary analysis from a laboratory studying gender differences in smoking behavior following a musical mood induction [Weinberger, A.H., & McKee, S.A., 2012, Gender differences in smoking following an implicit mood induction. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 14(5), 621–625]. The current analyses examine the role of expectancies (endorsement and accessibility) in the relationship of gender, affect, and smoking. Ninety adult smokers (50% female) were randomly assigned to a negative mood induction, positive mood induction, or neutral condition while completing a single laboratory session. Expectancy endorsement, expectancy accessibility, affect, and smoking topography were assessed following the mood induction. Female smokers with faster accessibility of negative reinforcement expectancies smoked more cigarettes, had longer puff durations, and had shorter inter-puff intervals. Women with faster expectancy accessibility were also more likely to endorse negative reinforcement smoking expectancies. This study was the first to demonstrate links among gender, mood, and accessibility of smoking-related beliefs. Information about the role of expectancy accessibility in smoking behavior can lead to both a better understanding of gender-specific mechanisms of smoking behavior and new directions for smoking treatment development.
expectancies; accessibility; smoking; negative affect; gender
Variables of smoking were measured when subjects smoked the first cigarette of the day after an eight- to 10-hour period of abstinence. The cigarettes smoked had high, medium, or low nicotine yields but the tar and carbon monoxide yields, taste, and draw characteristics remained constant. The number of puffs and interval between puffs did not differ between nicotine doses. The smokers took larger puffs, however, when smoking cigarettes delivering lower nicotine yields than their normal brands. This change in the size of puff must be attributed to the change in nicotine yield since all other characteristics of the cigarettes remained constant. Thus encouraging the smoking of low-nicotine cigarettes may increase exposure to combustion products and not appreciably decrease exposure to nicotine, since the smokers increased the size of their puffs in response to the decreased nicotine yield.
Negative affect is an important predictor of smoking behavior, and many smokers believe that smoking reduces negative affect. However, it is unclear whether such beliefs, known as negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies (NRSOE), are associated with changes in negative affect in response to nicotine deprivation and administration.
Smokers (N = 114) participated in 4 sessions that balanced overnight smoking deprivation (12-hr deprived vs. ad lib) and nasal spray administration (nicotine vs. placebo). Corrugator supercilii (COR) EMG, skin conductance (SCR), and in-session ratings were collected while the participants viewed affective, cigarette-related, and neutral slides. Retrospective questionnaire data were collected prior to slide viewing. NRSOE were determined using the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult Nicotine Affect Reduction scale (SCQ-NAR).
High scores on the SCQ-NAR were associated with smaller COR EMG to unpleasant slides following nicotine nasal spray administration compared to placebo spray, regardless of overnight deprivation. Smokers who had high scores on the SCQ-NAR had smaller SCR, following nicotine nasal spray administration compared to placebo spray, but only after overnight deprivation. The in-session ratings and retrospective questionnaire measures indicated that smokers who had high scores on the SCQ-NAR experienced greater negative affect and craving, and less positive affect, than smokers with low scores on the SCQ-NAR, regardless of nicotine exposure.
Our questionnaire results suggest that while smokers who have high NRSOE self-report greater overall levels of negative affect and craving, while the psychophysiological data suggest that such smokers may experience negative affect reduction when blindly administered a dose of nicotine.
smoking; expectancy; negative affect; reinforcement; corrugator EMG; skin conductance
The study investigated the effects of smoking a nicotinized or denicotinized cigarette on craving, affect and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms while recalling neutral, stressful and traumatic events in smokers with and without PTSD. Smokers completed laboratory sessions during which they were presented with audiotapes of personalized scripts followed by smoking a cigarette. The effect of the script and cigarette conditions on dependent variables was evaluated. There was a main effect of script type across groups for smoking craving, negative affect and PTSD symptoms, with increased symptoms in trauma and stressful conditions. Responses were significantly higher in PTSD smokers. Smoking either cigarette type resulted in decreased craving, negative affect and PTSD symptoms in both groups. A second script presentation following smoking elicited similar responses, suggesting the ameliorative effect of having smoked a cigarette was short-lived. These results support that context and non-pharmacologic effects of smoking are important variables in smoking craving and mood, particularly in smokers with PTSD.
smoking; PTSD; context
Women are more likely than men to relapse after initiating abstinence from cigarette smoking. The reasons for this phenomenon are unclear but may relate to negative mood, cigarette craving, or other symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. We addressed this issue in a study of 26 female and 38 male smokers. The Profile of Mood States, Shiffman–Jarvik Withdrawal Scale, and Urge to Smoke Scale were administered twice in each of two test sessions on different days. One session began within 1 hr after smoking ad libitum and the other followed overnight abstinence (>13 hr). On each test day, the two assessment blocks were separated by a 5–10-min break, during which each participant smoked one cigarette. In the first test block, both men and women reported higher scores after >13 hr abstinence than after <1 hr abstinence on the tension–anxiety and anger–hostility subscales of the Profile of Mood States, and for the craving and psychological symptoms of the Shiffman–Jarvik Withdrawal Scale. Scores of female subjects showed significantly larger differences between sessions on the tension–anxiety subscale and a trend toward significance (p=.050) on the anger–hostility subscale of Profile of Mood States than those of males. Moreover, on the tension–anxiety subscale, women also reported a greater reduction than men from smoking one cigarette after overnight abstinence. The findings indicate that overnight abstinence produces more negative mood symptoms and cigarette craving in female smokers than in males, and that resumption of smoking produces greater relief from these symptoms in female smokers. These differences may contribute to the greater likelihood of relapse when women try to quit smoking.
Smoking cessation interventions often target expectancies about the consequences of smoking. Yet little is known about the way smoking-related expectancies vary across different contexts. Two internal contexts that are often linked with smoking relapse are states associated with smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption. This report presents a secondary analysis of data from two experiments designed to examine the influence of smoking abstinence, and smoking abstinence combined with alcohol consumption, on smoking-related outcome expectancies among heavy smokers and tobacco chippers (smokers who had consistently smoked no more than 5 cigarettes/day for at least 2 years). Across both experiments, smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption increased expectancies of positive reinforcement from smoking. In addition, alcohol consumption increased negative reinforcement expectancies among tobacco chippers, such that the expectancies became more similar to those of heavy smokers as tobacco chippers’ level of subjective alcohol intoxication increased. Findings suggest that these altered states influence the way smokers evaluate the consequences of smoking, and provide insight into the link between smoking abstinence, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior.
To address the public health problems caused by smoking, researchers have suggested a gradual reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes. There remain concerns, however, about the potential for smokers to compensate for reductions in nicotine content by altering their smoking behavior. Such compensatory behaviors may negate any potential cessation and/or harm reduction benefits.
The purpose of this study was to quantify smoking behavior (e.g., puff number, volume, duration, inter-puff interval, and peak flow) in response to cigarettes varying only in nicotine content, administered repeatedly.
Sixty-seven dependent smokers participated in this two session, within-subject study. Moderate nicotine content and placebo cigarettes (Quest© brand) were administered in a double-blind and counterbalanced manner. Each session required 12-hours of tobacco abstinence, and included four ad lib smoking bouts of the condition-assigned cigarette with 40 minutes separating each bout.
Placebo cigarettes produced increases in total puff volume and duration and decreases in total inter-puff interval relative to cigarettes with moderate nicotine content. Differences in total puff volume and duration generally dissipated across smoking bouts, with differences in total puff volume non-existent by the 3rd and 4th bouts.
Placebo cigarettes produce compensatory smoking during initial exposures; however, these effects appear to be short lived. These findings are consistent with previous work where smoking compensation has been observed in response to a single cigarette but not over several days of smoking.
Smoking; topography; compensation; nicotine; extinction
Nineteen nicotine-deprived cigarette smokers received monetary rewards for each minute they choose not to initiate smoking in 2-hour laboratory sessions followed by a 30-min period of enforced abstinence from smoking. Reinforcer amounts were delivered according to one of three schedules: increasing, decreasing, and constant. Relapse time (time until first smoke) was shortest in the decreasing condition, longest in the increasing condition, and intermediate in the constant condition. All differences were significant except in the constant-decreasing comparison. The relationships between a battery of baseline assessments and relapse times were examined. Relapse times were predicted by delay-discounting coefficients (k) for $10 and $1000 in money, and for $1000 of cigarettes. Relapse times were also predicted by the number of cigarettes smoked daily and a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test score. Performance on the Stroop Task and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence differentiated participants dichotomized into those who relapsed “earlier” in sessions versus those who first smoked “later.” Variability on some scores from smoking-urges and affect questionnaires administered after smoking-room sessions was explained by measures related to in-session nicotine intake. Results are discussed as they relate to contingency-management procedures, predictors of relapse, and the competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory of addiction.
laboratory model; smoking relapse; smoking abstinence; contingency management; delay discounting; delay gratification; Stroop task; impulsivity; executive function; human
High trait hostility is associated with persistent cigarette smoking. To better understand mechanisms that may account for this association, we examined the effects of acute smoking abstinence and delayed versus immediate smoking reinstatement on responses to a social stressor among 48 low hostile (LH) and 48 high hostile (HH) smokers. Participants completed two laboratory sessions, one before which they had smoked ad lib and one before which they had abstained for the prior 12 hours. During each session, participants completed a stressful speaking task and then smoked immediately after the stressor or after a 15-minute delay. The effect of immediate vs. delayed smoking reinstatement on recovery in negative mood was significantly moderated by hostility. When reinstatement was delayed, HH participants showed significant increases in negative mood over time, whereas LH participants showed little change. When reinstatement was immediate, HH and LH smokers showed similar significant decreases in negative mood. Smoking abstinence did not moderate hostility effects. Cigarette smoking may prevent continuing increases in negative mood following social stress in HH smokers, which may partially explain their low rates of quitting.
smoking; hostility; social stress; personality; negative mood
The effects of income (money available to spend during the experimental session) on human choice were examined in a concurrent-schedule arrangement. Subjects were 7 nicotine-dependent smokers, and reinforcers were puffs on the subject's usual brand of cigarette ("own") and puffs on a less preferred brand of cigarette with equal nicotine content ("other"). Across sessions, income varied and the price of the two reinforcers was held constant, with the other puffs one fifth the price of the own puffs. As income increased, consumption of own puffs increased while consumption of the less expensive other puffs decreased. These effects of income on choice were highly consistent across subjects. For some subjects, however, income had little effect on total puff consumption. Finally, an additional condition examined whether price and income manipulations would have functionally equivalent effects on choice by repeating an income condition in which the price of the other brand was increased. Although the increased price of the other puffs decreased their consumption in 4 subjects, 2 subjects showed increased consumption of the other puffs at the higher price. The results, when defined in economic terms, indicate that the own puffs were a normal good (consumption and income are directly related), the other puffs were an inferior good (consumption and income are inversely related), and the direct relationship between consumption of the other puffs and their price is defined as a Giffengood effect. The latter result also suggests that for these 2 subjects, price and income manipulations had equivalent effects on choice. These results extend findings from previous studies that have examined the effects of income on choice responding to human subjects and drug reinforcers, and provide a framework for further experimental tests of the effects of income on human choice behavior. Methodological and theoretical implications for the study of choice and for behavioral pharmacology are discussed.
Although alcohol and nicotine administration studies have demonstrated that manipulating subjects’ expectancies regarding drug content affects drug response, research with marijuana has not adequately studied drug expectancy effects. The present pilot study was the first to evaluate the credibility and effect of expectancy manipulation on subjective measures and smoking patterns using a marijuana administration balanced-placebo design (BPD). In a 2 × 2 instructional set (told delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] vs. told no THC) by drug (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, the authors examined the effect of marijuana expectancy manipulation and the pharmacologic effect on affective and physiologic measures, cigarette ratings, and smoking behavior with 20 marijuana smokers (mean age = 20 years; 25% female). Large main effects of expectancy were found on ratings of cigarette potency, strength, taste, smell, and satisfaction, and observed smoking behavior. Pharmacologic effects were particularly evident for self-reported physical reactions to marijuana and cigarette potency and satisfaction ratings. This study demonstrated the feasibility of the BPD research with marijuana and yielded promising results for future studies examining the independent and combined effects of marijuana pharmacology and expectancies.
marijuana; cannabis; placebo; expectancy; drug
Magnitude of mood change following smoking may be an important reinforcing effect in smoking escalation in adolescent smokers. This study used ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of adolescent smokers’ reports of mood during smoking events to examine (a) whether global reports of negative affect (NA) expectancies were associated with in-the-moment magnitude of negative and positive mood change following smoking, (b) the possibility of a reciprocal feedback loop between global NA expectancies and acute mood change following smoking, and (c) whether this relationship generalizes to other expectancies and mood change.
Participants were 234 9th and 10th graders (54% female) who recorded at least one smoking event during 7 days of EMA data collection.
Global reports of NA expectancies were significantly associated with the in-the-moment magnitude of changes in mood following smoking. Specifically, higher NA expectancies were associated with greater decreases in negative and greater increases in positive mood. Additionally, mood change following smoking predicted changes in NA expectancies but only for adolescents who continued to smoke 6 months later. The reciprocal feedback loop between expectancies and mood change was only present in adolescent smokers who continued to smoke over time. Findings indicated that this relationship is specific to NA expectancies and negative and positive mood change.
These results highlight the importance of considering NA expectancies and mood changes following smoking in adolescent smokers. Assessing expectancies about NA relief may provide an opportunity for identifying and intervening on adolescents who may be most at risk for continuing to smoke.