InterPro is an integrated resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, including an additional reading field, new database links, extensions to the web interface and additional match XML files. InterPro has always provided matches to UniProtKB proteins on the website and in the match XML file on the FTP site. Additional matches to proteins in UniParc (UniProt archive) are now available for download in the new match XML files only. The latest InterPro release (13.0) contains more than 13 000 entries, covering over 78% of all proteins in UniProtKB. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (), and for download by anonymous FTP (). The InterProScan search tool is now also available via a web service at .
The InterPro BioMart provides users with query-optimized access to predictions of family classification, protein domains and functional sites, based on a broad spectrum of integrated computational models (‘signatures’) that are generated by the InterPro member databases: Gene3D, HAMAP, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. These predictions are provided for all protein sequences from both the UniProt Knowledge Base and the UniParc protein sequence archive. The InterPro BioMart is supplementary to the primary InterPro web interface (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), providing a web service and the ability to build complex, custom queries that can efficiently return thousands of rows of data in a variety of formats. This article describes the information available from the InterPro BioMart and illustrates its utility with examples of how to build queries that return useful biological information.
Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/biomart/martview.
InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one comprehensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually integrated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in a single format that rationalises the results that would be obtained by searching the member databases individually. The latest release of InterPro contains 5629 entries describing 4280 families, 1239 domains, 95 repeats and 15 post-translational modifications. Currently, the combined signatures in InterPro cover more than 74% of all proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL, an increase of nearly 15% since the inception of InterPro. New features of the database include improved searching capabilities and enhanced graphical user interfaces for visualisation of the data. The database is available via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro) and anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro).
InterPro amalgamates predictive protein signatures from a number of well-known partner databases into a single resource. To aid with interpretation of results, InterPro entries are manually annotated with terms from the Gene Ontology (GO). The InterPro2GO mappings are comprised of the cross-references between these two resources and are the largest source of GO annotation predictions for proteins. Here, we describe the protocol by which InterPro curators integrate GO terms into the InterPro database. We discuss the unique challenges involved in integrating specific GO terms with entries that may describe a diverse set of proteins, and we illustrate, with examples, how InterPro hierarchies reflect GO terms of increasing specificity. We describe a revised protocol for GO mapping that enables us to assign GO terms to domains based on the function of the individual domain, rather than the function of the families in which the domain is found. We also discuss how taxonomic constraints are dealt with and those cases where we are unable to add any appropriate GO terms. Expert manual annotation of InterPro entries with GO terms enables users to infer function, process or subcellular information for uncharacterized sequences based on sequence matches to predictive models.
http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro. The complete InterPro2GO mappings are available at: ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/GO/goa/external2go/interpro2go
Signature databases are vital tools for identifying distant relationships
in novel sequences and hence for inferring protein function. InterPro
is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains
and functional sites, which amalgamates the efforts of the PROSITE,
PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Each InterPro entry includes
a functional description, annotation, literature references and
links back to the relevant member database(s). Release 2.0 of InterPro
(October 2000) contains over 3000 entries, representing families, domains,
repeats and sites of post-translational modification encoded by
a total of 6804 different regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints
and Hidden Markov Models. Each InterPro entry lists all the matches
against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (more than 1 000 000 hits from 462
500 proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL). The database is accessible
for text- and sequence-based searches at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/.
Questions can be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is a database that integrates diverse information about protein families, domains and functional sites, and makes it freely available to the public via Web-based interfaces and services. Central to the database are diagnostic models, known as signatures, against which protein sequences can be searched to determine their potential function. InterPro has utility in the large-scale analysis of whole genomes and meta-genomes, as well as in characterizing individual protein sequences. Herein we give an overview of new developments in the database and its associated software since 2009, including updates to database content, curation processes and Web and programmatic interfaces.
The CluSTr (Clusters of SWISS-PROT
and TrEMBL proteins) database offers an automatic
classification of SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL proteins into groups of related
proteins. The clustering is based on analysis of all pairwise comparisons
between protein sequences. Analysis has been carried out for different
levels of protein similarity, yielding a hierarchical organisation of
clusters. The database provides links to InterPro, which integrates
information on protein families, domains and functional sites from
PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom. Links to the InterPro graphical
interface allow users to see at a glance whether proteins from the
cluster share particular functional sites. CluSTr also provides
cross-references to HSSP and PDB. The database is available for
querying and browsing at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/clustr.
The EMBL-EBI provides access to various mainstream sequence analysis applications. These include sequence similarity search services such as BLAST, FASTA, InterProScan and multiple sequence alignment tools such as ClustalW, T-Coffee and MUSCLE. Through the sequence similarity search services, the users can search mainstream sequence databases such as EMBL-Bank and UniProt, and more than 2000 completed genomes and proteomes. We present here a new framework aimed at both novice as well as expert users that exposes novel methods of obtaining annotations and visualizing sequence analysis results through one uniform and consistent interface. These services are available over the web and via Web Services interfaces for users who require systematic access or want to interface with customized pipe-lines and workflows using common programming languages. The framework features novel result visualizations and integration of domain and functional predictions for protein database searches. It is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/sss for sequence similarity searches and at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/msa for multiple sequence alignments.
InterPro is a collection of protein signatures for the classification and automated annotation of proteins. Interproscan is a software tool that scans protein sequences against Interpro member databases using a variety of profile-based, hidden markov model and positional specific score matrix methods. It not only combines a set of analysis tools, but also performs data look-up from various sources, as well as some redundancy removal. Interproscan is robust and scalable, able to perform on any machine from a netbook to a large cluster. However, when performing whole-genome or metagenome analysis, there is a need for a fast statistical visualization of the results to have good initial grasp on the functional potential of the sequences in the analyzed data set. This is especially important when analyzing and comparing metagenomic or metaproteomic data-sets.
IPRStats is a tool for the visualization of Interproscan results. Interproscan results are parsed from the Interproscan XML or EBIXML file into an SQLite or MySQL database. The results for each signature database scan are read and displayed as pie-charts or bar charts as summary statistics. A table is also provided, where each entry is a signature (e.g. a Pfam entry) accompanied by one or more Gene Ontology terms, if Interproscan was run using the Gene Ontology option.
We present an platform-independent, open source licensed tool that is useful for Interproscan users who wish to view the summary of their results in a rapid and concise fashion.
The family and motif databases, PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom, have been integrated into a powerful resource for protein secondary annotation. As of June 2000, InterPro had processed 384 572 proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL. Because the contributing databases have different clustering principles and scoring sensitivities, the combined assignments compliment each other for grouping protein families and delineating domains. The graphic displays of all matches above the scoring thresholds enables judgements to be made on the concordances or differences between the assignments. The website links can be used to analyse novel sequences and for queries across the proteomes of 32 organisms, including the partial human set, by domain and/or protein family. An analysis of selected HtrA/DegQ proteases demonstrates the utility of this website for detailed comparative genomics. Further information on the project can be found at the European Bioinformatics Institute at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/.
The CluSTr database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/clustr/) offers an automatic classification of SWISS-PROT+TrEMBL proteins into groups of related proteins. The clustering is based on analysis of all pair-wise sequence comparisons between proteins using the Smith–Waterman algorithm. The analysis, carried out on different levels of protein similarity, yields a hierarchical organization of clusters. Information about domain content of the clustered proteins is provided via the InterPro resource. The introduced InterPro ‘condensed graphical view’ simplifies the visual analysis of represented domain architectures. Integrated applications allow users to visualize and edit multiple alignments and build sequence divergence trees. Links to the relevant structural data in Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Homology derived Secondary Structure of Proteins (HSSP) are also provided.
The Structure Integration with Function, Taxonomy and Sequences resource (SIFTS; http://pdbe.org/sifts) is a close collaboration between the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) and UniProt. The two teams have developed a semi-automated process for maintaining up-to-date cross-reference information to UniProt entries, for all protein chains in the PDB entries present in the UniProt database. This process is carried out for every weekly PDB release and the information is stored in the SIFTS database. The SIFTS process includes cross-references to other biological resources such as Pfam, SCOP, CATH, GO, InterPro and the NCBI taxonomy database. The information is exported in XML format, one file for each PDB entry, and is made available by FTP. Many bioinformatics resources use SIFTS data to obtain cross-references between the PDB and other biological databases so as to provide their users with up-to-date information.
The Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/GOA) aims to provide high-quality electronic and manual annotations to the UniProt Knowledgebase (Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL and PIR-PSD) using the standardized vocabulary of the Gene Ontology (GO). As a supplementary archive of GO annotation, GOA promotes a high level of integration of the knowledge represented in UniProt with other databases. This is achieved by converting UniProt annotation into a recognized computational format. GOA provides annotated entries for nearly 60 000 species (GOA-SPTr) and is the largest and most comprehensive open-source contributor of annotations to the GO Consortium annotation effort. By integrating GO annotations from other model organism groups, GOA consolidates specialized knowledge and expertise to ensure the data remain a key reference for up-to-date biological information. Furthermore, the GOA database fully endorses the Human Proteomics Initiative by prioritizing the annotation of proteins likely to benefit human health and disease. In addition to a non-redundant set of annotations to the human proteome (GOA-Human) and monthly releases of its GO annotation for all species (GOA-SPTr), a series of GO mapping files and specific cross-references in other databases are also regularly distributed. GOA can be queried through a simple user-friendly web interface or downloaded in a parsable format via the EBI and GO FTP websites. The GOA data set can be used to enhance the annotation of particular model organism or gene expression data sets, although increasingly it has been used to evaluate GO predictions generated from text mining or protein interaction experiments. In 2004, the GOA team will build on its success and will continue to supplement the functional annotation of UniProt and work towards enhancing the ability of scientists to access all available biological information. Researchers wishing to query or contribute to the GOA project are encouraged to email: email@example.com.
The SWISS-PROT group at EBI has developed the Proteome Analysis
Database utilising existing resources and providing comparative
analysis of the predicted protein coding sequences of the complete genomes
of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteome/).
The two main projects used, InterPro and CluSTr, give a new perspective
on families, domains and sites and cover 31–67% (InterPro
statistics) of the proteins from each of the complete genomes. CluSTr
covers the three complete eukaryotic genomes and the incomplete human
genome data. The Proteome Analysis Database is accompanied by a
program that has been designed to carry out InterPro proteome comparisons
for any one proteome against any other one or more of the proteomes
in the database.
InterProScan [E. M. Zdobnov and R. Apweiler (2001) Bioinformatics, 17, 847–848] is a tool that combines different protein signature recognition methods from the InterPro [N. J. Mulder, R. Apweiler, T. K. Attwood, A. Bairoch, A. Bateman, D. Binns, P. Bradley, P. Bork, P. Bucher, L. Cerutti et al. (2005) Nucleic Acids Res., 33, D201–D205] consortium member databases into one resource. At the time of writing there are 10 distinct publicly available databases in the application. Protein as well as DNA sequences can be analysed. A web-based version is accessible for academic and commercial organizations from the EBI (). In addition, a standalone Perl version and a SOAP Web Service [J. Snell, D. Tidwell and P. Kulchenko (2001) Programming Web Services with SOAP, 1st edn. O'Reilly Publishers, Sebastopol, CA, ] are also available to the users. Various output formats are supported and include text tables, XML documents, as well as various graphs to help interpret the results.
Motivation: Robust large-scale sequence analysis is a major challenge in modern genomic science, where biologists are frequently trying to characterize many millions of sequences. Here, we describe a new Java-based architecture for the widely used protein function prediction software package InterProScan. Developments include improvements and additions to the outputs of the software and the complete reimplementation of the software framework, resulting in a flexible and stable system that is able to use both multiprocessor machines and/or conventional clusters to achieve scalable distributed data analysis. InterProScan is freely available for download from the EMBl-EBI FTP site and the open source code is hosted at Google Code.
Availability and implementation: InterProScan is distributed via FTP at ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/unix/iprscan/5/ and the source code is available from http://code.google.com/p/interproscan/.
http://www.ebi.ac.uk/support or firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
The Proteomics Identifications database (PRIDE, http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride) at the European Bioinformatics Institute has become one of the main repositories of mass spectrometry-derived proteomics data. For the last 2 years, PRIDE data holdings have grown substantially, comprising 60 different species, more than 2.5 million protein identifications, 11.5 million peptides and over 50 million spectra by September 2009. We here describe several new and improved features in PRIDE, including the revised submission process, which now includes direct submission of fragment ion annotations. Correspondingly, it is now possible to visualize spectrum fragmentation annotations on tandem mass spectra, a key feature for compliance with journal data submission requirements. We also describe recent developments in the PRIDE BioMart interface, which now allows integrative queries that can join PRIDE data to a growing number of biological resources such as Reactome, Ensembl, InterPro and UniProt. This ability to perform extremely powerful across-domain queries will certainly be a cornerstone of future bioinformatics analyses. Finally, we highlight the importance of data sharing in the proteomics field, and the corresponding integration of PRIDE with other databases in the ProteomExchange consortium.
Recent, rapid growth in the quantity of available genomic data has generated many protein sequences that are not yet biochemically classified. Thus, the prediction of biochemical function based on structural motifs is an important task in post-genomic analysis. The InterPro databases are a major resource for protein function information. For optimal results, these databases should be searched at regular intervals, since they are frequently updated.
We describe here a new program JIPS (Java GUI for InterProScan), a tool for tracking and viewing results obtained from repeated InterProScan searches. JIPS stores matches (in a local database) obtained from InterProScan searches performed with multiple versions of the InterPro database and highlights hits that have been added since the last search of the InterPro database. Results are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format. JIPS also contains tools to assist with ortholog-based comparative studies of protein signatures.
JIPS is an efficient tool for performing repeated InterProScans on large batches of protein sequences, tracking and viewing search results, and mining the collected data.
The 19th annual Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research features descriptions of 92 new online databases covering various areas of molecular biology and 100 papers describing recent updates to the databases previously described in NAR and other journals. The highlights of this issue include, among others, a description of neXtProt, a knowledgebase on human proteins; a detailed explanation of the principles behind the NCBI Taxonomy Database; NCBI and EBI papers on the recently launched BioSample databases that store sample information for a variety of database resources; descriptions of the recent developments in the Gene Ontology and UniProt Gene Ontology Annotation projects; updates on Pfam, SMART and InterPro domain databases; update papers on KEGG and TAIR, two universally acclaimed databases that face an uncertain future; and a separate section with 10 wiki-based databases, introduced in an accompanying editorial. The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/, has been updated and now lists 1380 databases. Brief machine-readable descriptions of the databases featured in this issue, according to the BioDBcore standards, will be provided at the http://biosharing.org/biodbcore web site. The full content of the Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).
Since 2004 the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) has provided access to a wide range of databases and analysis tools via Web Services interfaces. This comprises services to search across the databases available from the EMBL-EBI and to explore the network of cross-references present in the data (e.g. EB-eye), services to retrieve entry data in various data formats and to access the data in specific fields (e.g. dbfetch), and analysis tool services, for example, sequence similarity search (e.g. FASTA and NCBI BLAST), multiple sequence alignment (e.g. Clustal Omega and MUSCLE), pairwise sequence alignment and protein functional analysis (e.g. InterProScan and Phobius). The REST/SOAP Web Services (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/webservices/) interfaces to these databases and tools allow their integration into other tools, applications, web sites, pipeline processes and analytical workflows. To get users started using the Web Services, sample clients are provided covering a range of programming languages and popular Web Service tool kits, and a brief guide to Web Services technologies, including a set of tutorials, is available for those wishing to learn more and develop their own clients. Users of the Web Services are informed of improvements and updates via a range of methods.
PRINTS is a diagnostic collection of protein fingerprints. Fingerprints exploit groups of motifs to build characteristic family signatures, offering improved diagnostic reliability over single-motif approaches by virtue of the mutual context provided by motif neighbours. Around 1000 fingerprints have now been created and stored in PRINTS. The September 1998 release (version 20.0), encodes approximately 5700 motifs, covering a range of globular and membrane proteins, modular polypeptides and so on. The database is accessible via the DbBrowser Web Server at http://www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/bsm/dbbrowser /. In addition to supporting its continued growth, recent enhancements to the resource include a BLAST server, and more efficient fingerprint search software, with improved statistics for estimating the reliability of retrieved matches. Current efforts are focused on the design of more automated methods for database maintenance; implementation of an object-relational schema for efficient data management; and integration with PROSITE, profiles, Pfam and ProDom, as part of the international InterPro project, which aims to unify protein pattern databases and offer improved tools for genome analysis.
The Protein Identifier Cross-Reference (PICR) service is a tool that allows users to map protein identifiers, protein sequences and gene identifiers across over 100 different source databases. PICR takes input through an interactive website as well as Representational State Transfer (REST) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) services. It returns the results as HTML pages, XLS and CSV files. It has been in production since 2007 and has been recently enhanced to add new functionality and increase the number of databases it covers. Protein subsequences can be Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) against the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) to provide an entry point to the standard PICR mapping algorithm. In addition, gene identifiers from UniProtKB and Ensembl can now be submitted as input or mapped to as output from PICR. We have also implemented a ‘best-guess’ mapping algorithm for UniProt. In this article, we describe the usefulness of PICR, how these changes have been implemented, and the corresponding additions to the web services. Finally, we explain that the number of source databases covered by PICR has increased from the initial 73 to the current 102. New resources include several new species-specific Ensembl databases as well as the Ensembl Genome ones. PICR can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/picr/.
Derivation of biological meaning from large sets of proteins or genes is a frequent task in genomic and proteomic studies. Such sets often arise from experimental methods including large-scale gene expression experiments and mass spectrometry (MS) proteomics. Large sets of genes or proteins are also the outcome of computational methods such as BLAST search and homology-based classifications. We have developed the PANDORA web server, which functions as a platform for the advanced biological analysis of sets of genes, proteins, or proteolytic peptides. First, the input set is mapped to a set of corresponding proteins. Then, an analysis of the protein set produces a graph-based hierarchy which highlights intrinsic relations amongst biological subsets, in light of their different annotations from multiple annotation resources. PANDORA integrates a large collection of annotation sources (GO, UniProt Keywords, InterPro, Enzyme, SCOP, CATH, Gene-3D, NCBI taxonomy and more) that comprise ∼200 000 different annotation terms associated with ∼3.2 million sequences from UniProtKB. Statistical enrichment based on a binomial approximation of the hypergeometric distribution and corrected for multiple hypothesis tests is calculated using several background sets, including major gene-expression DNA-chip platforms. Users can also visualize either standard or user-defined binary and quantitative properties alongside the proteins. PANDORA 4.2 is available at http://www.pandora.cs.huji.ac.il.
We report the development of OikoBase (http://oikoarrays.biology.uiowa.edu/Oiko/), a tiling array-based genome browser resource for Oikopleura dioica, a metazoan belonging to the urochordates, the closest extant group to vertebrates. OikoBase facilitates retrieval and mining of a variety of useful genomics information. First, it includes a genome browser which interrogates 1260 genomic sequence scaffolds and features gene, transcript and CDS annotation tracks. Second, we annotated gene models with gene ontology (GO) terms and InterPro domains which are directly accessible in the browser with links to their entries in the GO (http://www.geneontology.org/) and InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) databases, and we provide transcript and peptide links for sequence downloads. Third, we introduce the transcriptomics of a comprehensive set of developmental stages of O. dioica at high resolution and provide downloadable gene expression data for all developmental stages. Fourth, we incorporate a BLAST tool to identify homologs of genes and proteins. Finally, we include a tutorial that describes how to use OikoBase as well as a link to detailed methods, explaining the data generation and analysis pipeline. OikoBase will provide a valuable resource for research in chordate development, genome evolution and plasticity and the molecular ecology of this important marine planktonic organism.
The EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (aka EMBL-Bank; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/) incorporates, organises and distributes nucleotide sequences from all available public sources. EMBL-Bank is located and maintained at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) near Cambridge, UK. In an international collaboration with DDBJ (Japan) and GenBank (USA), data are exchanged amongst the collaborating databases on a daily basis. Major contributors to the EMBL database are individual scientists and genome project groups. Webin is the preferred web-based submission system for individual submitters, whilst automatic procedures allow incorporation of sequence data from large-scale genome sequencing centres and from the European Patent Office (EPO). Database releases are produced quarterly. Network services allow free access to the most up-to-date data collection via FTP, email and World Wide Web interfaces. EBI’s Sequence Retrieval System (SRS), a network browser for databanks in molecular biology, integrates and links the main nucleotide and protein databases plus many other specialized databases. For sequence similarity searching, a variety of tools (e.g. Blitz, Fasta, BLAST) are available which allow external users to compare their own sequences against the latest data in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database and SWISS-PROT. All resources can be accessed via the EBI home page at http://www.ebi.ac.uk.