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1.  Use of Sleep Aids During the First Year of Life 
Pediatrics  2002;109(4):594-601.
Objective.
In an attempt to foster self-soothing during the night, a novel sleep aid infused with maternal odor was introduced to 4 groups of infants ranging in age from 3 to 12 months. Infants’ use of parent-provided sleep aids also was examined.
Methodology.
Nighttime sleep and waking behaviors were videotaped for 2 consecutive nights on 3 occasions over a 3-month interval. Using all-night video recording, the study examined the infant’s use of a novel sleep aid and parent-provided sleep aids during sleep onset and after nighttime awakenings.
Results.
Results indicated that infants of different ages differed in the types of sleep aids used when falling asleep either at the beginning of the night or after awakenings in the middle of the night. More 3-month-olds used their thumbs/fingers/hands, whereas more 6-month-olds used soft objects. The 6-month-olds were most likely to use the novel sleep aid. Almost all of the infants at all 4 ages used some type of object during the night. Intra-individual analyses showed that infants tended to change their pattern of sleep aid use over the 3-month study period.
Conclusions.
The data provide evidence that infants during the first year of life use sleep aids frequently and interchangeably rather than a specific favorite object.
PMCID: PMC1351014  PMID: 11927702
2.  Nighttime sleep-wake patterns and self-soothing from birth to one year of age: a longitudinal intervention study 
Background
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the longitudinal development of sleep-wake patterns of solitary-sleeping infants from 1 to 12 months of age, (2) identify effects on sleep patterns and on self-soothing behaviors of introducing a novel sleep aid, and (3) identify predictive factors of self-soothing at 12 months using a transactional model as a guide.
Methods
Eighty infants’ nighttime sleep-wake patterns and associated variables were studied at 5 times across the first year of life using videosomnography and questionnaires.
Results
Sleep-wake state developmental changes, as reported in investigations of infant sleep, were replicated, although a great deal of individual variability in the development of all sleep-related variables was noted. No major effects on sleep or on self-soothing behavior were evident from the introduction of the novel sleep aid. Three variables were identified as significant predictors of self-soothing at 12 months: decreasing amounts of time spent out of crib across the first year, high levels of quiet sleep at birth, and longer parental response times to infant awakenings at 3 months.
Conclusions
These data lend preliminary support for the transactional model and suggest that infant and parental factors interact to influence the development of self-soothing.
PMCID: PMC1201415  PMID: 12236607
Infancy; normal development; parent-child interaction; paediatrics; sleep; temperament; AS: active sleep; AW: wakefulness; BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; GLM: general linear modeling; LSP: longest sleep period; OOC: out of crib; PSOCS: Parenting Sense of Competence Scale; QS: quiet sleep; RSA: representational sleep aid; SC: sham control; SS: self-soothed; TST: total sleep time
3.  Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study 
Pediatrics  2012;129(5):860-868.
OBJECTIVE:
Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age.
METHODS:
All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression.
RESULTS:
The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level.
CONCLUSIONS:
Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months.
doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1773
PMCID: PMC3566755  PMID: 22473365
sleep; sleep duration; infant sleeping; night waking; infant; caffeine; coffee
4.  Nighttime maternal responsiveness and infant attachment at one year 
Attachment & human development  2009;11(4):347-363.
This study examined associations between mother–infant nighttime interactions and mother–infant attachment when infants were 12 months old. Forty-four mother–infant pairs participated in this study. For three consecutive nights at home, babies were observed in their cribs using a digital video system. Mothers reported on their nighttime interactions with their babies using a self-report diary and completed a questionnaire regarding child temperament. Attachment was assessed in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Mothers of securely attached infants had nighttime interactions that were generally more consistent, sensitive and responsive than those of insecurely attached infants. Specifically, in secure dyads, mothers generally picked up and soothed infants when they fussed or cried after an awakening.
doi:10.1080/14616730903016979
PMCID: PMC3422632  PMID: 19603300
maternal responsiveness; attachment; infants; nighttime; sleep
5.  Preventing Obesity during Infancy: A Pilot Study 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2010;19(2):353-361.
More than 20% of US children between ages 2 and 5 years are overweight suggesting efforts to prevent obesity must begin earlier. This study tested the independent and combined effects of two behavioral interventions delivered to parents, designed to promote healthy infant growth in the first year. Mother–newborn dyads intending to breastfeed were recruited from a maternity ward. With a 2 × 2 design, 160 dyads were randomized into one of four treatment cells to receive both, one, or no interventions delivered at two nurse home visits. The first intervention (“Soothe/Sleep”) instructed parents on discriminating between hunger and other sources of infant distress. Soothing strategies were taught to minimize feeding for non-hunger-related fussiness and to prolong sleep duration, particularly at night. The second intervention (“Introduction of Solids”) taught parents about hunger and satiety cues, the timing for the introduction of solid foods, and how to overcome infants’ initial rejection of healthy foods through repeated exposure. A total of 110 mother–infant dyads completed the year-long study. At 1 year, infants who received both interventions had lower weight-for-length percentiles (P = 0.009). Participants receiving both interventions had a mean weight-for-length in the 33rd percentile; in contrast, those in other study groups were higher first intervention only—50th percentile; second intervention only—56th percentile; control group—50th percentile).This suggests that multicomponent behavioral interventions may have potential for long-term obesity prevention (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00359242).
doi:10.1038/oby.2010.182
PMCID: PMC3477360  PMID: 20725058
6.  Why Does Rem Sleep Occur? A Wake-Up Hypothesis1 
Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.
doi:10.3389/fnsys.2011.00073
PMCID: PMC3166790  PMID: 21922003
REM; dreaming; sleep; stage IV sleep; stage N3 sleep; ascending reticular activating system; consciousness; arousal
7.  A Comparison of the Sleep–Wake Patterns of Cosleeping and Solitary-Sleeping Infants 
This study examined whether 3–15 month-old cosleeping infants displayed differences in time spent in active versus quiet sleep, and in the number/duration of nighttime awakenings when compared with solitary-sleeping infants; and also whether they spent the majority of the night sleeping face-to-face, as previously reported. Nine cosleeping and nine solitary-sleeping infants were matched on age, gender, ethnicity, maternal age, and family SES. Video recordings of nighttime sleep yielded percentage of time in active sleep, quiet sleep, and awake, number of awakenings, and the percentage of time cosleeping infants and mothers spent face-to-face. Across age, cosleeping infants had more awakenings per night (mean 5.8(1.50) versus 3.2(1.95); t = 3.16, p = .006). The percent of the nighttime spent awake did not differ between groups, suggesting that cosleeping infants had shorter awakenings. Cosleeping infants spent 40% of the night face-to-face with their mothers.
doi:10.1007/s10578-004-1879-0
PMCID: PMC1201416  PMID: 15577276
cosleeping; infants; sleep
8.  Sleep Duration and “on” Time during Different Periods of the Day and Night in Patients with Advanced Parkinson's Disease Receiving Adjunctive Ropinirole Prolonged Release 
Parkinson's Disease  2011;2011:354760.
Patients undergoing long-term therapy for PD often experience motor fluctuations and nocturnal disturbances. In a post-hoc analysis, we explored effects of ropinirole prolonged release on sleep, night-time awakenings, and “on” time over 24 hours. Patients with advanced PD suboptimally controlled with L-dopa were randomized to adjunctive ropinirole prolonged release (2–24 mg/day) or placebo for 24 weeks. Awake/asleep and, if awake, “on”/“off” status was recorded via diary cards. At week 24 last observation carried forward, changes in nighttime or daytime sleep duration were not significantly different between treatments. Of patients with baseline awakenings, a significantly higher proportion in the ropinirole prolonged release group had a reduction in awakenings versus placebo. Patients receiving ropinirole prolonged release had a significantly greater increase in amount/percentage of awake time “on”/“on” without troublesome dyskinesia during all periods assessed (including night-time and early morning), versus placebo, and higher odds for being “on” on waking. Adjunctive once-daily ropinirole prolonged release may help provide 24-hour symptom control in patients with advanced PD not optimally controlled with L-dopa.
doi:10.4061/2011/354760
PMCID: PMC3109339  PMID: 21687750
9.  Chronic Insomnia 
The American journal of psychiatry  2008;165(6):678-686.
Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and as late as 9:00 a.m. on weekends. Her nighttime sleep problems result in daytime irritability and difficulty focusing and organizing her thoughts, which subjectively impair her work as an administrative assistant, although her performance evaluations have been satisfactory. She says that she has “no energy for anything extra,” that her house is a mess, and that she routinely declines invitations to join social and even family activities. Her insomnia began approximately 5 years ago during a period of increased life stress related to a difficult divorce and a job change. At that time she was diagnosed with major depression and was started on a successful trial of escitalopram, which she continues at a dose of 10 mg/day. Her current symptoms are distinct from those that were associated with her episode of major depression. She denies pervasive sadness or loss of interest, but she is very frustrated with her inability to function more effectively, which she attributes to her insomnia. In fact, she believes that her cognitive difficulties and irritability are most noticeable after nights of particularly poor sleep. Her medical history is unremarkable other than a past history of Graves’ disease. She has been treated with levothyroxine for the past 15 years.
How should Ms. F be evaluated? What medical testing, if any, would be appropriate? What factors should be considered in formulating a treatment plan? What treatments would be appropriate?
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08010129
PMCID: PMC2859710  PMID: 18519533
10.  Six-Month Sleep–Wake Organization and Stability in Preschool-Age Children With Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development 
This study examined sleep–wake patterns in 3 matched comparison groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism (AUT), children with developmental delay (DD) without AUT, and children who are developing typically (TYP). Sleep was assessed via actigraphy and parent-report diaries for 7 consecutive 24-hr periods across 3 time points: at enrollment (n = 194), 3 months later (n = 179), and 6 months after enrollment (n = 173). At each recording period, children in the AUT group slept less per 24-hr period, on average, and were less likely to awaken at night than children in the other two groups. In contrast, children in the DD group had more frequent and longer duration nighttime awakenings than children in the AUT group. Overall, children in the 2 neurodevelopmentally disordered groups demonstrated more night-to-night variability in their sleep–wake measures than children in the TYP group.
doi:10.1352/1944-7558-116.2.142
PMCID: PMC3283033  PMID: 21381949
11.  Six-Month Sleep–Wake Organization and Stability in Preschool-Age Children With Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development 
Behavioral sleep medicine  2011;9(2):92-106.
This study examined sleep–wake patterns in 3 matched comparison groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism (AUT), children with developmental delay (DD) without AUT, and children who are developing typically (TYP). Sleep was assessed via actigraphy and parent-report diaries for 7 consecutive 24-hr periods across 3 time points: at enrollment (n = 194), 3 months later (n = 179), and 6 months after enrollment (n = 173). At each recording period, children in the AUT group slept less per 24-hr period, on average, and were less likely to awaken at night than children in the other two groups. In contrast, children in the DD group had more frequent and longer duration nighttime awakenings than children in the AUT group. Overall, children in the 2 neurodevelopmentally disordered groups demonstrated more night-to-night variability in their sleep–wake measures than children in the TYP group.
doi:10.1080/15402002.2011.557991
PMCID: PMC3498819  PMID: 21491232
12.  A Transactional Model of Sleep–Wake Regulation in Infants Born Preterm or Low Birthweight 
Journal of Pediatric Psychology  2008;34(8):837-849.
Objective To test a transactional model of sleep–wake development in infants born preterm or low birthweight (PT LBW), which may inform clinical practice, interventions, and future research in this at risk population. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight mother–infant dyads participated from hospital discharge to 4 months postterm. Assessments of prematurity, infant sleep–wake patterns, maternal interaction quality, depression, feeding route, and sociodemographic factors were conducted. Results Path analyses revealed that maternal interactions directly related to infant sleep patterns and family sociodemographic risks related to less optimal parenting. In addition, bottle fed infants experienced fewer night wakings and more nighttime sleep. Conclusions Two potential pathways to sleep patterns in PT LBW infants were identified. The findings suggest directions for clinical work, such as supporting healthy infant sleep through parenting interventions or supporting interpersonal relations between parents and their PT LBW infants by encouraging more daytime naps. Additionally, clinicians should assess parents’ nighttime sleep concerns within the larger sociodemographic and feeding context.
doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsn132
PMCID: PMC2729680  PMID: 19098064
low birthweight; preterm; sleep; transactional development
13.  Troubled sleep 
Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers’ lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival.
doi:10.1093/emph/eou005
PMCID: PMC3982900  PMID: 24610432
lactational amenorrhea; interbirth intervals; night waking; breastfeeding; co-sleeping; evolutionary pediatrics
14.  Low Life Purpose and High Hostility are Related to an Attenuated Decline in Nocturnal Blood Pressure 
Objective
An attenuation of the nighttime decline in blood pressure (BP) predicts cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular-related mortality, over and above daytime BP levels. We investigated whether positive and negative psychological attributes were associated with sleep-wake BP ratios and examined sleep parameters as potential mediators of these relationships.
Design
Two hundred twenty-four participants (50% men; 43% Black; mean age = 60 years) underwent ambulatory BP monitoring for two days and nights. Self-reports of positive and negative psychological attributes were collected. In-home polysomnography was conducted for two nights, and a wrist actigraph was worn for nine nights.
Main Outcome Measures
Sleep-wake mean arterial pressure (MAP) ratios.
Results
After adjustment for demographics, body mass index, and hypertensive status, low life purpose and high hostility were associated with high sleep-wake MAP ratios. Depression, anxiety, and optimism were not related to MAP ratios. Sleep latency, fragmentation, architecture, and the apnea-hypopnea index were examined as potential mediators between psychological attributes and MAP ratios; only long sleep latency mediated the relationship between hostility and MAP ratios.
Conclusion
Low life purpose and high hostility are associated with high sleep-wake BP ratios in Black and White adults, and these relationships are largely independent of sleep.
doi:10.1037/a0017790
PMCID: PMC2841295  PMID: 20230093
life purpose; hostility; ambulatory blood pressure; nondipping; sleep
15.  Infant Regulatory Disorders: Temperamental, Physiological, and Behavioral Features 
Successful development during the first year of life is dependent on the infant’s ability to regulate behavioral and physiological state in response to unpredictable environmental challenges. While most infants develop skills to self-soothe and regulate behavior, a subset lacks these skills and develops regulatory disorders (RD).
Objectives
To evaluate the component features of RD by determining if infants with RD differ from typically developing infants on measures of temperament, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, heart rate, and mother-infant interactions.
Methods
Parents of 50 9-month old infants completed behavioral questionnaires that provided information necessary to complete the Regulatory Disorders Checklist, which evaluates for difficulties in self-regulation and hypersensitivities. Infants with difficulties in both domains were assigned to the RD group. Mothers and their infants were videotaped interacting for 10 minutes. Infant heart rate was monitored before and during the mental development test.
Results
The RD group (n=10) was more temperamentally difficult and exhibited atypical physiological regulation relative to infants with difficulties in either self-regulation or hypersensitivity (n=25) or infants with no difficulties (n=15). During the mother-infant interactions, the RD group exhibited more high-level withdrawal behaviors, including verbal and physical protests, although there were no differences in the quantity and quality of the maternal approaches.
Conclusion
Infants with RD have both temperamental and physiological regulation difficulties, and may be in a physiologically state that makes it difficult to moderate behavior in response to social demands. Mothers of RD infants might be taught to modify their behavior to help their infants regulate behavioral and physiological state.
doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181e32c4f
PMCID: PMC3069147  PMID: 21057324
Infants; regulatory disorders; difficult temperament; heart rate variability; respiratory sinus arrhythmia; mother-child interaction
16.  Acute Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Misalignment Associated with Transition onto the First Night of Work Impairs Visual Selective Attention 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(11):e1233.
Background
Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology promotes sleepiness and dissipates wakefulness at night. Since the circadian effect on cognitive functions magnifies with increasing sleep pressure, cognitive deficits associated with night work are likely to be most acute with extended wakefulness, such as during the transition from a day shift to night shift.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To test this hypothesis we measured selective attention (with visual search), vigilance (with Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT]) and alertness (with a visual analog scale) in a shift work simulation protocol, which included four day shifts followed by three night shifts. There was a nocturnal decline in cognitive processes, some of which were most pronounced on the first night shift. The nighttime decrease in visual search sensitivity was most pronounced on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p = .04), and this was accompanied by a trend towards selective attention becoming ‘fast and sloppy’. The nighttime increase in attentional lapses on the PVT was significantly greater on the first night compared to subsequent nights (p<.05) indicating an impaired ability to sustain focus. The nighttime decrease in subjective alertness was also greatest on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p<.05).
Conclusions/Significance
These nocturnal deficits in attention and alertness offer some insight into why occupational errors, accidents, and injuries are pronounced during night work compared to day work. Examination of the nighttime vulnerabilities underlying the deployment of attention can be informative for the design of optimal work schedules and the implementation of effective countermeasures for performance deficits during night work.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001233
PMCID: PMC2077929  PMID: 18043740
17.  Nighttime Parenting Strategies and Sleep-Related Risks to Infants 
A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004.Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may help illuminate how risks occur for individual infants.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.05.043
PMCID: PMC3505270  PMID: 22818487
infant sleep; sleep-related risks; Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS); nighttime parenting; USA
18.  Coparenting Quality During the First Three Months After Birth: The Role of Infant Sleep Quality 
The transition to parenthood can be stressful for new parents, as parents must learn to take on new roles and responsibilities. Sleep disruption—which has been linked in prior research to parent distress and fatigue—is common in the early months. The current study is the first to our knowledge to examine infant sleep and its potential indirect influence on parents’ perceptions of coparenting quality at 1 and 3 months of infant age. Participants included 150 families. Mothers reported more night waking, poorer sleep quality, more depressive symptoms, and worse perceptions of coparenting quality as compared with fathers. We tested a structural model of infant and parent night waking and sleep quality as predictors of parent distress and coparenting using maximum likelihood estimation. The frequency of infant night waking predicted father and mother night waking, which in turn predicted parent sleep quality. Poor parent sleep quality predicted elevated depressive symptoms, and finally depressive symptoms were negatively related to perceptions of coparenting quality. Significant indirect effects between infant night waking and parent depression and coparenting quality were found. In summary, both mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of coparenting were related to the unfolding parental dynamics that take place surrounding infant sleep difficulties. This held true even after controlling for parent education, family income, and infant temperament. Therefore, parenting may indirectly benefit from interventions targeting infant sleep difficulties.
doi:10.1037/a0030707
PMCID: PMC3562740  PMID: 23244456
Transition to parenthood; coparenting; parent sleep; infant sleep; depression
19.  A behavioral model of infant sleep disturbance. 
Chronic sleep disturbance, such as bed refusal, sleep-onset delay, and night waking with crying, affects 15% to 35% of preschool children. Biological factors, particularly arousals associated with recurrent episodes of rapid-eye-movement sleep, render infants vulnerable to repeated awakenings. Parental failure to establish appropriate stimulus control of sleep-related behaviors and parent-mediated contingencies of reinforcement for sleep-incompatible behaviors may shape and maintain infant sleep disturbance. Treatment and prevention strategies are discussed, and research needs are identified.
doi:10.1901/jaba.1993.26-477
PMCID: PMC1297876  PMID: 8307835
20.  Eye of the beholder? Maternal mental health and the quality of infant sleep 
Transactional models of parenting and infant sleep call attention to bidirectional associations among parenting, the biosocial environment, and infant sleep behaviors. Although night waking and bedtime fussing are normative during infancy and early childhood, they can be challenging for parents. The current study, conducted in the United States between 2003 and 2009, examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between maternal mental health and infant sleep during the first year. Concurrent associations at 6 and 12 months and longitudinal associations from 6 to 12 months were studied in a non-clinic referred sample of 171 economically and culturally diverse families. Mothers with poorer mental health reported that their infants had more night waking and bedtime distress and were more bothered by these sleep issues. Associations between infant sleep and maternal mental health were moderated by culture (Hispanic/Asian vs. other) and by stressors that included high parenting stress, more stressful life events, and low family income. Individual differences in maternal well-being may color mothers’ interpretations of infants’ sleep behaviors. It may be prudent to intervene to support maternal mental health when infants are referred for sleep problems.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.07.006
PMCID: PMC3540198  PMID: 22858167
night waking; infancy; sleep problems; depressive symptoms; anxiety; United States; mothers; ethnicity
21.  Effects of Filtering Visual Short Wavelengths During Nocturnal Shiftwork on Sleep and Performance 
Chronobiology International  2013;30(8):951-962.
Circadian phase resetting is sensitive to visual short wavelengths (450–480 nm). Selectively filtering this range of wavelengths may reduce circadian misalignment and sleep impairment during irregular light-dark schedules associated with shiftwork. We examined the effects of filtering short wavelengths (<480 nm) during night shifts on sleep and performance in nine nurses (five females and four males; mean age ± SD: 31.3 ± 4.6 yrs). Participants were randomized to receive filtered light (intervention) or standard indoor light (baseline) on night shifts. Nighttime sleep after two night shifts and daytime sleep in between two night shifts was assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In addition, salivary melatonin levels and alertness were assessed every 2 h on the first night shift of each study period and on the middle night of a run of three night shifts in each study period. Sleep and performance under baseline and intervention conditions were compared with daytime performance on the seventh day shift, and nighttime sleep following the seventh daytime shift (comparator). On the baseline night PSG, total sleep time (TST) (p < 0.01) and sleep efficiency (p = 0.01) were significantly decreased and intervening wake times (wake after sleep onset [WASO]) (p = 0.04) were significantly increased in relation to the comparator night sleep. In contrast, under intervention, TST was increased by a mean of 40 min compared with baseline, WASO was reduced and sleep efficiency was increased to levels similar to the comparator night. Daytime sleep was significantly impaired under both baseline and intervention conditions. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher on the first (p < 0.05) and middle (p < 0.01) night shifts under intervention compared with baseline. Subjective sleepiness increased throughout the night under both conditions (p < 0.01). However, reaction time and throughput on vigilance tests were similar to daytime performance under intervention but impaired under baseline on the first night shift. By the middle night shift, the difference in performance was no longer significant between day shift and either of the two night shift conditions, suggesting some adaptation to the night shift had occurred under baseline conditions. These results suggest that both daytime and nighttime sleep are adversely affected in rotating-shift workers and that filtering short wavelengths may be an approach to reduce sleep disruption and improve performance in rotating-shift workers. (Author correspondence: casper@lunenfeld.ca)
doi:10.3109/07420528.2013.789894
PMCID: PMC3786545  PMID: 23834705
Melatonin; shiftwork; short-wavelength light; sleep efficiency; total sleep time; wake after sleep onset
22.  Prevalence, Patterns, and Persistence of Sleep Problems in the First 3 Years of Life 
Pediatrics  2012;129(2):e276-e284.
OBJECTIVE:
Examine the prevalence, patterns, and persistence of parent-reported sleep problems during the first 3 years of life.
METHODS:
Three hundred fifty-nine mother/child pairs participated in a prospective birth cohort study. Sleep questionnaires were administered to mothers when children were 6, 12, 24, and 36 months old. Sleep variables included parent response to a nonspecific query about the presence/absence of a sleep problem and 8 specific sleep outcome domains: sleep onset latency, sleep maintenance, 24-hour sleep duration, daytime sleep/naps, sleep location, restlessness/vocalization, nightmares/night terrors, and snoring.
RESULTS:
Prevalence of a parent-reported sleep problem was 10% at all assessment intervals. Night wakings and shorter sleep duration were associated with a parent-reported sleep problem during infancy and early toddlerhood (6–24 months), whereas nightmares and restless sleep emerged as associations with report of a sleep problem in later developmental periods (24–36 months). Prolonged sleep latency was associated with parent report of a sleep problem throughout the study period. In contrast, napping, sleep location, and snoring were not associated with parent-reported sleep problems. Twenty-one percent of children with sleep problems in infancy (compared with 6% of those without) had sleep problems in the third year of life.
CONCLUSIONS:
Ten percent of children are reported to have a sleep problem at any given point during early childhood, and these problems persist in a significant minority of children throughout early development. Parent response to a single-item nonspecific sleep query may overlook relevant sleep behaviors and symptoms associated with clinical morbidity.
doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0372
PMCID: PMC3357046  PMID: 22218837
sleep problems; infants; toddlers; prevalence; persistence
23.  Perception of Partner Sleep and Mood: Postpartum Couples' Relationship Satisfaction 
Journal of sex & marital therapy  2011;37(5):428-440.
Separate research areas indicate that sleep quality, mood, and relationship satisfaction decline among couples during the postpartum period. Furthermore, accurate partner perceptions are associated with positive relationship qualities. Twenty-one first-time postpartum mother-father dyads, contributed one week of continuous wrist actigraphy along with concurrent subjective Palm Pilot monitoring to provide both objective and subjective sleep measures. Parents also reported on their own as well as their perception of their partners’ sleep, mood, and relationship satisfaction. Greater objectively measured total sleep time was associated with greater relationship satisfaction. Mothers underestimated fathers’ self-reported frequency of nocturnal awakenings and relationship satisfaction, and overestimated fathers’ self-reported sleep quality. Fathers underestimated mothers’ self-reported duration of wake at night and sleep quality, and overestimated mothers’ self-reported mood disturbance. Preventative measures that target sleep and improvement in perception of partner’s experiences could be used to buffer against decreases in relationship satisfaction among new parents.
doi:10.1080/0092623X.2011.607053
PMCID: PMC3216117  PMID: 21961447
Relationship satisfaction; postpartum; sleep; development
24.  Longitudinal study of self-awakening and sleep/wake habits in adolescents 
Nature and Science of Sleep  2012;4:103-109.
Self-awakening is the ability to awaken without external assistance at a predetermined time. Cross-sectional studies reported that people who self-awaken have sleep/wake habits different from those of people who use external means to wake from sleep. However, no longitudinal study has examined self-awakening. The present study investigated self- awakening, both habitual and inconsistent, compared to awakening by external means in relation to sleep/wake schedules for five consecutive years in 362 students (starting at mean age 15.1 ± 0.3 years). Students who self-awakened consistently for five consecutive years (5% of all students) went to bed earlier than those who inconsistently self-awakened (mixed group, 40%) or consistently used forced awakening by external means (56%). Awakening during sleep was more frequent and sleep was lighter in the consistently self-awakened group than in the mixed and consistently forced-awakened groups. However, daytime dozing was less frequent and comfort immediately after awakening was greater for the consistently self-awakened group than for the mixed and consistently forced-awakened groups. These results indicate that the three groups have different sleep/wake habits. Previous studies of self-awakening using cross-sectional survey data may have confounded both consistent and inconsistent self-awakening habits. A longitudinal study is necessary to clarify the relationship between the self-awakening habit and sleep/wake patterns.
doi:10.2147/NSS.S33861
PMCID: PMC3630977  PMID: 23620684
habitual self-awakening, sleep; wake pattern; adolescent
25.  The Physical and Social Environment of Sleep in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Postpartum Women 
Objective
To describe the physical and social environment of sleep self-management in postpartum socioeconomically disadvantaged women.
Design
Descriptive, exploratory design.
Setting
Participants were recruited in the hospital after giving birth. Data were collected in participant homes after discharge.
Participants
Postpartum women on Medicaid with normal healthy infants.
Methods
Participants completed a survey about features within their physical and social sleep environment at 2 weeks postpartum. Participants then completed three days and nights of sleep diaries at both 4 and 8 weeks postpartum to document perceived awakenings, select sleep hygiene practices, bed sharing, and reasons for sleep disruption.
Results
The sleep environments of participants were dynamic from night to night. Bed sharing was common with nearly half of participants sharing with a partner, approximately 25 percent with the infant, and 20 percent with older children. Fifty-two percent of participants slept with the television on part (31%) or all (69%) of the night. Eight-five percent of participants drank caffeine and 24 percent smoked.
Conclusions
These results inform theory-driven postpartum sleep interventions. Modifications to the physical and social sleep environment that attend specifically to how sleep hygiene and environmental factors are manifested in the postpartum period have the potential to improve sleep for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Future research is needed to articulate which changes can be effectively self-managed by mothers through nursing interventions.
doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2012.01421.x
PMCID: PMC3546265  PMID: 23181913
sleep hygiene; sleep environment; postpartum; bed sharing; socioeconomic disadvantage

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