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1.  Cervical Cancer Screening Among Chinese Immigrants in Seattle, Washington 
Journal of immigrant health  2001;3(1):15-21.
Introduction
Chinese American women have high rates of invasive cervical cancer, compared to the general population. However, little is known about the Pap testing behavior of ethnic Chinese immigrants.
Methods
We conducted a community-based survey of Chinese immigrants living in Seattle, Washington, during 1999. Two indicators of cervical cancer screening participation were examined: at least one previous Pap smear and Pap testing in the last 2 years.
Results
The overall estimated response rate was 64%, and the cooperation rate was 72%. Our study sample for this analysis included 647 women. Nearly one quarter (24%) of the respondents had never had a Pap test, and only 60% had been screened recently. Factors independently associated with cervical cancer screening use included marital status, housing type, and age at immigration.
Conclusion
Our findings confirm low levels of cervical cancer screening among Chinese immigrants to North America. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Pap testing intervention programs for less acculturated Chinese women should be developed, implemented, and evaluated.
doi:10.1023/A:1026606401164
PMCID: PMC1618776  PMID: 16228798
Chinese immigrants; cervical cancer; Pap testing
2.  Cervical cancer screening among Chinese Americans 
Cancer detection and prevention  2002;26(2):139-145.
Study purpose
Chinese women in North America have high rates of invasive cervical cancer and low levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing use. This study examined Pap testing barriers and facilitators among Chinese American women.
Basic procedures
A community-based, in-person survey of Chinese women was conducted in Seattle, Washington during 1999. Four hundred and thirty-two women in the 20–79 years age-group were included in this analysis. The main outcome measures were a history of at least one previous Pap smear and Pap testing within the last 2 years.
Main findings
Nineteen percent of the respondents had never received cervical cancer screening and 36% had not been screened in the previous 2 years. Eight characteristics were independently associated with a history of at least one Pap smear: being married, thinking Pap testing is necessary for sexually inactive women, lack of concerns about embarrassment or cancer being discovered, having received a physician or family recommendation, having obtained family planning services in North America, and having a regular provider. The following characteristics were independently associated with recent screening: thinking Pap testing is necessary for sexually inactive women, lack of concern about embarrassment, having received a physician recommendation, having obtained obstetric services in North America, and having a regular provider.
Principal conclusions
Pap testing levels among the study respondents were well below the National Cancer Institute’s Year 2000 goals. The findings suggest that cervical cancer control interventions for Chinese are more likely to be effective if they are multifaceted. © 2002 International Society for Preventive Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMCID: PMC1592328  PMID: 12102148
Chinese Americans; Cervical cancer; Papanicolaou testing
3.  PAP SMEAR RECEIPT AMONG VIETNAMESE IMMIGRANTS: THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH CARE FACTORS 
Ethnicity & health  2009;14(6):575-589.
Objective
Recent US data indicate that women of Vietnamese descent have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than women of any other race/ethnicity, and lower levels of Pap testing than white, black, and Latina women. Our objective was to provide information about Pap testing barriers and facilitators that could be used to develop cervical cancer control intervention programs for Vietnamese American women.
Design
We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based survey of Vietnamese immigrants. Our study was conducted in metropolitan Seattle, Washington. A total of 1,532 Vietnamese American women participated in the study. Demographic, health care, and knowledge/belief items associated with previous cervical cancer screening participation (ever screened and screened according to interval screening guidelines) were examined.
Results
Eighty-one percent of the respondents had been screened for cervical cancer in the previous three years. Recent Pap testing was strongly associated (p<0.001) with having a regular doctor, having a physical in the last year, previous physician recommendation for testing, and having asked a physician for testing. Women whose regular doctor was a Vietnamese man were no more likely to have received a recent Pap smear than those with no regular doctor.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that cervical cancer screening disparities between Vietnamese and other racial/ethnic groups are decreasing. Efforts to further increase Pap smear receipt in Vietnamese American communities should enable women without a source of health care to find a regular provider. Additionally, intervention programs should improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers (especially male Vietnamese physicians serving women living in ethnic enclaves) to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering Vietnamese women to specifically ask their physicians for Pap testing.
doi:10.1080/13557850903111589
PMCID: PMC2788032  PMID: 19626504
Cervical cancer; Immigrants; Pap testing; Vietnamese
4.  PAP TESTING AMONG VIETNAMESE WOMEN: HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND PHYSICIAN FACTORS 
Journal of community health  2004;29(6):437-450.
Cervical cancer occurs more frequently among Vietnamese Americans than women of any other race/ethnicity. In addition, previous studies in California have documented low Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates in Vietnamese communities. This study focused on health care system factors and physician characteristics associated with recent cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. A population-based survey was conducted in Seattle during 2002. In-person interviews were conducted by bilingual, bicultural female survey workers. The survey response rate was 82% and 518 women were included in the analysis. Seventy-four percent of the respondents reported having been screened for cervical cancer on at least one occasion, and 64% reported a Pap smear within the previous 2 years. Women with a regular doctor were more likely to have been recently screened than those without a regular doctor (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.45–3.74). Among those with a regular doctor, having a male physician, receiving care at a private doctor’s office (rather than a community, hospital, or multi-specialty clinic), and concern about the cost of health care were independently associated with lower screening rates. Physician ethnicity was not associated with recent Pap smear receipt. The findings support targeted interventions for Vietnamese women without a regular physician and private doctors’ offices that serve Vietnamese Americans. The availability of low cost screening services should be publicized in Vietnamese communities.
PMCID: PMC1811063  PMID: 15587344
cervical cancer; immigrants; Pap testing; Vietnamese
5.  Development of Cervical Cancer Control Interventions for Chinese Immigrants 
Journal of immigrant health  2002;4(3):147-157.
The objective of the study was to develop a culturally relevant video and a pamphlet for use as a cervical cancer screening educational intervention among North-American Chinese women. The project conducted 87 qualitative interviews and nine focus groups to develop a culturally tailored intervention to improve Pap testing rates. The intervention consisted of an educational/motivational video, a pamphlet, and home visits. Less acculturated Chinese women draw on a rich tradition of herbal knowledge and folk practices historically based on Chinese medical theory, now mixed with new information from the media and popular culture. The video, the pamphlet, and the outreach workers knowledge base were designed using these results and combined with biomedical information to address potential obstacles to Pap testing. Culturally relevant information for reproductive health promotion was easily retrieved through qualitative interviews and used to create educational materials modeling the integration of Pap testing into Chinese women’s health practices.
doi:10.1023/A:1015650901458
PMCID: PMC1592327  PMID: 16228758
Pap testing; cervical cancer; cross-cultural medicine; Chinese; health education
6.  Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women 
Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n = 1450) from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.
doi:10.1155/2012/617234
PMCID: PMC3449126  PMID: 23008526
7.  A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening Among Chinese Women in North America 
Background
North American Chinese women have lower levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing than other population subgroups. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two alternative cervical cancer screening interventions for Chinese women living in North America.
Methods
Four hundred and eighty-two Pap testing underutilizers were identified from community-based surveys of Chinese women conducted in Seattle, Washington, and Vancouver, British Columbia. These women were randomly assigned to one of two experimental arms or control status. Several Chinese-language materials were used in both experimental arms: an education-entertainment video, a motivational pamphlet, an educational brochure, and a fact sheet. Women in the first experimental group (outreach worker intervention) received the materials, as well as tailored counseling and logistic assistance, during home visits by trilingual, bicultural outreach workers. Those in the second experimental group (direct mail intervention) received the materials by mail. The control group received usual care. Follow-up surveys were completed 6 months after randomization to ascertain participants’ Pap testing behavior. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
A total of 402 women responded to the follow-up survey (83% response rate). Of these women, 50 (39%) of the 129 women in the outreach group, 35 (25%) of the 139 women in the direct mail group, and 20 (15%) of the 134 women in the control group reported Pap testing in the interval between randomization and follow-up data collection (P<.001 for outreach worker versus control, P = .03 for direct mail versus control, and P = .02 for outreach worker versus direct mail). Intervention effects were greater in Vancouver than in Seattle.
Conclusion
Culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions may improve Pap testing levels among Chinese women in North America.
PMCID: PMC1592333  PMID: 11983755
8.  Language Use and the Receipt of Cancer Screening Recommendations by Immigrant Chinese American Women 
Journal of Women's Health  2009;18(2):201-207.
Abstract
Background
Cancer screening rates are low among Chinese American women, a mostly immigrant minority population. This is possibly because they do not receive cancer screening recommendations from their physicians. The objective of this study was to determine if the rate at which physicians recommend cancer screening to older Chinese American women differs according to the language used during visits.
Methods
Data for the cross-sectional study were collected from a telephone survey of older Chinese American women residing in the Washington, DC, area. A total of 507 asymptomatic Chinese American women aged ≥50 who had a regular physician participated in this study. The main outcome was women's self-reported perception of having received a recommendation from their physician for mammography, Pap tests, or colorectal cancer screening in the past 2 years. The main independent variable was the language used during visits (English vs. Chinese). Patient age, educational level, employment status, cultural views, physician specialty, physician gender, and length of relationship with the physician were included in the multiple logistic regression analyses.
Results
Chinese women who communicated with their physicians in English were 1.71 (95% CI 1.00-2.96) and 1.73 (95% CI 1.00-3.00) times more likely to report having received mammography and colorectal cancer screening recommendations, respectively (p < 0.05). Physicians in family medicine or general practice were 2.11 (95% CI 1.31-3.40) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.06-2.48) times more likely to recommend cancer screening than those in other specialties.
Conclusions
Chinese American women who conversed with their physicians in Chinese were less likely to perceive receiving cancer screening recommendations. Future research is needed to identify physician-specific knowledge, attitude, and cultural barriers to recommending cancer screening.
doi:10.1089/jwh.2007.0709
PMCID: PMC2945721  PMID: 19183091
9.  Confusion regarding cervical cancer screening and chlamydia screening among sexually active young women 
Objective
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently recommended that cervical cancer screening begin at 21 years of age and occur biennially for low-risk women younger than 30 years. Earlier studies suggested that women may have limited understanding of the differences between cervical cancer screening and chlamydia screening. This study assessed the knowledge of chlamydia and cervical cancer screening tests and schedules in younger women.
Methods
A survey regarding knowledge of chlamydia and cervical cancer screening was administered to 60 younger women aged 18–25 years in an obstetrics and gynaecology clinic at an urban community health centre.
Results
The majority of respondents recalled having had a Pap smear (93.3%) or chlamydia test (75.0%). Although many respondents understood that a Pap smear checks for cervical cancer (88.3%) and human papillomavirus (68.3%), 71.7% mistakenly believed that a Pap smear screens for chlamydia. No respondent correctly identified the revised cervical cancer screening schedule, and 83.3% selected annual screening. Few respondents (23.3%) identified the annual chlamydia screening schedule and 26.7% were unsure.
Conclusion
Many younger women in an urban community health centre believed that cervical cancer screening also screens for chlamydia and were confused about chlamydia screening schedules. As there is limited knowledge of the revised ACOG cervical cancer screening guidelines, there is a risk that currently low chlamydia screening rates may decrease further after these new guidelines are better known. Obstetrician gynaecologists and primary care providers should educate younger women about the differences between chlamydia and cervical cancer screening and encourage sexually active younger women to have annual chlamydia screening.
doi:10.1136/sextrans-2011-050289
PMCID: PMC3724364  PMID: 22123163
10.  CERVICAL CANCER CONTROL RESEARCH IN VIETNAMESE AMERICAN COMMUNITIES 
Census data show that the US Vietnamese population now exceeds 1,250,000. Cervical cancer among Vietnamese American women has been identified as an important health disparity. Available data indicate the cervical cancer disparity may be due to low Pap testing rates rather than variations in HPV infection rates and/or types. The cervical cancer incidence rates among Vietnamese and non-Latina white women in California during 2000–2002 were 14.0 and 7.3 per 100,000, respectively. Only 70% of Vietnamese women who participated in the 2003 California Health Interview Survey reported a recent Pap smear, compared to 84% of non-Latina white women. Higher levels of cervical cancer screening participation among Vietnamese women are strongly associated with current/previous marriage, having a usual source of care/doctor, and previous physician recommendation. Vietnamese language media campaigns and lay health worker intervention programs have been effective in increasing Pap smear use in Vietnamese American communities. Cervical cancer control programs for Vietnamese women should address knowledge deficits; enable women who are without a usual source of care to find a primary care doctor; and improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering women to ask for testing.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0386
PMCID: PMC2665877  PMID: 18990732
Cervical cancer; Pap testing; Vietnamese Americans
11.  Knowledge and Beliefs Related to Cervical Cancer and Screening Among Korean American Women 
The purpose of this article is to examine knowledge and health beliefs associated with cervical cancer screening among Korean American women. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 Korean American women in the Chicago area. Age, marital status, income, knowledge of early detection method for cervical cancer, and perceived beliefs about benefits of and barriers to receiving Pap tests were all related to outcomes of ever having a Pap test and having had one in the preceding 3 years. Variables uniquely related to ever having a Pap test were education, employment status, fluency in English, and proportion of life spent in the United States. Variables uniquely related to having had the test during the preceding 3 years were having a usual source of care and regular checkups. Different intervention components are suggested for the groups of Korean American women who have never had a Pap smear and for those who have not had one in the preceding 3 years, in addition to common intervention strategies that aim to increase knowledge and perceived benefit and to decrease perceived barriers to receiving Pap tests.
doi:10.1177/0193945908319250
PMCID: PMC3090726  PMID: 18539883
cervical cancer; screening behaviors; health behavior; symptom focus; Korean Americans; Pap smear; knowledge; beliefs
12.  Prevalence of HPV Infection And Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia And Attitudes towards HPV Vaccination among Chinese Women Aged 18-25 in Jiangsu Province 
Objective
Few data are available on the epidemiology of HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese women younger than 25 years old. This study aimed to estimate the HPV infection rate and the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women aged 18-25, as well as their knowledge of and attitudes towards HPV vaccination.
Methods
A population-based cervical cancer screening study was conducted on women aged 18-25 in Jiangsu province in 2008. Participants provided socio-demographic, reproductive and behavioral information and completed a survey about their knowledge of and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Women then underwent a gynecologic exam to provide two cervical exfoliated cell samples for high risk HPV DNA testing and liquid-based cytology (LBC) as well as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Women testing positive for any test were referred to colposcopy and biopsy. The gold standard for diagnosis of cervical lesions was directed or random biopsies.
Results
Within the sample of 316 women, 3.4% of them were diagnosed with CIN grade 2 or worse lesions and 17.1% were found to be positive for HPV DNA. Among these young women, extra-marital sexual behavior of them (OR=2.0, 95%CI: 1.1-3.8) or their husbands (OR=2.6, 95%: 1.4-4.7) were associated with an increased risk of HPV positivity. Although overall HPV awareness was low, after a brief educational intervention, 98.4% reported they would electively receive HPV vaccination and would also recommend that their daughters be vaccinated. However, most urban and rural women reported their ideal maximum out-of-pocket contribution for HPV vaccination to be less than 500 RMB and 50-100 RMB, respectively.
Conclusion
Our study indicates cervical disease burden is relatively high among sampled Chinese women aged 18-25. Appropriate educational interventions for female adolescents and strategies to subsidize vaccine costs are definitely needed to ensure the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns in China.
doi:10.1007/s11670-011-0025-3
PMCID: PMC3587523  PMID: 23467401
Cervical cancer; Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; Human papillomavirus; Knowledge; Attitude
13.  Pap smear rates among Haitian immigrant women in eastern Massachusetts. 
Public Health Reports  2005;120(2):133-139.
OBJECTIVE: Given limited prior evidence of high rates of cervical cancer in Haitian immigrant women in the U.S., this study was designed to examine self-reported Pap smear screening rates for Haitian immigrant women and compare them to rates for women of other ethnicities. METHODS: Multi-ethnic women at least 40 years of age living in neighborhoods with large Haitian immigrant populations in eastern Massachusetts were surveyed in 2000-2002. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the effect of demographic and health care characteristics on Pap smear rates. RESULTS: Overall, 81% (95% confidence interval 79%, 84%) of women in the study sample reported having had a Pap smear within three years. In unadjusted analyses, Pap smear rates differed by ethnicity (p=0.003), with women identified as Haitian having a lower crude Pap smear rate (78%) than women identified as African American (87%), English-speaking Caribbean (88%), or Latina (92%). Women identified as Haitian had a higher rate than women identified as non-Hispanic white (74%). Adjustment for differences in demographic factors known to predict Pap smear acquisition (age, marital status, education level, and household income) only partially accounted for the observed difference in Pap smear rates. However, adjustment for these variables as well as those related to health care access (single site for primary care, health insurance status, and physician gender) eliminated the ethnic difference in Pap smear rates. CONCLUSIONS: The lower crude Pap smear rate for Haitian immigrants relative to other women of color was in part due to differences in (1) utilization of a single source for primary care, (2) health insurance, and (3) care provided by female physicians. Public health programs, such as the cancer prevention programs currently utilized in eastern Massachusetts, may influence these factors. Thus, the relatively high Pap rate among women in this study may reflect the success of these programs. Public health and elected officials will need to consider closely how implementing or withdrawing these programs may impact immigrant and minority communities.
PMCID: PMC1497699  PMID: 15842114
14.  Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey 
Background:
Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear) program.
Aims:
The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2) to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3) to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit.
Patients and Methods:
A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group.
Results:
Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8%) were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%), infection in 59 (17.7%), and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2%) of the smears.
Conclusions:
The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.
doi:10.4297/najms.2010.2468
PMCID: PMC3339109  PMID: 22558549
Cervical smear; cervical intraepithelial lesion; cervical cancer screening
15.  Factors associated with cervical cancer screening uptake among Inuit women in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:438.
Background
The Canadian circumpolar Inuit population has a higher incidence rate of cervical cancer than the general population and the majority of cases occur among underscreened women. The objectives of this study were to determine Pap smear utilization rates and to determine factors associated with time-inappropriate use of cervical cancer screening among a cohort of Inuit women from Nunavik, Quebec, Canada.
Methods
This study utilizes baseline information collected from a cohort formed between January 2002 and December 2007 to study the natural history of HPV among Inuit women aged 21–69 years in Nunavik, Quebec. Cervical cancer screening history and other variables were obtained from a baseline questionnaire and medical chart review. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for potential predictors of not having a Pap smear within the previous 3 years prior to cohort entry.
Results
A total of 403 Inuit women who had a baseline questionnaire and chart review were included. The mean age of the study population was 34.2 years. In the three years prior to study entry, 25% of women did not have a Pap smear. Older age and never giving birth were significant predictors of time-inappropriate Pap smear use.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that older women and women who are not accessing reproductive care have a lower compliance with time-appropriate cervical cancer screening and future research should address potential strategies to increase screening coverage among this group.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-438
PMCID: PMC3653732  PMID: 23642072
16.  Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women 
Background
The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.
Methods
A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.
Results
Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.
Conclusion
This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical cancer screening. Community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese American women, which could enhance cervical cancer screening rates.
doi:10.2147/IJWH.S45405
PMCID: PMC3702238  PMID: 23843708
Papanicolaou test; cervical cancer screening; Chinese women
17.  Cervical Cancer Screening: Attitudes and Behaviors of Young Asian American Women 
Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women experience high incidence rates of cervical cancer but low rates of cervical cancer screenings. This study examines the behaviors and attitudes towards screening in young Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women (n=304) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results indicated Vietnamese American (OR=2.51) and Filipino American (OR=2.31) women had greater odds of ever having a Pap test than Korean American women. Those older (OR=1.55), born in the USA (OR=2.64), and those comfortable with the test (OR=3.41) also had greater odds of ever having a Pap test. Correct knowledge of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus did not significantly affect the odds of having a Pap test. Interventions to increase Pap testing in these populations should focus on increasing levels of comfort and should target those younger and foreign born.
doi:10.1007/s13187-011-0230-2
PMCID: PMC3880118  PMID: 21553330
Cervical cancer screening; Pap testing; Young Asian American women; Korean; Vietnamese; Filipino; San Francisco
18.  Epidemiology, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in the Philippines 
Cervical cancer remains to be one of the leading malignancies among Filipino women. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, such as 16 and 18, are consistently identified in Filipino women with cervical cancer. Factors identified to increase the likelihood of HPV infection and subsequent development of cervical cancer include young age at first intercourse, low socioeconomic status, high parity, smoking, use of oral contraception and risky sexual behaviors. Cancer screening programs presently available in the Philippines include Pap smears, single visit approach utilizing visual inspection with acetic acid followed by cryotherapy, as well as colposcopy. However, the uptake of screening remains low and is further compounded by the lack of basic knowledge women have regarding screening as an opportunity for prevention of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccination of both quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines has already been approved in the Philippines and is gaining popularity among the Filipinos. However, there has been no national or government vaccination policy implemented as of yet. The standard of treatment of cervical cancer is radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy. Current researches are directed towards improving availability of both preventive and curative measures of cervical cancer management.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2009.20.1.11
PMCID: PMC2676501  PMID: 19471671
Cervical cancer; Epidemiology; Screening; Human papillomavirus vaccines
19.  LOW KNOWLEDGE OF CERVICAL CANCER AND CERVICAL PAP SMEARS AMONG WOMEN IN PERU, AND THEIR IDEAS OF HOW THIS COULD BE IMPROVED 
Estimates of the percentage of women who have had Pap smears in Peru vary between 7% and 43%. This study explores what women know about cervical cancer and Pap smears, as well as their barriers to obtaining Pap smears. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with a total of 177 women in four Peruvian cities. Discussions reveal that most women did not know what causes cervical cancer. Most women did not know the purpose of Pap smears, although knowledge about Pap smears was higher than knowledge about cervical cancer. Fear, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge were the main barriers identified for not getting Pap smears. Programs and policies aiming to increase Pap smear coverage must start by educating women on cervical cancer and its prevention in order to improve women's perceptions about the screening test and increase Pap smear seeking behaviors in the long term.
doi:10.2190/IQ.31.3.d
PMCID: PMC3784617  PMID: 21988870
20.  Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46583.
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18–65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC) as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046583
PMCID: PMC3462186  PMID: 23049708
21.  Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda 
Background
Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer of women in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, the biggest hospital in Uganda, have advanced disease. Pap smear screening, on opportunistic rather than systematic basis, is offered free in the gynaecological outpatients clinic and the postnatal/family planning clinics. Medical students in the third and final clerkships are expected to learn the techniques of screening. Objectives of this study were to describe knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago hospital.
Methods
In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques), attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening.
Results
Response rate was 92% (285). Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear.
Conclusion
Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause of these attitudes and practices and identify possible interventions to change them. Medical students leave medical school without adequate skills to be able to effectively screen women for cervical cancer wherever they go to practice. Medical students and nurses training curricula needs review to incorporate practical skills on cervical cancer screening.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-6-13
PMCID: PMC1413529  PMID: 16509979
22.  Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Beliefs among Korean Immigrants in Western Washington 
Cancer  2005;104(12 Suppl):2955-2958.
Hepatocellular cancer occurs more frequently among Koreans, Vietnamese, and Chinese than other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. This excess risk can be attributed to high rates of chronic hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and low rates of HBV vaccination among Asian immigrants. However, there is little available information regarding the hepatitis B knowledge, beliefs, and practices among Koreans, the fifth-largest Asian population in the U.S. This brief report summarizes results from 30 qualitative interviews and two focus groups investigating hepatitis and liver cancer prevention, behavior, and beliefs among first-generation Korean immigrant adults ages 18–64 years residing in the Seattle–Tacoma metropolitan area of Washington State. The report concludes with suggestions for future investigations to address the high rates of chronic HBV infection and hepatocellular cancer in this vulnerable population.
doi:10.1002/cncr.21518
PMCID: PMC1810969  PMID: 16276533
AANCART; cancer; Korean Americans; hepatitis B; vaccination; hepatocellular CA; qualitative research; serologic tests
23.  What Promotes Cervical Cancer Screening among Chamorro Women in California? 
Objectives
Pacific Islander women represent a significant at-risk population for cervical cancer, yet little is known about the modifiable factors associated with routine Pap testing. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to report and discuss the known and unknown factors associated with cervical cancer screening among Chamorro women in California.
Design
This cross-sectional study explored the factors associated with receipt of regular Pap testing among Chamorro women age 18 years and older in California. A self-administered survey was designed and distributed to women in order to understand their knowledge, beliefs and behaviors regarding routine receipt of Pap tests.
Results
Only about two-thirds of women had received a Pap test within the past two years, which is below the U.S. average of 72%. Significant predictors included age, health insurance coverage, knowledge of screening frequency, and beliefs regarding risk groups. These factors, however, accounted for less than 16% of the variance in Pap testing behavior.
Conclusion
We discuss the poor predictive value of existing demographic and theoretical variables, and discuss potentially new areas of research that can aid in the development of future intervention studies. Study limitations and implications are also discussed.
doi:10.1007/s13187-012-0394-4
PMCID: PMC3500582  PMID: 22806217
cervical cancer; Pap testing; Pacific Islander; Chamorro
24.  Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening among Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, and Tongan Women 
Journal of Cancer Education  2010;25(4):595-601.
Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) groups have low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KABs) regarding breast and cervical cancer on AAPI women. A cross-sectional survey of 1,808 AAPI women was included. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were provided and 55.3%, 68.6%, and 71.9% had received mammograms, clinical breast exam, and Pap smears, respectively. KABs on breast and cervical cancer varied between the four ethnic groups. Understanding the KABs toward cancer screening among AAPI women holds promise for identifying barriers to early detection and could aid in the creation of interventions.
doi:10.1007/s13187-010-0082-1
PMCID: PMC2992127  PMID: 20238200
Knowledge; Attitudes; Beliefs; Breast and cervical cancer
25.  A Cross-border Comparison of Hepatitis B Testing Among Chinese Residing in Canada and the United States 
Background
The Western Pacific region has the highest level of endemic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the world, with the Chinese representing nearly one-third of infected persons globally. HBV carriers are potentially infectious to others and have an increased risk of chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies from the U.S. and Canada demonstrate that immigrants, particularly from Asia, are disproportionately affected by liver cancer.
Purpose
Given the different health care systems in Seattle and Vancouver, two geographically proximate cities, we examined HBV testing levels and factors associated with testing among Chinese residents of these cities.
Methods
We surveyed Chinese living in areas of Seattle and Vancouver with relatively high proportions of Chinese residents. In-person interviews were conducted in Cantonese, Mandarin, or English. Our bivariate analyses consisted of the chi-square test, with Fisher’s Exact test as necessary. We then performed unconditional logistic regression, first examining only the city effect as the sole explanatory variable of the model, then assessing the adjusted city effect in a final main-effects model that was constructed through backward selection to select statistically significant variables at alpha = 0.05.
Results
Survey cooperation rates for Seattle and Vancouver were 58% and 59%, respectively. In Seattle, 48% reported HBV testing, whereas in Vancouver, 55% reported testing. HBV testing in Seattle was lower than in Vancouver, with a crude odds ratio of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.56, 0.94). However after adjusting for demographic, health care access, knowledge, and social support variables, we found no significant differences in HBV testing between the two cities. In our logistic regression model, the odds of HBV testing were greatest when the doctor recommended the test, followed by when the employer asked for the test.
Discussion
Findings from this study support the need for additional research to examine the effectiveness of clinic-based and workplace interventions to promote HBV testing among immigrants to North America.
PMCID: PMC3856895  PMID: 19640196
Asian and Pacific Islanders; chronic hepatitis B; liver cancer; prevention clinic

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