This study provided a simultaneous, confirmatory test of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting heavy episodic drinking (HED) among college students. It was hypothesized that past HED, drinking attitudes, subjective norms and drinking refusal self-efficacy would predict intention, which would in turn predict future HED. Participants consisted of 131 college drinkers (63% female) who reported having engaged in HED in the previous two weeks. Participants were recruited and completed questionnaires within the context of a larger intervention study (see Collins & Carey, 2005). Latent factor structural equation modeling was used to test the ability of the TPB to predict HED. Chi-square tests and fit indices indicated good fit for the final structural models. Self-efficacy and attitudes but not subjective norms significantly predicted baseline intention, and intention and past HED predicted future HED. Contrary to hypotheses, however, a structural model excluding past HED provided a better fit than a model including it. Although further studies must be conducted before a definitive conclusion is reached, a TPB model excluding past behavior, which is arguably more parsimonious and theory driven, may provide better prediction of HED among college drinkers than a model including past behavior.
college drinking; alcohol use; theory of planned behavior; heavy episodic drinking; college students
Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (β = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students.
Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N=2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents’ marijuana beliefs—attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control—as posited by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1991). These three types of beliefs were hypothesized to predict marijuana intention, which in turn was hypothesized to predict marijuana consumption. Results of confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the psychometric properties of the two-factor parenting structure as well as the five-factor structure of the TPB. Further, the proposed integrative predictive framework, estimated with a latent structural equation model, was largely supported. Parental knowledge inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; parental warmth inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective norms, ps<.001. Marijuana intention (p<.001), but not perceived behavioral control, predicted marijuana use 1 year later. In households with high parental knowledge, parental warmth also was perceived to be high (r=.54, p<.001). Owing to the analysis of nationally representative data, results are generalizable to the United States population of adolescents 12–18 years of age.
Parental knowledge; Parental warmth; Theory of planned behavior; Marijuana; Adolescents
The authors investigated whether a causal-indicator model or an effect-indicator model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is more suitable for predicting behavioral intention and for which behaviors. No previous studies have evaluated this question using the same sample and same behavior. In this study, African American adolescents ages 12–17 participating in risk reduction classes were assessed on their initial attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention regarding condom use. Second-order structural equation modeling indicated that the effect-indicator model exhibited superior fit above the causal-indicator model. Furthermore, modeling the behavioral antecedents in a causal way may not be as accurate due to the underlying uni-dimensional nature of attitudes, subjective norms, and control. The TPB was not disconfirmed as a suitable model for African American adolescents’ regarding condom use. Prevention programs may benefit by focusing on adolescent behavior change with regard to the global components in order to influence more specific concepts of these social cognitions. Editors’ Strategic Implications: Despite limitations including correlational data, this study yields implications for prevention programming and, more broadly, an important theoretical elaboration on effect-indicator and causal-indicator models of the TPB.
African American adolescents; Theory of planned behavior; Condom use intentions; Effect indicator model
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was integrated within the theory of self-care (SCT) to explore the predictive value of extending TPB to measure attitudes and beliefs regarding a behavioral goal, and determine the ability of goal beliefs to predict engagement in the combined, multiple behaviors necessary to control BP. The hypothesized model was evaluated in a sample of 306 community-dwelling African Americans between 21 and 65 years of age. Scales developed for the study achieved acceptable reliability (α=.68–95). Structural equation modeling analysis resulted in a second-order factor structure with attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention modeled as indicators of a construct representing goal beliefs related to keeping BP within normal limits. This latent construct was conceptualized within the theory of self-care as “self-care motivation,” and predicted 18% of the variance in self-care behaviors necessary for BP control. The model achieved acceptable fit (CMIN/df = 2.32; CFI = .95; RMSEA = .066). Final assessment of fit was done using multi-group SEM and bootstrapping techniques. In this extension of the TPB attitudes and beliefs regarding the goal of keeping BP within normal limits were found to determine one's motivation to engage in the multiple behaviors necessary for BP control.
Blood pressure; self-care; self-care agency; self-care motivation; theory of planned behavior; structural equation modeling
The authors examined the relation between Greek students’ perceptions of alcohol consumption in their pledge classes (descriptive norms) and acceptability of drinking (injunctive norms) and the ability of these normative influences to predict drinking behavior, alcohol-related negative consequences, and symptoms of alcohol dependence concurrently and prospectively over 1 year. Participants were 279 men and 303 women recruited from incoming pledge classes of 12 fraternities and 6 sororities, who completed measures of descriptive and injunctive norms, alcohol use, and consequences. Results revealed that descriptive norms significantly predicted concurrent drinking. After controlling for baseline drinking, injunctive norms significantly predicted drinking 1 year later and predicted alcohol-related consequences and dependency symptoms at baseline and follow-up. The potential to incorporate injunctive norms into preventive interventions is discussed.
This research was designed to evaluate the relative contribution of social norms, demographics, drinking motives, and alcohol expectancies in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems among heavy-drinking college students.
Participants included 818 (57.6% women) first-year undergraduates who reported at least one heavy-drinking episode in the previous month. In addition to providing demographic information (gender and fraternity/sorority membership) participants completed Web-based assessments of social norms (perceived descriptive norms regarding typical student drinking, injunctive norms regarding friends’ and parents’ approval), motives (social, enhancement, coping, and conformity), and expectancies and evaluations of positive and negative alcohol effects.
Regression results indicated that descriptive and injunctive norms were among the best predictors of college student drinking. With respect to alcohol problems, results indicated that coping motives accounted for the largest proportion of unique variance. Finally, results revealed that alcohol consumption mediated the relationships between predictors and problems for social norms, whereas coping motives, negative expectancies, and evaluation of negative effects were directly associated with alcohol problems despite having relatively weak or null unique associations with consumption.
The results of this study substantiate social norms as being among the best predictors of alcohol consumption in this population and suggest that drinking to cope is a better predictor of problems. The findings are discussed in terms of practical prevention and treatment implications.
College students overestimate other students’ drinking behavior (descriptive norms) and attitudes (injunctive norms). This study explored the effects of demographics, norm type, and reference group on the magnitude of self-other differences (SODs). Participants (N = 1611; 64% women) completed surveys assessing demographics, drinking patterns, and perceived norms. A subset of 122 students provided consumption data one month later to test predictors of changes in drinking. Overall, women and non-Greeks reported larger SODs for both norm types compared to men and Greeks. Heavier drinkers reported smaller SODs. Gender-by-reference group interactions revealed that women had larger SODs for reference groups increasingly distal to them; for men, the largest SODs occur for close friends versus more distal groups. Larger SODs for descriptive norms predicted increases in drinking, consistent with Social Norms Theory.
Driving after drinking (DAD) is a serious public health concern found to be more common among college students than those of other age groups or same-aged non-college peers. The current study examined potential predictors of DAD among a dual-site sample of 3,753 (65% female, 58% Caucasian) college students. Results showed that 19.1% of respondents had driven after 3 or more drinks and 8.6% had driven after 5 or more drinks in the past three months. A logistic regression model showed that male status, fraternity or sorority affiliation, family history of alcohol abuse, medium or heavy drinking (as compared to light drinking), more approving self-attitudes towards DAD, and alcohol expectancies for sexual enhancement and risk/aggression, were independently associated with driving after drinking over and above covariates. These results extend the current understanding of this high risk drinking behavior in collegiate populations and provide implications for preventive strategies. Findings indicate that in addition to targeting at-risk subgroups, valuable directions for DAD-related interventions may include focusing on lowering both self-approval of DAD and alcohol-related expectancies, particularly those associated with risk/aggression and sexuality.
alcohol; driving; drinking; injunctive norms; expectancies
A gender difference in fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) is widely documented, but not well understood. Using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey, we assessed the extent to which gender differences in FVI are attributable to gender differences in constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Females reported more favorable attitudes and greater perceived behavior control regarding FVI than males, and these beliefs mediated the observed gender difference. Males reported greater perceived norms for FVI, but norms did not predict FVI. Gender did not moderate the influence of TPB constructs on FVI. Thus, TPB constructs substantially explained the gender difference. Interventions targeted toward adult males may benefit by promoting favorable attitudes and perceived behavioral control over FVI.
Gender; fruit and vegetables; intake; theory of planned behavior
Smoking is one of the risk behaviours that begin in adolescence, and therefore identifying predictors of smoking is necessary for planning prevention programmes.
To examine the ability of the extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict the intention to smoke.
This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Iran, 2011. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire which included items on demographics, smoking behaviour, components of the TPB model (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control and intention) and an added construct on smoking self-identity. Data were analysed using descriptive, correlation and linear regression statistics.
365 male high school students with a mean age of 16.5 (SD=1.2) years were studied. Fifty-five (15.1%) of the students surveyed were current smokers. All components of the TPB model and smoking self identity were statistically significantly related to intention to smoke (p<0.001). The TPB constructs with and without smoking self-identity accounted for 58.5% (adjusted R2) and 54.8% of the variance observed for intention to smoke, respectively. Result also revealed the highest weights for perceived behaviour control (β=−0.35).
The extended model of the TPB predicted ‘intention to smoke’ better than the original TPB. The findings of this study might be used as a framework in designing heart disease prevention programmes. Thus the findings have implications for both health promotion specialists and cardiologists. They could place an emphasis on perceived behaviour control, specifying that individuals who do not smoke should not start and if they are smokers it is possible to stop smoking.
To investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict healthy eating behavior in a group of urban Native American youth.
Native American boys and girls (n = 139), ages 9–18 years old, were given a self-administered survey to assess eating behavior using the TBP constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm, barriers, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control). Youth were also measured for height and weight and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses of TBP model were performed with SPSS software.
No association was found between intention and healthy eating behavior. However, independently healthy eating behavior was correlated with barriers (0.46), attitude (0.44), perceived behavioral control (0.35), and subjective norm (0.34). The most predictive barriers to eating healthy included the availability and taste of foods. Boys' eating behavior was most predicted by subjective norm, while girls' eating behavior was most predicted by barriers.
Lack of association between intention and healthy eating behavior suggests that factors other than intentions may drive healthy eating behaviors in urban Native American youth. Results indicate that programs promoting healthy eating to youth might focus on collaborating with families to make healthy foods more appealing to youth.
Over half of kidney cancer survivors (KCS) are completely inactive and only a quarter are meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines. This highlights the need to identify and understand the determinants of PA in this understudied population. The purpose of this study is to determine the social cognitive correlates of PA intention and behavior in KCS using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB).
All 1,985 KCS diagnosed between 1996 and 2010 in Alberta, Canada were mailed a self-report survey that consisted of the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and standard TPB items for intention, planning, perceived behavioral control (PBC), affective and instrumental attitudes, and descriptive and injunctive norms. Standard demographic and medical variables were also collected.
Completed surveys were received from 703 of 1,654 (43%) eligible KCS. The TPB was tested using structural equation modelling and demonstrated an adequate-to-good fit to the data [χ² = 256.88, p < .001; TLI = 0.97; CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.06, 90% CI = 0.05-0.06].
There were significant pathways to PA from PBC (ß = 0.18, p = 0.02), planning (ß = 0.22, p < 0.01), and intention (ß = 0.31, p < 0.01); and to planning from intention (ß = 0.81, p < 0.01). In addition, there were significant model pathways to intention from instrumental attitude (ß = 0.28, p = 0.03), descriptive norm (ß = 0.09, p = 0.01), and PBC (ß = 0.52, p < 0.01). Overall, the TPB accounted for 69%, 63%, and 42% of the variance in intention, planning and PA, respectively.
The TPB appears to be a useful model for explaining PA in KCS. All TPB constructs except injunctive norm and affective attitude were useful for explaining intention with PBC emerging as the largest correlate. Developing PA interventions based on the TPB may be effective in promoting PA in KCS and may lead to important improvements in health.
Exercise; Motivation; Social cognitive models; Correlates
The purpose of this study was to test a version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) for predicting safe sex behavior in a sample of 228 HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users. We hypothesized that, in addition to TPB constructs, participants’ amount of methamphetamine use and desire to stop unsafe sex behaviors would predict intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors. In turn, we predicted that safer sex intentions would be positively correlated with participants’ percentage of protected sex. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that 48% of the total variance in safer sex intentions was predicted by our model, with less negative attitudes toward safer sex, greater normative beliefs, greater control beliefs, less methamphetamine use, less intent to have sex, and greater desire to stop unsafe sex emerging as significant predictors of greater safer sex intentions. Safer sex intentions were positively associated with future percent protected sex (p<.05). These findings suggest that, among heterosexual methamphetamine users, the TPB is an excellent model for predicting safer sex practices in this population, as are some additional factors (e.g., methamphetamine use). Effective interventions for increasing safer sex practices in methamphetamine user will likely include constructs from this model with augmentations to help reduce methamphetamine use.
Theory of Planned Behavior; Safer Sex; Methamphetamine; Drug use
The predictive value of the psychosocial constructs of Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) on subsequent dietary habits has not been previously investigated in a multivariate approach that includes demographic factors and past dietary behaviour among adults. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent TPB constructs, including intention, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and perceived social norms, measured at age 25 predicted four eating behaviours (intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, total fat and added sugar) eight years later.
Two hundred and forty men and 279 women that participated in the Oslo Youth Study were followed from 1991 to 1999 (mean age 25 and 33 years, respectively). Questionnaires at baseline (1991) included the constructs of the TPB and dietary habits, and at follow-up (1999) questionnaires included demographic factors and diet. For the assessment of diet, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with a few food items was used at baseline while an extensive semi-quantitative FFQ was used at follow-up.
Among men, attitudes, subjective norms and previous eating behaviour were significant predictors of fruit and vegetable intake, while education and past eating behaviour were predictive of whole grain intake in multivariate analyses predicting dietary intake at follow-up. For women, perceived behavioural control, perceived social norms and past behaviour were predictive of fruit and vegetable intake, while subjective norms, education and past eating behaviour were predictive of whole grain intake. For total fat intake, intention was predictive for men and perceived behavioural control for women. Household income and past consumption of sugar-rich foods were significant predictors of added sugar intake among men, while past intake of sugar-rich foods was a significant predictor of added sugar intake among women.
After adjusting for potential confounding factors, all psychosocial factors assessed among young adults appeared predictive of one or more eating behaviours reported eight years later. Results point to the influence of psychosocial factors on future eating behaviours and the potential for interventions targeting such factors.
This study aimed to resolve the direction of the relation between Greek affiliation and substance use by taking advantage of the quasi-experimental nature of change in college fraternity/sorority affiliation. Precollege individual differences and college substance use were examined as a function of time-varying Greek status to characterize self-selection (by which heavy substance users opt into Greek systems) and socialization (by which Greek systems foster heavy substance use). Prospective data on continuously enrolled college students (N = 2,376), assessed at precollege and in the first 6 semesters of college, were used. Latent class analysis indicated 4 discrete groups of status: constant Greek members (30%), constant nonmembers (64%), late joiners (2%), and droppers (4%). Random coefficient models demonstrated disaffiliation with Greek systems is associated with decreases in risky drinking and alcohol-conducive environmental factors (peer norms and alcohol availability), whereas affiliation is associated with increases, indicating Greek socialization via sociocognitive and physical environments. Future Greeks differed from nonmembers in diverse individual characteristics and heavier substance use at precollege, suggesting multiple selection paths into Greek systems. Findings suggest a reciprocal relation between Greek environment and individuals in determining the trajectories of college drinking and heterogeneity in drinking as functions of changes in Greek affiliation.
substance use; alcohol use; fraternity and sorority; college environment
Background: Regular physical activity is ranked as a leading health indicator. Despite the extensive benefits of physical activity, elder people are much less active than desired. Using Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the self-efficacy construct, this study examined the prediction of physical activity intention and behavior in a sample of elderly male resident of a nursing home.
Methods: In a cross-sectional study of the residents of Kahrizak Nursing Home in Tehran, Iran, elderly men who were 60 years or older, capable of independent living, mobility, and verbal communication were asked to complete measures of the TPB, self-efficacy and physical activity behavior.
Results: A hierarchical step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that affective/instrumental attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) explained 32.8% of the variance in physical activity intention, and self-efficacy provided an additional 2.7%. In a reverse step regression, the TPB variables explained an additional 12.2% of physical activity intention. In a multiple regression analysis on physical activity behavior, affective/instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC) and intention explained 15.7% of the variance in physical activity behavior while self-efficacy contributed an additional 5.6%. In the reverse step regression, TPB predictors contributed an additional 3.0% in explaining the variance in physical activity behavior.
Conclusion: The results indicate that in addition to the TPB, self-efficacy may also play an important role in the prediction of behavior, and should be included in the design of physical activity programs for elderly men of nursing home residents.
Attitude; intention; elderly; self-efficacy
Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents’ personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and compare these across groups of new parents, non-parents, and established parents.
Non-parents (n = 92), new parents (n = 135), and established parents (n = 71) completed TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions and three day food records at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-delivery (for parents) and 6- and 12-months post-baseline (for non-parents).
Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that among men, new- and established-parents had greater intentions to eat healthy compared to non-parents, F(2) = 3.59, p = .03. Among women, established parents had greater intentions than new- and non-parents, F(2) = 5.33, p = .01. Among both men and women during the first 6-months post-delivery, new-parents experienced decreased PBC, whereas established parents experienced increased PBC. Overall, affective attitudes were the strongest predictor of intentions for men (β = 0.55, p < .001) and women (β = 0.38, p < .01). PBC predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption for men (β = 0.45, p = .02), and changes in fat consumption for men (β = −0.25, p = .03) and women (β = −.24, p < .05), regardless of parent status.
The transition to parenthood for new and established parents may impact motivation for healthy eating, especially PBC within the framework of TPB. However, regardless of parental status, affective attitudes and PBC are critical antecedents of intentions and eating behaviour. Interventions should target affective attitudes and PBC to motivate healthy eating and may need to be intensified during parenthood.
Theory of planned behaviour; Nutrition; Dietary behaviour; Parenthood
Despite attempts to control college-aged drinking, binge and underage
drinking continues at colleges and universities. Although often
underutilized, faculty have the potential to influence students’ behaviors
and attitudes towards drinking. Little information is available pertaining
to college faculty drinking patterns, views on drinking, or their influence
on college drinking. What little information is available predates the
economic crisis, mandates for increased alcohol education, and the American
Pharmacists Association’s call for increased alcohol awareness in
This study was designed to determine alcohol use patterns and viewpoints
among faculty at U.S. colleges of pharmacy, in particular, to identify
alcohol practices among faculty, use of alcohol with their students,
mentioning alcohol in classroom as a social norm, and perceived drinking
norms within their colleagues.
Following Institution Review Board approval, 2809 invitations were emailed to
U.S. pharmacy faculty for this survey-based study. The survey consisted of
demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders
Identification Test (AUDIT), and questions pertaining to personal and
institution attitudes on drinking and on drinking with students.
More than 96% of 753 respondents had a total AUDIT score <8. Males and
preceptors were more likely to have higher AUDIT scores. More than 75% of
faculty reported never drinking with students.
In order to help pharmacy students address the extent of their alcohol use
and misuse, pharmacy faculty must address their own use, along with their
own and their institutions attitudes and behaviors towards alcohol use.
Alcohol Drinking; Schools, Pharmacy; United States
The present research aimed to (1) determine if students underestimate gender-specific descriptive normative perceptions for protective behavioral strategies; (2) to evaluate the relationships among perceived gender-specific descriptive and injunctive drinking norms and perceived gender-specific descriptive norms for protective behavioral strategies; and (3) to examine whether normative perceptions for protective behavioral strategies relate to use of these strategies when controlling for relevant drinking behavior factors (i.e., alcohol consumption, negative consequences, and attitude toward drinking behavior) and social norms factors (i.e., perceived descriptive and injunctive norms). Students (N = 666; 56.6% male) completed measures assessing drinking behavior and attitudes toward drinking, perceived descriptive and injunctive norms, perceived protective behavioral strategies, and protective behavioral strategies. Findings demonstrated that students consistently underestimated the use of strategies for the typical male student, whereas results were less consistent for the typical female student. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for protective behavioral strategies were associated with personal use of these strategies, even when controlling for relevant drinking behavior and social norms factors. Results stress the importance of evaluating factors that are associated with use of protective behavioral strategies. Implications for social norms preventative interventions are discussed.
normative perceptions; social norms; alcohol; protective behavioral strategies
Aerobic physical activity (PA) and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample.
The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults.
A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec). These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training.
TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions.
These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.
Walking is the primary focus of population-based physical activity initiatives but a theoretical understanding of this behaviour is still elusive. The purpose of this study was to integrate personality, the perceived environment, and planning into a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework to predict leisure-time walking.
Participants were a random sample (N = 358) of Canadian adults who completed measures of the TPB, planning, perceived neighbourhood environment, and personality at Time 1 and self-reported walking behaviour two months later.
Analyses using structural equation modelling provided evidence that leisure-time walking is largely predicted by intention (standardized effect = .42) with an additional independent contribution from proximity to neighbourhood retail shops (standardized effect = .18). Intention, in turn, was predicted by attitudes toward walking and perceived behavioural control. Effects of perceived neighbourhood aesthetics and walking infrastructure on walking were mediated through attitudes and intention. Moderated regression analysis showed that the intention-walking relationship was moderated by conscientiousness and proximity to neighbourhood recreation facilities but not planning.
Overall, walking behaviour is theoretically complex but may best be addressed at a population level by facilitating strong intentions in a receptive environment even though individual differences may persist.
To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing.
A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio.
The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing.
The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due to the large proportion of low intenders that ended up being tested contrary to their intention before entering the antenatal clinic. PMTCT programs should strengthen women's intention through social approval and information that testing will provide positive consequences for them. However, women's rights to opt-out should be emphasized in any attempt to improve the PMTCT programs.
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) serves to understand determinants that predict the intention to exercise. According to this theory, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control determine intention. This is the first theory-based tool designed to measure the determinants of exercise among women in Puerto Rico who are breast cancer survivors. Understanding the determinants will assist in planning theory based interventions. The purpose of this study was to develop a TPB-based questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise of breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for questionnaire development and psychometric testing. Three independent samples were recruited for the phases of item generation, pilot testing, and evaluation of psychometric properties. An initial 97-item questionnaire was constructed. Test–retest reliability was assessed for the indirect subscales; six items were found unreliable and removed. For the direct subscales, seven items with item-to-total correlations <0.30 were removed. The final version consisted of 84 items, with Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant, fair-to-moderate correlations of all but one of the direct subscales and the multiplied scores of the indirect subscales of similar constructs.
Smoking is highly prevalent among lesbian, gay men, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and contributes to health disparities. Guided by the theory of planned behavior (TPB), we identified beliefs related to attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms, as well as LGBT-specific variables, to explain variance in intention to quit smoking in the next 6 months in LGBT smokers.
Individual interviews (n = 19) identified beliefs about quitting smoking and LGBT-salient variables and aided in survey development. Surveys were sent to a random sample from an LGBT community center's mailing list and center attendees, with a 25.4% response rate. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with the final sample of 101 smokers.
No sociodemographic or LGBT-specific variables beyond the TPB constructs were related to intention to quit smoking. A multivariate TPB model explained 33.9% of the variance in quitting intention. More positive attitudes and specific beliefs that cessation would make smokers feel more like their ideal selves and improve health and longevity were related to greater intention to quit (p values < .05). Subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were marginally significant, with perceived approval of partners and others and beliefs that life goal achievement would make it easier to quit positively related to intention. Depression and stress levels were high.
This is among the first studies to examine theoretically grounded variables related to intention to quit smoking in LGBT smokers. We identified specific behavioral, normative, and control beliefs that can serve as intervention targets to reduce smoking in the LGBT community.