Several inflammatory biomarkers have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality in dialysis patients, but their usefulness in clinical practice or as surrogate endpoints is not certain. The purpose of the present study was to determine the intrapatient variation of C-reactive protein, IL-6, fetuin-A and albumin in a population of dialysis patients.
Apparently healthy dialysis patients with either a tunneled dialysis catheter or fistula had monthly assessments of these biomarkers for a total of four determinations, and the intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated as measures of intersubject variance.
Our results showed large within-subject variation relative to the total variation in the measurements (31-46%). Having a tunneled catheter as opposed to a fistula was not significantly associated with mean levels, suggesting that chronic subclinical catheter infection does not explain the variation seen in the biomarkers. In contrast, there was a rapid change in these biomarkers with a clinically apparent acute infection.
These results suggest that these biomarkers have limitations for use as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials due to wide fluctuations, even in apparently clinically healthy individuals.
Biomarkers, precision; Chronic inflammation; Chronic kidney disease; CKD stage 5D; Inflammatory biomarkers, intrapatient variance; Tunneled dialysis catheter
Although several studies have demonstrated early survival advantages with peritoneal dialysis (PD) over hemodialysis (HD), the reason for the excess mortality observed among incident HD patients remains to be established, to our knowledge. This study explores the relationship between mortality and dialysis modality, focusing on the role of HD vascular access type at the time of dialysis initiation.
A retrospective cohort study was performed among local adult chronic kidney disease patients who consecutively initiated PD and HD with a tunneled cuffed venous catheter (HD-TCC) or a functional arteriovenous fistula (HD-AVF) in our institution in the year 2008. A total of 152 patients were included in the final analysis (HD-AVF, n = 59; HD-TCC, n = 51; PD, n = 42). All cause and dialysis access-related morbidity/mortality were evaluated at one year. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to compare the survival of PD patients with those who initiated HD with an AVF or with a TCC.
Compared with PD patients, both HD-AVF and HD-TCC patients were more likely to be older (p<0.001) and to have a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.017) and cardiovascular disease (p = 0.020). Overall, HD-TCC patients were more likely to have clinical visits (p = 0.069), emergency room visits (p<0.001) and hospital admissions (p<0.001). At the end of follow-up, HD-TCC patients had a higher rate of dialysis access-related complications (1.53 vs. 0.93 vs. 0.64, per patient-year; p<0.001) and hospitalizations (0.47 vs. 0.07 vs. 0.14, per patient-year; p = 0.034) than HD-AVF and PD patients, respectively. The survival rates at one year were 96.6%, 74.5% and 97.6% for HD-AVF, HD-TCC and PD groups, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, HD-TCC use at the time of dialysis initiation was the important factor associated with death (HR 16.128, 95%CI [1.431-181.778], p = 0.024).
Our results suggest that HD vascular access type at the time of renal replacement therapy initiation is an important modifier of the relationship between dialysis modality and survival among incident dialysis patients.
Little has been written about acute blood loss from hemodialysis vascular access. We describe a 57-year-old Caucasian male with an approximately 7 gm/dL drop in hemoglobin due to bleeding from a ruptured aneurysm in his right brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF). There was no evidence of fistula infection. The patient was successfully managed by blood transfusions and insertion of a tunneled dialysis catheter for dialysis access. Later, the fistula was ligated and a new fistula was constructed in the opposite arm. Aneurysm should be considered in cases of acute vascular access bleeding in chronic dialysis patients.
Twenty-three out of thirty-six patients using a forearm arteriovenous fistula for dialysis reported symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome in the fistula hand during dialysis. By contrast with other reported groups of patients with the syndrome, symptoms were common in male patients, and confined to the non-dominant (fistula) hand. Predialysis venous pressure in the hand and hand volume were increased on the side of the fistula, and increasing hand volume during dialysis was associated with the development of symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Severe symptoms during dialysis necessitated carpal tunnel decompression in two male patients. Measures to reduce the incidence of this complication of arteriovenous fistulae in dialysis patients are discussed.
A mature, functional arteriovenous (AV) access is the lifeline for a hemodialysis (HD) patient as it provides sufficient enough blood flow for adequate dialysis. As the chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population is expanding, and because of the well-recognized hazardous complications of dialysis catheters, the projected placement and use of AV accesses for HD is on the rise. Although a superior access than catheters, AV accesses are not without complications. The primary complication that causes AV accesses to fail is stenosis with subsequent thrombosis. Surveying for stenosis can be performed in a variety of ways. Clinical monitoring, measuring flow, determining pressure, and measuring recirculation are all methods that show promise. In addition, stenosis can be directly visualized, through noninvasive techniques such as color duplex imaging, or through minimally invasive venography. Each method of screening has its advantages and disadvantages, and several studies exist which attempt to answer the question of which test is the most useful. Ultimately, to maintain the functionality of the access for the HD patient, a team approach becomes imperative. The collaboration and cooperation of the patient, nephrologist, dialysis nurse and technician, vascular access coordinator, interventionalist, and vascular surgeon is necessary to preserve this lifeline.
Hemodialysis; vascular access; surveillance; arteriovenous fistula; arteriovenous graft
Catheter-related bloodstream infections (BSI) account for the majority of hemodialysis-related infections. There are no published data on the efficacy of the chlorhexidine-impregnated foam dressing at reducing catheter-related BSI in hemodialysis patients.
Prospective non-blinded cross-over intervention trial to determine the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated foam dressing (Biopatch®) to reduce catheter-related BSI in hemodialysis patients.
Two outpatient dialysis centers
A total of 121 patients who were dialyzed through tunneled central venous catheters received the intervention during the trial.
The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. A nested cohort study of all patients who received the Biopatch® Antimicrobial Dressing was also conducted. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for development of BSI.
37 bloodstream infections occurred in the intervention group for a rate of 6.3 BSIs/1000 dialysis sessions and 30 bloodstream infections in the control group for a rate of 5.2 BSIs/1000 dialysis sessions and [RR 1.22, CI (0.76, 1.97); P=0.46]. The Biopatch® Antimicrobial Dressing was well-tolerated with only two patients (<2%) experiencing dermatitis that led to its discontinuation. The only independent risk factor for development of BSI was dialysis treatment at one dialysis center [aOR 4.4 (1.77, 13.65); P=0.002]. Age ≥ 60 years [aOR 0.28 (0.09, 0.82); P=0.02] was associated with lower risk for BSI.
The use of a chlorhexidine-impregnated foam dressing (Biopatch®) did not decrease catheter-related BSIs among hemodialysis patients with tunneled central venous catheters.
chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing; hemodialysis; bloodstream infection; tunneled catheter
A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower extremity DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011.
AV fistula; catheter thrombolysis; unilateral upper limb edema; upper extremity deep vein thrombosis
Although an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the hemodialysis access of choice, its prevalence continues to be lower than recommended in the United States. We assessed the association between past peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and lack of functioning AVFs.
Participants & Setting
Prevalent hemodialysis population in 7 Mayo Clinic outpatient hemodialysis units. Cases were without functioning AVFs and controls were with functioning AVFs on January 31, 2011.
History of PICCs.
Lack of functioning AVFs.
On January 31, 2011, a total of 425 patients were receiving maintenance hemodialysis, of whom 282 were included in this study. Of these, 120 (42.5%; cases) were dialyzing through a tunneled dialysis catheter or synthetic arteriovenous graft and 162 (57.5%; controls) had a functioning AVF. PICC use was evaluated in both groups and identified in 30% of hemodialysis patients, with 54% of these placed after dialysis therapy initiation. Cases were more likely to be women (52.5% vs 33.3% in the control group; P = 0.001), with smaller mean vein (4.9 vs 5.8 mm; P < 0.001) and artery diameters (4.6 vs 4.9 mm; P = 0.01) than controls. A PICC was identified in 53 (44.2%) cases, but only 32 (19.7%) controls (P < 0.001). We found a strong and independent association between PICC use and lack of a functioning AVF (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9–5.5; P < 0.001). This association persisted after adjustment for confounders, including upper-extremity vein and artery diameters, sex, and history of central venous catheter (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5–5.5; P = 0.002).
Retrospective study, participants mostly white.
PICCs are commonly placed in patients with end-stage renal disease and are a strong independent risk factor for lack of functioning AVFs.
Chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; arteriovenous fistula; hemodialysis; dialysis access
Background and Objective:
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) remains the generally accepted method for management of renal failure in chronic and acute renal failure. Despite the rapidly increasing use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) since its introduction, controversy persists as to the efficacy and exact role of the modality in the treatment of end stage renal failure. The aim of this paper is to present the experience with laparoscopic placement of a peritoneal dialysis catheter and starting the peritoneal dialysis on the same day.
The laparoscopic placement of a peritoneal dialysis catheter was performed on 11 patients (10 males and 1 female) with an average age of 35 years, over a 12-month period. The procedure was done using two 5 mm abdominal trocars. The precise position of the catheter on the pelvis was ensured laparoscopically. One to two liters exchange dialysis was used for every patient, and no leakage was recorded.
The patients tolerated the procedure well. The peritoneal dialysis was started immediately. Patients were discharged after an overnight stay, and PD was carried out routinely.
The results of laparoscopic placement of a peritoneal dialysis catheter show the following advantages: minimal incision; less surgical trauma; the procedure hastens the early start of peritoneal dialysis and has no complications.
Lkaparoscopy; Peritoneal dialysis; Catheter
Over the past 20 years children have benefited from major improvements in both technology and clinical management of dialysis. Morbidity during dialysis sessions has decreased with seizures being exceptional and hypotensive episodes rare. Pain and discomfort have been reduced with the use of chronic internal jugular venous catheters and anesthetic creams for fistula puncture. Non-invasive technologies to assess patient target dry weight and access flow can significantly reduce patient morbidity and health care costs. The development of urea kinetic modeling enables calculation of the dialysis dose delivery, Kt/V, and an indirect assessment of the intake. Nutritional assessment and support are of major importance for the growing child. Even if the validity of these “urea only” data is questioned, their analysis provides information useful for follow-up. Newer machines provide more precise control of ultrafiltration by volumetric assessment and continuous blood volume monitoring during dialysis sessions. Buffered bicarbonate solutions are now standard and more biocompatible synthetic membranes and specific small size material dialyzers and tubing have been developed for young infants. More recently, the concept of “ultrapure” dialysate, i.e. free from microbiological contamination and endotoxins, has developed. This will enable the use of hemodiafiltration, especially with the on-line option, which has many theoretical advantages and should be considered in the case of maximum/optimum dialysis need. Although the optimum dialysis dose requirement for children remains uncertain, reports of longer duration and/or daily dialysis show they are more effective for phosphate control than conventional hemodialysis and should be considered at least for some high-risk patients with cardiovascular impairment. In children hemodialysis has to be individualized and viewed as an “integrated therapy” considering their long-term exposure to chronic renal failure treatment. Dialysis is seen only as a temporary measure for children compared with renal transplantation because this enables the best chance of rehabilitation in terms of educational and psychosocial functioning. In long term chronic dialysis, however, the highest standards should be applied to these children to preserve their future “cardiovascular life” which might include more dialysis time and on-line hemodiafiltration with synthetic high flux membranes if we are able to improve on the rather restricted concept of small-solute urea dialysis clearance.
Hemodialysis; Children; Guidelines
The Canadian Study of Prediction of Death, Dialysis and Interim Cardiovascular Events (CanPREDDICT) is a large, prospective, pan-Canadian, cohort study designed to improve our understanding of determinants of renal and cardiovascular (CV) disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The primary objective is to clarify the associations between traditional and newer biomarkers in the prediction of specific renal and CV events, and of death in patients with CKD managed by nephrologists. This information could then be used to better understand biological variation in outcomes, to develop clinical prediction models and to inform enrolment into interventional studies which may lead to novel treatments.
Commenced in 2008, 2546 patients have been enrolled with eGFR between 15 and 45 ml/min 1.73m2 from a representative sample in 25 rural, urban, academic and non academic centres across Canada. Patients are to be followed for an initial 3 years at 6 monthly intervals, and subsequently annually. Traditional biomarkers include eGFR, urine albumin creatinine ratio (uACR), hemoglobin (Hgb), phosphate and albumin. Newer biomarkers of interest were selected on the basis of biological relevance to important processes, commercial availability and assay reproducibility. They include asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), troponin I, cystatin C, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL6) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). Blood and urine samples are collected at baseline, and every 6 monthly, and stored at −80°C. Outcomes of interest include renal replacement therapy, CV events and death, the latter two of which are adjudicated by an independent panel.
The baseline distribution of newer biomarkers does not appear to track to markers of kidney function and therefore may offer some discriminatory value in predicting future outcomes. The granularity of the data presented at baseline may foster additional questions.
The value of the cohort as a unique resource to understand outcomes of patients under the care of nephrologists in a single payer healthcare system cannot be overstated. Systematic collection of demographic, laboratory and event data should lead to new insights.
The mean age of the cohort was 68 years, 90% were Caucasian, 62% were male, and 48% had diabetes. Forty percent of the cohort had eGFR between 30–45 mL/min/1.73m2, 22% had eGFR values below 20 mL/min/1.73m2; 61% had uACR < 30. Serum albumin, hemoglobin, calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were progressively lower in the lower eGFR strata, while parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased. Cystatin C, ADMA, NT-proBNP, hsCRP, troponin I and IL-6 were significantly higher in the lower GFR strata, whereas 25(OH)D and TGFβ1 values were lower at lower GFR. These distributions of each of the newer biomarkers by eGFR and uACR categories were variable.
Chronic kidney disease; Biomarkers; Observational cohort study; Outcomes; Progression; CV disease
Over a 3 1/2-year period the permanent Tenckhoff catheter was used in 66 patients (32 men and 34 women) maintained on chronic peritoneal dialysis for periods from 2 1/2 to 36 1/2 months; 57 patients had dialysis in hospital for 20 to 24 hours twice a week and the other 9 had dialysis at home for 10 to 12 hours four times a week. While the Tenckhoff catheter was in place 14 patients received a renal transplant; for 13 who required peritoneal dialysis during the post-transplant phase the Tenckhoff catheter was used. In nine patients abdominal surgery did not interfere with the continuation of peritoneal dialysis via the Tenckhoff catheter. From a total of 5067 dialyses 40 positive cultures were reported (0.8%). Peritonitis was clinically evident on only 14 occasions (0.28%). Permanent catheter obstruction developed in 16 patients, in 11 of whom it was related to peritonitis. With the introduction of the permanent Tenckhoff catheter long-term peritoneal dialysis has become a simple, safe and painless procedure, suitable for virtually all patients who require maintenance dialysis.
Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) are used for dialysis access in 82% of new hemodialysis patients and are rapidly colonized with Gram-positive organism (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) biofilm, a source of recurrent infections and chronic inflammation. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall ribitol polymer from Gram-positive organisms, mediates inflammation through the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The effect of LTA on lung endothelial permeability is not known. We tested the hypothesis that LTA from Staphylococcus aureus induces alterations in the permeability of pulmonary microvessel endothelial monolayers (PMEM) that result from activation of TLR2 and are mediated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS). The permeability of PMEM was assessed by the clearance rate of Evans blue-labeled albumin, the activation of the TLR2 pathway was assessed by Western blot, and the generation of RONS was measured by the fluorescence of oxidized dihydroethidium and a dichlorofluorescein derivative. Treatment with LTA or the TLR2 agonist Pam(3)CSK(4) induced significant increases in albumin permeability, IκBα phosphorylation, IRAK1 degradation, RONS generation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation (as measured by the p-eNOSser1177:p-eNOSthr495 ratio). The effects on permeability and RONS were effectively prevented by co-administration of the superoxide scavenger Tiron, the peroxynitrite scavenger Urate, or the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME and these effects as well as eNOS activation were reduced or prevented by pretreatment with an IRAK1/4 inhibitor. The results indicate that the activation of TLR2 and the generation of ROS/RNS mediates LTA-induced barrier dysfunction in PMEM.
Although the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the recommended form of vascular access for patients with ESRD, its impact on patient perception of health status, quality of life (QOL), or satisfaction is unknown.
Design, setting, participants, and measurements
This study compared patient-reported health status and QOL scores and vascular access type among a national random sample of 1563 patients at dialysis initiation and day 60 of ESRD during 1996 to 1997. Patients were stratified into five categories: AVF at first dialysis and day 60 of ESRD, arteriovenous graft (AVG) at first dialysis and day 60, central venous catheter (CVC) at first dialysis and AVF at day 60, CVC at first dialysis and AVG at day 60, and CVC at first dialysis and day 60.
Ten percent (n = 154) of patients had an AVF, 21% (n = 326) had an AVG, and 69% (n = 1083) had a CVC at dialysis initiation; those who were most likely to use an AVF were white and male. After statistical adjustment, patients with persistent AVF use reported greater physical activity and energy, better emotional and social well-being, fewer symptoms, less effect of dialysis and burden of kidney disease, and better sleep compared with patients with persistent CVC use, whereas measures such as cognitive and sexual function did not differ by access type.
Compared with persistent CVC use, early persistent AVF use is associated with the perception of improved health status and QOL among patients with ESRD. Future longitudinal studies may help to clarify further the association between QOL and vascular access.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with a high risk of infection of the peritoneum, subcutaneous tunnel and catheter exit site. Although quality standards demand an infection rate < 0.67 episodes/patient/year on dialysis, the reported overall rate of PD associated infection is 0.24-1.66 episodes/patient/year. It is estimated that for every 0.5-per-year increase in peritonitis rate, the risk of death increases by 4% and 18% of the episodes resulted in removal of the PD catheter and 3.5% resulted in death. Improved diagnosis, increased awareness of causative agents in addition to other measures will facilitate prompt management of PD associated infection and salvage of PD modality. The aims of this review are to determine the magnitude of the infection problem, identify possible risk factors and provide an update on the diagnosis and management of PD associated infection. Gram-positive cocci such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, other coagulase negative staphylococcoci, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are the most frequent aetiological agents of PD-associated peritonitis worldwide. Empiric antibiotic therapy must cover both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. However, use of systemic vancomycin and ciprofloxacin administration for example, is a simple and efficient first-line protocol antibiotic therapy for PD peritonitis - success rate of 77%. However, for fungal PD peritonitis, it is now standard practice to remove PD catheters in addition to antifungal treatment for a minimum of 3 wk and subsequent transfer to hemodialysis. To prevent PD associated infections, prophylactic antibiotic administration before catheter placement, adequate patient training, exit-site care, and treatment for S. aureus nasal carriage should be employed. Mupirocin treatment can reduce the risk of exit site infection by 46% but it cannot decrease the risk of peritonitis due to all organisms.
Exit site infection; Peritonitis; Tunnel infection; Polymicrobial infection; Catheter removal; Dialysis modality change; Fungal peritonitis; Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis; Peritoneal dialysis
Tissue injury due to hypoxia and/or free radicals is common in a variety of disease processes. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effect of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) on hypoxia and oxidative stress biomarkers.
Forty pediatric patients with CKD on HD and 20 healthy children were recruited. Plasma hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured by specific ELISA kits while, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total peroxide (TPX), pyruvate and lactate by enzymatic/chemical colorimetric methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI) and lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio were calculated.
TAC was significantly lower while TPX, OSI and VEGF were higher in patients at before- and after-dialysis session than controls. Lactate and HIF-1α levels were significantly higher at before-dialysis session than controls. Before dialysis, TAC and L/P ratio were lower than after-dialysis. In before-dialysis session, VEGF correlated positively with pyruvate, HIF-1α and OSI correlated positively with TPX, but, negatively with TAC. In after-dialysis session, HIF-1α correlated negatively with TPX and OSI; while, OSI correlated positively with TPX.
CKD patients succumb considerable tissue hypoxia with oxidative stress. Hemodialysis ameliorated hypoxia but lowered antioxidants as evidenced by decreased levels of HIF-1α and TAC at before- compared to after-dialysis levels.
Non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis-dependent Stage 5 CKD (CKD5) are associated with a significant physical and psychosocial burden. Little is known, however, about the impact of stressful life events on CKD and CKD5 patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stressful life events in CKD and CKD5 patients and identify the factors correlated with high levels of event-related distress.
This cross-sectional study’s sample consisted of 181 patients (91 with non-dialysis-dependent CKD Stages 4 and 5, 90 with CKD5) who filled out the Impact of Event Scale (IES), which measures subjective distress related to stressful life events. Other measures included scores from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI).
One hundred and three subjects reported stressors on the IES. Almost half the stressors (49.5%) related to personal health; the rest fell into other categories. There were significant differences between the no stressor, low event-related distress and high event-related distress groups in age (P < 0.001), PHQ-9 score (P < 0.001) and DSI score (P = 0.002). After adjustment, PHQ-9 score was associated with high event-related distress [odds ratio (OR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.32], as was DSI score (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.07) in a separate model.
Event-related distress is common in CKD and CKD5 patients. High event-related distress is associated with worse depressive symptoms and greater somatic and emotional symptom burden, even with adjustments for age and gender. The renal practitioner may need to address patients’ event-related distress in order to provide optimal care.
chronic kidney disease; depression; distress; end-stage renal disease; quality of life; symptoms
Peritonitis remains a frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis in children and is the most common reason for technique failure. The microbiology is characterized by a predominance of Gram-positive organisms, with fungi responsible for less than 5% of episodes. Data collected by the International Pediatric Peritonitis Registry have revealed a worldwide variation in the bacterial etiology of peritonitis, as well as in the rate of culture-negative peritonitis. Risk factors for infection include young age, the absence of prophylactic antibiotics at catheter placement, spiking of dialysis bags, and the presence of a catheter exit-site or tunnel infection. Clinical symptoms at presentation are somewhat organism specific and can be objectively assessed with a Disease Severity Score. Whereas recommendations for empiric antibiotic therapy in children have been published by the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis, epidemiologic data and antibiotic susceptibility data suggest that it may be desirable to take the patient- and center-specific history of microorganisms and their sensitivity patterns into account when prescribing initial therapy. The vast majority of patients are treated successfully and continue peritoneal dialysis, with the poorest outcome noted in patients with peritonitis secondary to Gram-negative organisms or fungi and in those with a relapsing infection.
Antibiotics; Children; Infection; Peritonitis; Peritoneal dialysis
Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is a frequent complication of tunneled dialysis catheters, and Enterococcus is a common infecting organism. CRB may be treated by instilling an antibiotic lock into the catheter lumen, in conjunction with systemic antibiotics. The efficacy of this approach in Enterococcus bacteremia is unknown.
Quality improvement report.
Setting and participants
64 catheter-dependent hemodialysis outpatients with vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus bacteremia treated with a uniform antibiotic lock protocol. Clinical outcomes were tracked prospectively.
Quality improvement plans
Patients received intravenous vancomycin for 3 weeks, in conjunction with a vancomycin lock instilled into both catheter lumens after each dialysis session.
Treatment failure was defined as persistent fever 48 hours after initiation of antibiotics or recurrent Enterococcus bacteremia within 90 days. A clinical cure was defined as fever resolution without recurrent bacteremia. Major infection-related complications within 6 months were documented.
Treatment failure occurred in 25 patients (39%), due to persistent fever in 10, and recurrent bacteremia in 15. Treatment success occurred in 39 patients (61%). A serious complication of Enterococcus CRB occurred in 4 of 64 patients (6%), endocarditis in 1 and osteomyelitis in 3. The frequency of serious complications was 16% (4/25) in patients with treatment failure, as compared with 0% (0/39) in those with treatment success (P=0.01).
This was a single-center study. We did not measure serum vancomycin levels.
An antibiotic lock protocol permits catheter salvage in 61% of hemodialysis patients with Enterococcus CRB. Serious complications occur in 6% of patients, and are more common in those with treatment failure.
This study was designed to identify the causes of the development of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) associated with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). A total of 112 patients with ESKD, 64 on hemodialysis (HD) and 48 on peritoneal dialysis (PD), were enrolled. The duration of ESKD and dialysis, the site of the arteriovenous (A-V) fistula for HD, laboratory data such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin were determined. Clinical evaluation of CTS and electrophysiological studies for the diagnosis of CTS and peripheral neuropathy were performed. The electrophysiological studies showed that the frequency of CTS was not different in the HD and PD groups (P = 0.823) and the frequency of CTS was not different in the limb with the A-V fistula compared to the contralateral limb (P = 0.816). The frequency of HD and PD were not related to beta-2-microglobulin levels, an indicator of amyloidosis. The frequency of CTS did not increase as the severity of the peripheral neuropathy and the duration of ESKD and dialysis increased (P = 0.307). The results of this study do not support that microglobulin induced amyloidosis or placement of an A-V fistula are associated with an increase in CTS.
Uremia; Carpal Tunnel Syndrome; Electrodiagnosis; Amyloidosis; Arteriovenous Fistula
Interventional Nephrology is a new and emerging subspecialty of Nephrology that mainly deals with ultrasonography of kidneys and ultrasound-guided renal biopsy, insertion of peritoneal dialysis catheters, tunneled dialysis catheters as a vascular access for patients undergoing hemodialysis as well as percutaneous endovascular procedures performed to manage dysfunction of arteriovenous fistulas or grafts in end stage renal disease patients.
Traditionally, these procedures have been delegated to a variety of specialists with resultant delays in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. To avoid the delays nephrologists have taken the initiative to perform these procedures themselves. Indeed, recent data have emphasized that nephrologists can safely and successfully perform these procedures with excellent results.
The success of nephrologist’s role in Interventional Nephrology insures the ideal management of renal patients with effectiveness, safety and lower cost for Public Health System. Certainly nephrologists must have adequate training and develop the necessary skills in the new fields as a prerequisite for the success of the concept.
interventional nephrology; end stage renal disease; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis
Vascular calcium deposition in end-stage renal disease occurs commonly, however its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors and fetuin-A levels in African-Americans is not known. Compliant African-American HD patients (n=17) agreed to undergo a 64-slice multidetector computed tomography for the assessment of coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, gender, dialysis vintage, history of diabetes, means of the previous 3 years of the weekly pre-dialysis blood pressure and hemoglobin, means of monthly values of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid and albumin, and means of quarterly measures of parathyroid hormone and lipids), and fetuin-A levels and CACS was explored by univariate analyses. Serum phosphorus levels over the previous 3 years were well controlled. The CACS range was 0-3,877 Agatston units (mean: 996; median :196). Among the tested variables, only fetuin-A was significantly and inversely associated with CACS (standardized β = -0.64 [95% confidence limits [CL]: -18.09, -3.62], p=0.006). There was no association between age and fetuin-A level (standardized β = -0.02 [95%CL: -0.10, 0.23]). In conclusion, African-American patients on long-term HD and with good phosphorus control exhibit a strong inverse correlation between fetuin-A levels and CACS which is independent of age.
Fetuin-A; Hemodialysis; Coronary artery calcium score; African-American
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with early mortality in dialysis patients. However, some patients progress to end stage renal disease after an acute illness, prior to reaching an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at which one would expect to establish alternative access (fistula/peritoneal dialysis catheter). The purpose of this study was to determine if exclusion of this “acute start” patient group alters the association between CVCs and mortality.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 406 incident dialysis patients from 1 Jan 2006 to 31 Dec 2009. Patients were classified as acute starts if 1) the eGFR was >25 ml/min/1.73 m2, ≤3 months prior to dialysis initiation and declined after an acute event (n = 45), or 2) in those without prior eGFR measurements, there was no supporting evidence of chronic kidney disease on history or imaging (n = 12). Remaining patients were classified as chronic start (n = 349).
98 % and 52 % of acute and chronic starts initiated dialysis with a CVC. There were 148 deaths. The adjusted mortality hazard ratio (HR) for acute vs. chronic start patients was 1.84, (95 % CI [1.19-2.85]). The adjusted mortality HR for patients dialyzing with a CVC compared to alternative access was 1.19 (95 % CI [0.80-1.77]). After excluding acute start patients, the adjusted HR fell to 1.03 (95 % CI [0.67-1.57]).
A significant proportion of early dialysis mortality occurs after an acute start. Exclusion of this population attenuates the mortality risk associated with CVCs.
Vascular; Mortality; Dialysis; Catheter; Incident; Access; Fistula; Peritoneal; Acute; Chronic
An autogenous arteriovenous fistula has been considered to be the optimal form of vascular access for hemodialysis (HD) in the field of nephrology. Nevertheless, the decision regarding the type of access, whether it be an arteriovenous fistula, an arteriovenous graft, or a central venous catheter, must still be individualized. In the present report, we describe the case of a female patient with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with a hemostatic disorder. Despite the exhausted peripheral vasculature, she required recurrent platelet transfusions for severe thrombocytopenia due to aplastic anemia. The goal of care for this patient was to optimize the dialysis treatment without increasing the bleeding risk. Various concerns regarding the therapeutic conundrums encountered in the case are also discussed.
advanced chronic kidney disease; thrombocytopenia; aplastic anemia; tunneled cuffed catheter; platelet transfusion
Catheter-related bacteraemias (CRBs) contribute significantly to morbidity, mortality and health care costs in dialysis populations. Despite international guidelines recommending avoidance of catheters for haemodialysis access, hospital admissions for CRBs have doubled in the last decade. The primary aim of the study is to determine whether weekly instillation of 70% ethanol prevents CRBs compared with standard heparin saline.
The study will follow a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled design. Inclusion criteria are adult patients with incident or prevalent tunneled intravenous dialysis catheters on three times weekly haemodialysis, with no current evidence of catheter infection and no personal, cultural or religious objection to ethanol use, who are on adequate contraception and are able to give informed consent. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive 3 mL of intravenous-grade 70% ethanol into each lumen of the catheter once a week and standard heparin locks for other dialysis days, or to receive heparin locks only. The primary outcome measure will be time to the first episode of CRB, which will be defined using standard objective criteria. Secondary outcomes will include adverse reactions, incidence of CRB caused by different pathogens, time to infection-related catheter removal, time to exit site infections and costs. Prospective power calculations indicate that the study will have 80% statistical power to detect a clinically significant increase in median infection-free survival from 200 days to 400 days if 56 patients are recruited into each arm.
This investigator-initiated study has been designed to provide evidence to help nephrologists reduce the incidence of CRBs in haemodialysis patients with tunnelled intravenous catheters.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12609000493246