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1.  Impact of tooth loss related to number and position on oral health quality of life among adults 
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tooth loss on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in adults with emphasis on the number of teeth lost and their relative position in the mouth.
The study population was a cross-sectional household probability sample of 248, representing 149,635 20–64 year-old residents in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. OHRQoL was measured using the OHIP-14. Socioeconomic, demographic, health literacy, dental services use data and clinical variables were collected. Oral examinations were performed using WHO criteria for caries diagnosis, using the DMFT index; that is, the sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). An ordinal scale for tooth loss, based on position and number of missing teeth, was the main explanatory variable. The total OHIP score was the outcome for negative binomial regression and OHIP prevalence was the outcome for logistic regression at 5% level. A hierarchical modeling approach was adopted according to conceptual model.
OHIP score was 10.21 (SE 1.16) with 48.1% (n=115) reporting one or more impacts fairly/very often (OHIP prevalence). Significant prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) for OHIP severity were observed for those who had lost up to 12 teeth, including one or more anterior teeth (PRR=1.63, 95%CI 1.06–2.51), those who had lost 13–31 teeth (PRR=2.33, 95%CI 1.49–3.63), and the edentulous (PRR=2.66, 95%CI 1.55–4.57) compared with fully dentate adults. Other significant indicators included those who only sought dental care because of dental pain (PRR=1.67, 95%CI 1.11–2.51) or dental needs (PRR=1.84, 95%CI 1.24–2.71) and having untreated caries (PRR=1.57 95%CI 1.09–2.26). Tooth loss was not significantly associated with OHIP prevalence; instead using dental services due to dental pain (PR=2.43, 95%CI 1.01–5.82), having untreated caries (PR=3.96, 95%CI 1.85–8.51) and low income (PR=2.80, 95%CI 1.26–6.42) were significant risk indicators for reporting OHIP prevalence.
Our analyses showed OHRQoL gradients consistent with the number and position of teeth missing due to oral disease. These findings suggest that the quantity of teeth lost does not necessarily reflect the impact of tooth mortality on OHRQoL and that future studies should take this into consideration.
PMCID: PMC4263115  PMID: 25433483
Adults; Oral health; Quality of life; OHIP14; Regression analysis
2.  Impact of periodontal conditions on the quality of life of pregnant women: a cross-sectional study 
Studies have been rarely conducted to provide a comprehensive perspective of pregnant women with the intention to investigate the relationships between periodontal conditions and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). As such, this study aimed to describe the OHRQoL of pregnant women in Shanghai, China and to investigate the relationships between periodontal conditions and OHRQoL of pregnant women.
A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst pregnant women in all stages of pregnancy in Shanghai, China. Clinical examinations were performed to assess periodontal conditions, including tooth loss, visible plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. The OHRQoL of pregnant women was determined using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14, Chinese version). Information regarding maternal characteristics, socio-demographic background and health-related behaviours was also obtained from the participants through the structured questionnaires.
A total of 512 pregnant women (mean age = 27.3 ± 4.0 years)participated in the survey,giving a response rate of 91.4 %. The mean gestational age was 19 weeks (SD = 8.2). The mean and the median OHIP-14 scores were 7.92 (SD = 6.84) and 6, respectively. The mean number of negative impact items (extent) was 0.20 (SD = 0.82). Approximately 10 % of pregnant women reported at least one item with ‘fairly often’ or ‘very often’ (prevalence). Results of multivariable analyses showed that periodontal conditions was not significantly associated with three scoring formats of OHRQoL (severity, extent and prevalence of impact) after adjustment for pregnancy-related variables and possible confounders (all p > 0.05). However, frequency of nausea-vomiting was found to be significantly associated with severity of impacts (p = 0.012). Utilization of dental services, age and tooth loss were the significant variables to the extent of negative impacts (all p < 0.05). While no significant variable was related with prevalence of negative impacts (p > 0.05).
Pregnant women with different trimesters showed similar impact of oral disease on their OHRQoL in Shanghai, China. Periodontal health status have no impact on their OHRQoL in the fully adjusted models. Their OHRQoL was associated with early pregnancy reaction, utilisation of dental services, age and tooth loss.
PMCID: PMC4446953  PMID: 26018650
Pregnant women; Oral health-related quality of life; Oral health impact profile; Periodontal disease; Tooth loss
3.  Association between perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life in partially dentate patients 
One of the most immediate and important functional consequences of many oral disorders is a reduction in chewing ability. The ability to chew is not only an important dimension of oral health, but is increasingly recognized as being associated with general health status. Whether perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) are correlated to a similar degree in patient populations has been less investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived chewing ability was related to OHRQoL in partially dentate patients.
Consecutive partially dentate patients (N = 489) without signs or symptoms of acute oral disease at Tokyo Medical and Dental University's Prosthodontic Clinic participated in the study (mean age 63.0 ± 11.5, 71.2% female). A 20-item chewing function questionnaire (score range 0 to 20) was used to assess perceived chewing ability, with higher scores indicating better chewing ability. The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile-Japanese version (OHIP-J14, score range 0 to 56) was used to measure OHRQoL, with higher scores indicating poorer OHRQoL. A Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between the two questionnaire summary scores. A linear regression analysis was used to describe how perceived chewing ability scores were related to OHRQoL scores.
The mean chewing function score was 12.1 ± 4.8 units. The mean OHIP-J14 summary score was 13.0 ± 9.1 units. Perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL were significantly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.52 to -0.38), indicating that higher chewing ability was correlated with lower OHIP-J14 summary scores (p < 0.001), which indicate better OHRQoL. A 1.0-unit increase in chewing function scores was related to a decrease of 0.87 OHIP-J14 units (95% CI: -1.0 to -0.72, p < 0.001). The correlation between perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL was not substantially influenced by age and number of teeth, but by gender, years of schooling, treatment demand and denture status.
Patients' perception of their chewing ability was substantially related to their OHRQoL.
PMCID: PMC2974665  PMID: 20955614
4.  The relationship of oral health literacy with oral health-related quality of life in a multi-racial sample of low-income female caregivers 
To investigate the association between oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and explore the racial differences therein among a low-income community-based group of female WIC participants.
Participants (N = 1,405) enrolled in the Carolina Oral Health Literacy (COHL) study completed the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile Index (OHIP-14, a measure of OHRQoL) and REALD-30 (a word recognition literacy test). Socio-demographic and self-reported dental attendance data were collected via structured interviews. Severity (cumulative OHIP-14 score) and extent of impact (number of items reported fairly/very often) scores were calculated as measures of OHRQoL. OHL was assessed by the cumulative REALD-30 score. The association of OHL with OHRQoL was examined using descriptive and visual methods, and was quantified using Spearman's rho and zero-inflated negative binomial modeling.
The study group included a substantial number of African Americans (AA = 41%) and American Indians (AI = 20%). The sample majority had a high school education or less and a mean age of 26.6 years. One-third of the participants reported at least one oral health impact. The OHIP-14 mean severity and extent scores were 10.6 [95% confidence limits (CL) = 10.0, 11.2] and 1.35 (95% CL = 1.21, 1.50), respectively. OHL scores were distributed normally with mean (standard deviation, SD) REALD-30 of 15.8 (5.3). OHL was weakly associated with OHRQoL: prevalence rho = -0.14 (95% CL = -0.20, -0.08); extent rho = -0.14 (95% CL = -0.19, -0.09); severity rho = -0.10 (95% CL = -0.16, -0.05). "Low" OHL (defined as < 13 REALD-30 score) was associated with worse OHRQoL, with increases in the prevalence of OHIP-14 impacts ranging from 11% for severity to 34% for extent. The inverse association of OHL with OHIP-14 impacts persisted in multivariate analysis: Problem Rate Ratio (PRR) = 0.91 (95% CL = 0.86, 0.98) for one SD change in OHL. Stratification by race revealed effect-measure modification: Whites--PRR = 1.01 (95% CL = 0.91, 1.11); AA--PRR = 0.86 (95% CL = 0.77, 0.96).
Although the inverse association between OHL and OHRQoL across the entire sample was weak, subjects in the "low" OHL group reported significantly more OHRQoL impacts versus those with higher literacy. Our findings indicate that the association between OHL and OHRQoL may be modified by race.
PMCID: PMC3248838  PMID: 22132898
oral health literacy; oral health-related quality of life; OHIP-14; racial differences; effect measure modification
5.  Oral health-related quality of life and malnutrition in patients treated for oral cancer 
Supportive Care in Cancer  2014;22(11):2927-2933.
This study examined whether oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with nutritional status in patients treated for oral cancer.
A cross-sectional study was carried out on with patients treated for oral cancer at least 6 months after treatment. OHRQoL was measured using two questionnaires: Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14); malnutrition risk was assessed through the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Multivariable regression models assessed the association between the outcomes (OIDP and OHIP-14) and the exposure (MNA), adjusting for sex, age, clinical stage, social class, date of treatment completion, and functional tooth units.
The final simple included 133 patients, 22.6 % of which were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. More than 95 % of patients reported a negative impact on the OHRQoL for both measures used. Patients with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition had significantly worse OHRQoL than those with no malnutrition, even after adjusting for clinical and socioeconomic data (ß-coefficient = 8.37 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.42–15.32) with the OIDP and ß-coefficient = 2.08 (95 % CI 0.70–3.46) with the OHIP-14).
Being malnourished or at risk of malnutrition is an important longer-term determinant of worse OHRQoL among patients treated for oral cancer.
PMCID: PMC4183889  PMID: 24848576
Oral cancer; Malnutrition; Quality of life; OHIP; OIDP; MNA
6.  Oral health-related quality of life in an aging Canadian population 
The purpose of the study is to describe the impact of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) on the lives of pre-seniors and seniors living in Nova Scotia, Canada.
This cross-sectional study involved 1461 participants, grouped by age (pre-seniors [45–64] and seniors [65+]) and residential status (long-term care facility [LTC] or community). OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14) in a random digit dialing telephone survey (for community residents) or a face-to-face interview (for LTC residents). Intra-oral examinations were performed by one of six dentists calibrated to W.H.O. standards.
Approximately one in four pre-seniors and seniors reported at least one OHRQoL impact ‘fairly/very often’. The most commonly reported impacts were within the dimensions ‘physical pain’ and ‘psychological discomfort’. It was found that 12.2% of LTC residents found it uncomfortable to eat any foods ‘fairly/very’ often compared to 7.7% in the community, and 11.6% of LTC residents reported being self-conscious ‘fairly/very often’ compared to 8.2% in the community. Of those residing in the community, pre-seniors (28.8%) reported significantly more impacts than seniors (22.0%); but there were no significant differences in OHRQoL between pre-seniors (21.2%) and seniors (25.3%) in LTC. Pre-seniors living in the community scored significantly higher than community dwelling seniors on prevalence, extent and severity of OHIP-14 scores. Logistic regression revealed that for the community dwelling sample, individuals living in rural areas in addition to those being born outside of Canada were approximately 2.0 times more likely to report an impact ‘fairly/very often’, whereas among the LTC sample, those having a high school education or less were 2.3 times more likely to report an impact.
Findings indicate that the oral health and OHRQoL of both pre-seniors and seniors in LTC residents is poor. Community dwelling pre-seniors have the highest prevalence rate of oral impacts.
PMCID: PMC3480903  PMID: 22587387
Oral health; Quality of life; Elderly; Aging; Seniors; Pre-seniors; Canada
7.  Assessment and comparison of clinical dental status and its impact on oral health-related quality of life among rural and urban adults of Udaipur, India: A cross-sectional study 
Dental diseases negatively influence people's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and thus their perceived need for dental care. QoL is increasingly acknowledged as a valid, appropriate and significant indicator of service need and intervention outcomes in contemporary public health research and practice.
(1) To assess the psychometric properties of oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) scale among rural and urban OHIP of Udaipur population. (2) To assess and compare clinical dental status (dental caries, periodontal disease and prosthetic status) and its impacts on OHRQoL rural and urban population of Udaipur.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among rural (600) and urban (600) population of Udaipur that have age ranges between 20 and 79 years, chosen from outpatient department of Pacific Dental College and Hospital. The OHIP-14 was tested for validity and reliability. Chi-square, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed for statistical analysis.
The Cronbach's alpha of the scale was found to be 0.85 among the rural population and 0.89 among the urban population. Prevalence of periodontal disease (community periodontal index and loss of attachment) was found greater among the rural population than the urban population. Urban population showed significantly greater proportion of subjects with prosthesis (including partial, fixed and total) as compared to the rural population. Among study population, OHIP-14 was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with age, gender, presence of decayed teeth (DT), missing teeth (MT), and location. Significantly greater odds ratio (OR) (OHIP-14) were revealed among males (OR = 1.35, P = 0.02), urban residents (OR = 1.13, P = 0.002), those < 45 years of age (OR = 1.23, P = 0.01), those without DT (OR = 1.48, P = 0.002) and without MT (OR = 1.08, P = 0.03).
The rural and urban study subjects had a fair clinical status. The presence of dental caries had greatest impacts on OHRQoL. In addition, rural subjects faced greater impact than urban subjects.
PMCID: PMC4357000  PMID: 25767364
Oral health; oral health impact profile-14; reliability; Udaipur
8.  Level of oral health impacts among patients participating in PEARL: a dental practice-based research network 
To determine whether participants of a dental practice-based research network (PBRN) differ in their level of oral health impact as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questionnaire.
A total of 2410 patients contributed 2432 OHIP measurements (median age = 43 years; interquartile range = 28) were enrolled in four dental studies. All participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) during a baseline visit. The main outcome of the current study was the level of oral health impact, defined as follows: no impact (“Never” reported on all items); low (“Occasionally” or “Hardly ever” as the greatest frequency score reported on any item); and high (“Fairly often” or “Very often” as the greatest frequency reported on any item). Polychotomous logistic regression was used to develop a predictive model for the level of oral health impact considering the following predictors: patient’s age, gender, race, practice location, type of dentist, and number of years the enrolling dentist has been practicing.
A high level of oral health impacts was reported in 8% of the sample; almost a third (29%) of the sample reported a low level of impacts, and 63% had no oral health impacts. The prevalence of impacts differed significantly across protocols (P<0.001). Females were more likely to be in the high oral impact group than the no impact group compared to males (OR=1.46; 95% CI= 1.06–1.99). African-Americans were more likely to report high oral impacts when compared to other racial/ethnic groups (OR=2.11; 95% CI = 1.26–3.55). Protective effects for being in the high or in the low impact groups were observed among patients enrolled by a solo practice (P<0.001) or by more experienced dentists (P=0.01). A small but highly significant statistical association was obtained for patient age (P<0.001). In the multivariate model, patient’s age, practice size and gender were found to jointly be significant predictors of oral health impact level.
Patients’ subjective report of oral health impact in the clinical setting is of importance for their health. In the context of a dental PBRN, the report of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was different across four dental studies. The observed findings validate the differential impact that oral health has on the patients’ perception of OHRQoL particularly among specific groups. Similar investigations to elucidate the factors associated with patient’s report of quality of life are warranted.
PMCID: PMC3380181  PMID: 22390788
Oral-Health Impact; OHRQoL; Dental PBRN; OHIP-14; Patient Reported Outcomes; Subjective Health
9.  Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of preschool children and their families: a cross-sectional study 
Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common oral health conditions among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families.
A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 preschool children in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data as well as the parent’s/caregiver’s perceptions regarding their child’s health. Clinical exams were performed by three researchers who had undergone a calibration process for the diagnosis of dental caries, TDI and malocclusion (K = 0.83-0.85). Hierarchical Poisson regression was employed to determine the strength of associations between oral health conditions and OHRQoL (α = 5%). The multivariate model was run on three levels obeying a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) perceptions of health; and 3) oral health conditions.
The prevalence of impact from oral health conditions on OHRQoL was 32.1% among the children and 26.2% among the families. The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the children: birth order of child (PR = 1.430; 95% CI: 1.045-1.958), parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR = 1.732; 95% CI: 1.399-2.145), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.596; 95% CI: 1.982-3.400) and TDI (PR = 1.413; 95% CI: 1.161-1.718). The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the families: parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR = 2.116; 95% CI: 1.624-2.757), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.809; 95% CI: 2.009-3.926) and type of TDI (PR = 2.448; 95% CI: 1.288-4.653).
Cavitated lesions and TDI exerted a impact on OHRQoL of the preschool children and their families. Parents’/caregivers’ perception of their child’s oral health as poor and the birth order of the child were predictors of a greater impact on OHRQoL.
PMCID: PMC4002905  PMID: 24745700
Quality of life; Dental caries; Malocclusion; Tooth injuries; Preschool child
10.  Functional dental status and oral health-related quality of life in an over 40 years old Chinese population 
Clinical Oral Investigations  2012;17(6):1471-1480.
This study aimed to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) related to dental status.
Material and methods
One thousand four hundred sixty-two Chinese subjects over 40 years, dentate in both jaws, were categorized in a hierarchical functional classification system with and without tooth replacements. OHIP-14CN scores were used to assess OHRQoL and analyzed using multivariable logistic regression including five dental conditions (‘≥10 teeth in each jaw’; ‘complete anterior regions’; ‘sufficient premolar regions’ (≥3 posterior occluding pairs (POPs)); ‘sufficient molar regions’ (bilaterally ≥1 POP); and tooth replacement) after adjustment for five background variables. Likelihood ratios for impaired OHRQoL (OHIP total score ≥5) were assessed at each level of the classification system.
In the hierarchical scheme, OHIP-14CN total scores were highest in branch ‘<10 teeth in each jaw’ (8.5 ± 9.5 to 12.3 ± 13.2). In branch ‘≥10 teeth’ scores ranged from 6.2 ± 7.7 to 8.3 ± 9.3. The most important dental condition discriminating for impact on OHRQoL was ‘≥10 teeth in each jaw’ (Likelihood ratio 1.59). In this branch subsequent levels were discriminative for impaired OHRQoL (Likelihoods 1.29–1.69), in the branch ‘<10 teeth in each jaw’ they were not (Likelihoods 0.99–1.04). Tooth replacements were perceived poorer as their natural counterparts (odd ratios, 1.30 for fixed and 1.47 for removable appliances).
OHRQoL was strongly associated with the presence of at least 10 teeth in each jaw. The hierarchical classification system predicted approximately 60 % of subjects correctly with respect to impaired OHRQoL.
Clinical relevance
From an OHRQoL perspective, natural teeth were preferred over artificial teeth.
PMCID: PMC3691481  PMID: 23015025
Oral health-related quality of life; Occlusal status; Hierarchical dental functional classification system; Chinese adults
11.  Oral health related quality of life in pregnant and post partum women in two social network domains; predominantly home-based and work-based networks 
Individuals connected to supportive social networks have better general and oral health quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between women connected to either predominantly home-based and work-based social networks.
A follow-up prevalence study was conducted on 1403 pregnant and post-partum women (mean age of 25.2 ± 6.3 years) living in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Women were participants in an established cohort followed from pregnancy (baseline) to post-partum period (follow-up). All participants were allocated to two groups; 1. work-based social network group - employed women with paid work, and, 2. home-based social network group - women with no paid work, housewives or unemployed women. Measures of social support and social network were used as well as questions on sociodemographic characteristics and OHRQoL and health related behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to obtain OR of relationships between occupational contexts, affectionate support and positive social interaction on the one hand, and oral health quality of life, using the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP) measure, adjusted for age, ethnicity, family income, schooling, marital status and social class.
There was a modifying effect of positive social interaction on the odds of occupational context on OHRQoL. The odds of having a poorer OHIP score, ≥4, was significantly higher for women with home-based social networks and moderate levels of positive social interactions [OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48)], and for women with home-based social networks and low levels of positive social interactions [OR 2.15 (95% CI: 1.40-3.30)] compared with women with work-based social networks and high levels of positive social interactions. Black ethnicity was associated with OHIP scores ≥4 [OR 1.73 (95% CI: 1.23-2.42)].
Pregnant and post-partum Brazilian women in paid employment outside the home and having social supports had better OHRQoL than those with home-based social networks.
PMCID: PMC3294243  PMID: 22244015
women's health; oral health; quality of life; social support; social networks; occupation
12.  Impact of malocclusion on oral health related quality of life in young people 
The objectives for this study were to assess Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in young people aged 15–25 who sought orthodontic treatment, and to measure the association between orthodontic treatment need (using the IOTN), sex, age and education level, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL).
Survey of a consecutive series of 323 young adults aged 15 to 25 years, attending orthodontic clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA. Participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) and had a clinical examination including the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need- Dental Health Component (IOTN-DHC). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, One-way ANOVA and bivariate and multivariate regression models.
The mean overall score (± SD) for OHIP-14 in young people aged 15–25 was 22.6 ± 12.5. The psychological discomfort domain was the domain where highest impact was recorded with a mean (± SD) of 4.0 ± 1.9. The regression analyses showed a significant association of IOTN-DHC with overall OHIP-14 score (p < 0.05). Although females reported a slightly higher impact than males, this was not significant in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Age group had a significant negative association with overall OHIP-14 score (p < 0.05). The 15–18 year old group showed the highest impact on their quality of life due to malocclusion. Participants with a university education report a significantly higher impact on OHRQoL as compared to participants with only secondary education.
Malocclusion has a significant negative impact on OHRQoL and its domains. This is greatest for the psychological discomfort domain. Younger people and those with a university education report higher levels of impact. There was no reported difference in impact between male and females.
PMCID: PMC3598523  PMID: 23443041
Oral health related quality of life; Malocclusion; Treatment need; OHIP
13.  Oral health-related quality of life in diabetic patients: comparison of the Persian version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and Oral Health Impact Profile: A descriptive-analytic study 
Diabetes mellitus is one of the systemic disease which is show important oral manifestation and influence oral health. This study describes how diabetes mellitus affects oral health and oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health and oral health-related quality of life of diabetic patients and compare the discriminative capability of Persian versions of two GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires in these patients.
A total of 350 patients with Type II diabetes mellitus, referring to the Diabetes Clinic, were selected and data were collected by GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires completed by patients and clinical examinations. Oral health parameters (CAL,BI,GI,PLI,DMFT and xerostomia) were measured, also concurrent validity and conformity of two questionnaires were assessed. In order to test Discriminant analysis capabilities of two questionnaires, ADD and SC scores of questionnaires were divided into two parts and a logistic regression model was designed, which included subjective and objective variables.
Mean patients age was 55 years (with 75.4% female patients). The results showed that some oral conditions such as xerostomia, clinical attachment loss, number of missing teeth and plaque index were correlated to diabetes control level (HbA1c) and type of anti-diabetic medication. ADD and SC scores of two questionnaires were at high level. However, the effect of oral problems on decreasing OHRQoL was evident. Both questionnaires had acceptable concurrent validity and conformity. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between GOHAI and OHIP-14. OHIP-14 questionnaire had a higher discriminant analysis capability compared to GOHAI and better diagnosed patients who needed dental treatments: patients with higher GI, xerostomia and those wearing partial dentures.
Diabetic patients did not show acceptable oral health status and in some extent, oral problems affected oral health-related quality of life. Psychotherapy courses and solving oral problems of the patients can improve OHRQoL. OHIP-14 had higher discriminant analysis capability and was more effective in diagnosing oral problems.
PMCID: PMC4015305  PMID: 24495383
Diabetes mellitus; Type 2; Oral health; Quality of Life; GOHAI; OHIP-14
14.  Does maternal oral health predict child oral health-related quality of life in adulthood? 
A parental/family history of poor oral health may influence the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of adults.
To determine whether the oral health of mothers of young children can predict the OHRQOL of those same children when they reach adulthood.
Oral examination and interview data from the Dunedin Study's age-32 assessment, as well as maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment were used. The main outcome measure was study members' short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) at age 32. Analyses involved 827 individuals (81.5% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, who also completed the OHIP-14 questionnaire at age 32, and whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment.
There was a consistent gradient of relative risk across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status at the age-5 assessment for having one or more impacts in the overall OHIP-14 scale, whereby risk was greatest among the study members whose mothers rated their oral health as "poor/edentulous", and lowest among those with an "excellent/fairly good" rating. In addition, there was a gradient in the age-32 mean OHIP-14 score, and in the mean number of OHIP-14 impacts at age 32 across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status. The higher risk of having one or more impacts in the psychological discomfort subscale, when mother rated her oral health as "poor/edentulous", was statistically significant.
These data suggest that maternal self-rated oral health when a child is young has a bearing on that child's OHRQOL almost three decades later. The adult offspring of mothers with poor self-rated oral health had poorer OHRQOL outcomes, particularly in the psychological discomfort subscale.
PMCID: PMC3150239  PMID: 21736754
oral health; oral health-related quality of life: OHIP-14; intergenerational; risk; family history
15.  Oral health-related quality of life after prosthetic rehabilitation: a longitudinal study with the OHIP questionnaire 
Aspects of oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) attracted an increased attention recently.
The aim of the study was to assess self-reported oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients requiring prosthetic rehabilitation and to determine the rate of improvement 1 month and 6–12 months after therapy. In addition, effect of age, gender, oral health indicators and denture types before treatment were assessed on OHRQoL as evaluated and reported by the patients.
Hungarian version of OHIP-49 (OHIP-49-H) questionnaire was completed before oral rehabilitation (T0-phase) by 389 patients undergoing prosthetic replacement. After 1 month (T1-phase) and 6–12 months (T2-phase) recall periods 235 and 92 patients completed the questionnaire. The median interquartile range (IQR) values of the total OHIP-49-H score were calculated for T0-, T1- and T2-phases. Reliability of the questionnaire was checked by Cronbach’s statistics. Age, gender, oral health indicators and denture types of patients before and after treatment were recorded and treatment-associated changes in OHRQoL were evaluated.
The study demonstrated the excellent reliability and internal consistency of OHIP-49-H by a high and narrow range of Cronbach’s alpha value (0.81-0.93). A median OHIP-49-H score of 52; IQR = 25-83 demonstrated a poor OHRQoL on first admission. Decreasing median total OHIP-49-H scores 1 month (24; IQR = 9-51; p < 0.001) and 6–12 months (20; IQR = 7-37; p = 0,055) after therapy indicated an improvement of OHRQoL. Patients’ age and CPI value assessed before treatment proved to be significant factors of OHRQoL.
Here we presented representative data about self-assessed OHRQoL of patients requiring prosthetic treatment from Hungary using OHIP-49-H questionnaire. The results demonstrated that the restoration of oral health was associated with an improvement in patients’ OHRQoL. According to the demographical and T0 phase clinical status, the treatment was more effective in the respect of OHIP-49-H score improvement among females (than among males), among younger (than among more aged), and among patients with more serious CPI assessed at T0. The type of prosthetic interventions did not exert a significant effect on total OHIP-49-H score, suggesting that the improvement in OHRQoL is independent from the type of denture applied.
PMCID: PMC4496854  PMID: 26156102
Quality of life; Prosthodontics; Oral health; Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questionnaire
16.  The influence of normative and subjective oral health status on schoolchildren’s happiness 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:15.
Traditional methods to measure oral health based on clinical standards are limited because they do not consider psychosocial and functional aspects of oral health. It has been recommended that these measures need to be supplemented by data obtained from patients regarding their individual perceptions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Happiness is a multidimensional construct comprising both emotional and cognitive domains, and has been defined as “the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his or her life as a whole favorably”. It has been associated with several health outcomes, including oral health. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and socioeconomic factors on the subjective happiness of Brazilian adolescents.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The data were collected through dental examinations and structured interviews. The participants underwent an evaluation aimed at detecting dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion, and gingival bleeding. They also completed the Brazilian versions of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire-short form (CPQ11–14 – ISF: 16) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), which was our outcome variable. Socioeconomic conditions were evaluated through a questionnaire that was completed by the participants’ parents. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the association between the explanatory variables and the outcome. Moreover, a correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the SHS scores and the overall and domain scores of the CPQ11–14 –ISF: 16.
A total of 1,134 children were evaluated. Unadjusted analyses showed that happiness was associated with socioeconomic indicators, the use of dental services, clinical status, and scores on the OHRQoL measure. After adjustment, household overcrowding (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), dental caries (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99), malocclusion (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99), and the severity associated with the CPQ11-14 (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.97) still showed a significant association with lower levels of the mean SHS score.
Happiness is influenced by oral conditions, socioeconomic status, and OHRQoL.
PMCID: PMC4320443  PMID: 25616978
Happiness; Child; Oral health; Quality of life
17.  Effect of malocclusion or orthodontic treatment on oral health-related quality of life in adults 
Korean Journal of Orthodontics  2014;44(6):304-311.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of malocclusion or orthodontic treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in adults.
The sample consisted of 860 adults (378 men and 482 women, aged 18-39 years) who were clinically evaluated for malocclusion or orthodontic treatment experience. Participants were divided into 4 groups as follows: normal occlusion, malocclusion, fixed treatment, and retention. OHRQoL was assessed with the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ).
The malocclusion group and the fixed treatment group had significantly higher OHIP-14 scores than the normal occlusion group and the retention group (p < 0.001). The malocclusion group had the highest PIDAQ score, while the normal occlusion group and the retention group had the lowest PIDAQ score (p < 0.001). Women had higher OHIP-14 and PIDAQ scores than men. A significant positive correlation was found between OHIP-14 and PIDAQ scores (p < 0.01).
Malocclusion has a negative impact on OHRQoL, but this could be improved in adults through orthodontic treatment. These OHRQoL questionnaires can provide additional useful information on specific aspects of orthodontic patients' psychological state.
PMCID: PMC4250664  PMID: 25473646
Psychology; Orthodontic treatment; Malocclusion; Quality of life
18.  Parental reports of the oral health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy 
BMC Oral Health  2012;12:15.
The severity of physical and mental impairments and oral problems, as well as socioeconomic factors, may have an impact on quality of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this research was to assess the impact of impairments and oral health conditions, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children with CP using their parents as proxies.
Sixty children, between 6-14 years of age were selected. Their parents answered a children’s OHRQoL instrument (5 domains) which combines the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). The severity of dental caries, type of CP, communication ability, gross motor function, seizures and socioeconomic conditions were assessed.
Considering the total score of the OHRQoL instrument, only the reduction of communication ability and dental caries severity had a negative impact on the OHRQoL (p < 0.05). Considering each domain of the instrument, the severity of the type of CP and its reduction of communication ability showed a negative impact on oral symptoms and functional limitations domains (p < 0.05). Seizures have a negative impact on oral symptoms domain (p = 0.006). The multivariate fitted model showed that the severity of dental caries, communication ability and low family income were negatively associated with the impact on OHRQoL (p = 0.001).
The severity of dental caries, communication ability, and family income are conditions strongly associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL of children with CP.
PMCID: PMC3500272  PMID: 22708973
Cerebral palsy; Children; Oral health related quality of life
19.  Oral health-related quality of life after dental general anaesthesia treatment among children: a follow-up study 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14:81.
Many young paediatric patients with severe dental caries receive dental treatment under general anaesthesia. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) can be evaluated to assess the outcome of dental general anaesthesia (DGA) treatment. The aim of our study was to examine the OHRQoL of young Lithuanian children in need of DGA treatment and analyse the impact of DGA treatment on children’s OHRQoL.
We carried out a prospective clinical follow-up study on OHRQoL among all young Lithuanian child patients who received DGA treatment at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Hospital during 2010–2012. The study consisted of clinical dental examinations of patients younger than six years, data collected from their patient files, and an OHRQoL survey completed by their parents prior to the child’s dental treatment. We conducted a follow-up OHRQoL survey one month after the DGA treatment. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and its effect size (ES) served to evaluate children’s OHRQoL, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test served for statistical analyses.
We obtained complete baseline and follow-up data for 140 and 122 participants, respectively (84.7% follow-up rate). Pain and eating problems among children and parents feeling upset and guilty were the most frequently reported impacts at baseline. The parents reported greater impacts on boys than on girls. The ECOHIS score decreased significantly (69.5%, p < 0.001) after DGA treatment, revealing a large ES for the child (1.6) and family (2.4) sections of the ECOHIS.
The OHRQoL of young Lithuanian children requiring DGA treatment is seriously impaired. Dental general anaesthesia treatment results in significant improvement of the children’s OHRQoL. The children’s parents also greatly appreciate this treatment modality for its positive impact on the family’s quality of life.
PMCID: PMC4090347  PMID: 24984901
Dental general anaesthesia; Oral health-related quality of life; Children; Follow-up
20.  The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults 
Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this study was to examine the association between xerostomia and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults while controlling for clinical oral health status and other potential confounding factors.
Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longstanding prospective observational study of a Dunedin (New Zealand) birth cohort: clinical dental examinations and questionnaires were used at age 32. The main measures were xerostomia (the subjective feeling of dry mouth, measured with a single question) and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14).
Of the 923 participants (48.9% female), one in ten were categorised as 'xerostomic', with no apparent gender difference. There was a strong association between xerostomia and OHRQoL (across all OHIP-14 domains) which persisted after multivariate analysis to control for clinical characteristics, gender, smoking status and personality characteristics (negative emotionality and positive emotionality).
Xerostomia is not a trivial condition; it appears to have marked and consistent effects on sufferers' day-to-day lives.
PMCID: PMC1637097  PMID: 17090332
21.  Oral health-related quality of life in complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic background, prosthetic-related factors and clinical condition 
Objectives: To investigate the differences in impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic characteristics, prosthetic-related factors and oral status. Study Design: 51 patients aged 50-90 years treated, from 2005 to 2010, with at least one complete denture at the Department of Buccofacial Prostheses of the Complutense University (Madrid) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All of the participants answered the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14sp) questionnaire. The additive scoring method was used. The prevalence of impacts was calculated by using the occasional threshold (OHIP-14sp score≥2). Socio-demographic and prosthetic-related variables were gathered. Patients underwent clinical examination to assess their oral condition. Descriptive probes and Chi-Square tests were run (p≤0.05). Results: The predominant participants’ profile was that of a man with a mean age of 69 years wearing complete dentures in both the maxilla and the mandible. The prevalence of impact was 23.5%, showing an average score of 19±9.8. The most affected domains were “functional limitation” and “physical pain”, followed by “physical disability”. Minor impacts were recorded for the psychological and social subscales (“psychological discomfort”, “psychological disability”, “social disability” and “handicap”). The prosthesis’ location significantly influenced the overall patient satisfaction, the lower dentures being the less comfortable. Having a complete removable denture as antagonist significantly hampered the patient satisfaction. Patients without prosthetic stomatitis and those who need repairing or changing their prostheses, recorded significantly higher OHIP-14sp total scores. Conclusions: The use of conventional complete dentures brings negative impacts in the OHRQoL of elderly patients, mainly in case of lower prostheses that required reparation or substitution, with a removable total denture as antagonist. The prosthetic stomatitis in this study was always associated to other severe illness, which may have influenced the self-perceived discomfort with the prostheses, as those patients were daily medicated with painkillers.
Key words:Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), patient satisfaction, complete denture, elderly patients.
PMCID: PMC3668860  PMID: 23385509
22.  Changes in the oral health-related quality of life 24 h following insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances 
Journal of Orthodontic Science  2012;1(4):98-102.
The objective of this study was to assess changes in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances 24 h after insertion.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty patients aged between 14 and 24 years (29 males and 31 females; mean age, 17.8 years; SD 3.1 years) were recruited from the Postgraduate Clinic, Department of Children's Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured before treatment and 24 h after insertion of the orthodontic appliance. The instrument used to measure OHRQoL was a modified self-administered short version of Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-16[M]) questionnaire. The higher the score, the poorer is the OHRQoL.
Overall score of OHRQoL increased significantly 24 h after insertion (mean 43.5±10.9) as compared to before insertion (mean 34.1±9.2) (P<0.001). Significant changes were found for the following items: Difficulties in chewing, bad breath, difficulties in pronunciation, discomfort in eating, ulcer, pain, avoidances of eating certain foods, difficulties in cleaning, embarrassment, avoid smiling, disturbed sleep, concentration affected, difficulty carrying out daily activities, and lack of self-confidence (P<0.05). Significant changes were also found in the mean difference of OHRQoL for gender (P<0.001).
OHRQoL was found to deteriorate 24 h after insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances in almost all domains, with significant changes in gender. This information can be used as “informed consent”, which might increase patient's compliance as they are aware of what to expect from initial orthodontic treatment.
PMCID: PMC4072365  PMID: 24987635
Fixed appliances; oral health impact profile; oral health-related quality of life; orthodontic treatment
23.  Comparison of the discriminative ability of a generic and a condition-specific OHRQoL measure in adolescents with and without normative need for orthodontic treatment 
At present, there is no evidence on whether using condition-specific Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) measures provides more reliable information than generic measures for needs assessment. Therefore, the objective was to assess the discriminative ability of one generic and one condition-specific OHRQoL measure, namely, respectively, the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the Condition-Specific form of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (CS-OIDP) attributed to malocclusion, between adolescents with and without normative need for orthodontic treatment.
200 16–17-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from 957 schoolchildren attending a Sixth Form College in London, United Kingdom. The impact of their oral conditions on quality of life during the last 6 months was assessed using two OHRQoL measures; OHIP-14 and OIDP. Adolescents were also examined for normative orthodontic treatment need using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Discriminative ability was assessed comparing the overall scores and prevalence of oral impacts, calculated using each OHRQoL measure, between adolescents with and without normative need. Using the prevalence of oral impacts allowed adjusting for covariates.
There were significant differences in overall scores for CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion between adolescents with and without normative need for orthodontic treatment when IOTN or DAI were used to define need (p = 0.029 or 0.011 respectively), and in overall scores for OHIP-14 when DAI, but not IOTN was used to define need (p = 0.029 and 0.080 respectively). For the prevalence of impacts, only the prevalence of CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion differed significantly between adolescents with and without normative need, even after adjusting for covariates (p = 0.017 and 0.049 using IOTN and DAI to define need).
CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion was better able than OHIP-14 to discriminate between adolescents with and without normative needs for orthodontic treatment.
PMCID: PMC2533301  PMID: 18718004
24.  Psychosocial aspects of temporomandibular disorders and oral health-related quality-of-life 
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica  2012;70(4):331-336.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between psychosocial aspects of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) and, secondly, to investigate the gender differences in these associations using patient and non-patient groups.
Materials and methods.
The sample of the study consisted of 79 patients with TMD and 70 non-patients. The data was collected by Finnish versions of the RDC/TMD Axis II profile and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires. The associations between Axis II profile sub-scales and OHIP prevalence were evaluated using chi-square tests, as stratified by group status (TMD patients and non-patient controls) and by gender. The association between OHIP prevalence and Axis II profile sub-scales were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, adjusted by age, gender and group.
OHIP prevalence (those reporting at least one problem) was 90.9% in the patient group and 33.3% in the non-patient group (p < 0.001, chi-squared test). OHIP prevalence was higher among those scoring higher on all RDC/TMD Axis II profile sub-scales, i.e. graded chronic pain status, depression and non-specific physical symptoms with pain items included and with pain items excluded. The associations were significant in the non-patient group. Women showed statistically significant associations of OHIP prevalence with all Axis II sub-scales. Among men, OHIP prevalence associated with GCPS and somatization. The logistic regression analysis showed that OHIP prevalence associated significantly with somatization and depression.
TMD associate with OHRQoL through multiple ways, linked with depression and somatization. These findings emphasize the importance of early and effective treatment of TMD.
PMCID: PMC3793272  PMID: 22300221
temporomandibular disorders; oral health-related quality-of-life; Oral Health Impact Profile; psychosocial factors
25.  Influence of negative affectivity and self-esteem on the oral health related quality of life in patients receiving oral rehabilitation 
The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the personality traits Negative Affectivity (NA) and self-esteem influenced the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in patients receiving oral rehabilitation.
OHRQoL was measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), NA with a short form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), and self-esteem with Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 66 patients treated with removable dental prosthesis (RDP). The minimally important difference (MID), effect size (ES), and standard error of the measurement (SEM) were used to clinically interpret the patient-reported effect.
The OHIP-49 score was significantly higher and exceeded the MID pre- and post-treatment in participants with high EPI-Q and low RSES score compared to participants with low EPI-Q and high RSES score. The improvement in OHIP-49 score was significant and not limited by high EPI-Q and low RSES score. High EPI-Q score was associated high improvement in OHIP-49 score and the ES of the improvement in participants with high EPI-Q was large and exceeded the MID and SEM.
Treatment with RDP improves the OHRQoL regardless of level of NA and self-esteem. High NA is associated with a large effect, but both high NA and low self-esteem is associated with poorer OHRQoL both before and after treatment.
PMCID: PMC3874746  PMID: 24156271
Personality; Quality of life; Prosthodontics; Treatment outcome; Data interpretation

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