The filamentous virion of the closterovirus Beet yellows virus (BYV) consists of a long body formed by the major capsid protein (CP) and a short tail composed of the minor capsid protein (CPm) and the virus-encoded Hsp70 homolog. By using nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses, we show here that the BYV 64-kDa protein (p64) is the fourth integral component of BYV virions. The N-terminal domain of p64 is exposed at the virion surface and is accessible to antibodies and mild trypsin digestion. In contrast, the C-terminal domain is embedded in the virion and is inaccessible to antibodies or trypsin. The C-terminal domain of p64 is shown to be homologous to CP and CPm. Mutation of the signature motifs of capsid proteins of filamentous RNA viruses in p64 results in the formation of tailless virions, which are unable to move from cell to cell. These results reveal the dual function of p64 in tail assembly and BYV motility and support the concept of the virion tail as a specialized device for BYV cell-to-cell movement.
Systemic spread of viruses in plants involves local movement from cell to cell and long-distance transport through the vascular system. The cell-to-cell movement of the Beet yellows virus (BYV) is mediated by a movement protein that is an Hsp70 homolog (Hsp70h). This protein is required for the assembly of movement-competent virions that incorporate Hsp70h. By using the yeast two-hybrid system, in vitro coimmunoprecipitation, and in planta coexpression approaches, we show here that the Hsp70h interacts with a 20-kDa BYV protein (p20). We further demonstrate that p20 is associated with the virions presumably via binding to Hsp70h. Genetic and immunochemical analyses indicate that p20 is dispensable for assembly and cell-to-cell movement of BYV but is required for the long-distance transport of virus through the phloem. These results reveal a novel activity for the Hsp70h that provides a molecular link between the local and systemic spread of a plant virus by docking a long-distance transport factor to virions.
The Hsp70 homolog (Hsp70h) of Beet yellows virus (BYV) functions in virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement and is autonomously targeted to plasmodesmata in association with the actomyosin motility system (A. I. Prokhnevsky, V. V. Peremyslov, and V. V. Dolja, J. Virol. 79:14421-14428, 2005). Myosins are a diverse category of molecular motors that possess a motor domain and a tail domain involved in cargo binding. Plants have two classes of myosins, VIII and XI, whose specific functions are poorly understood. We used dominant negative inhibition to identify myosins required for Hsp70h localization to plasmodesmata. Six full-length myosin cDNAs from the BYV host plant Nicotiana benthamiana were sequenced and shown to encode apparent orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana myosins VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-B, XI-2, XI-F, and XI-K. We found that the ectopic expression of the tail domains of each of the class VIII, but not the class XI, myosins inhibited the plasmodesmatal localization of Hsp70h. In contrast, the overexpression of the motor domains or the entire molecules of the class VIII myosins did not affect Hsp70h targeting. Further mapping revealed that the minimal cargo-binding part of the myosin VIII tails was both essential and sufficient for the inhibition of the proper Hsp70h localization. Interestingly, plasmodesmatal localization of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and Arabidopsis protein RGP2 was not affected by myosin VIII tail overexpression. Collectively, our data implicate class VIII myosins in protein delivery to plasmodesmata and suggest that more than one mechanism of such delivery exist in plants.
The cell-to-cell movement of plant viruses involves translocation of virus particles or nucleoproteins to and through the plasmodesmata (PDs). As we have shown previously, the movement of the Beet yellows virus requires the concerted action of five viral proteins including a homolog of cellular ∼70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70h). Hsp70h is an integral component of the virus particles and is also found in PDs of the infected cells. Here we investigate subcellular distribution of Hsp70h using transient expression of Hsp70h fused to three spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins. We found that fluorophore-tagged Hsp70h forms motile granules that are associated with actin microfilaments, but not with microtubules. In addition, immobile granules were observed at the cell periphery. A pairwise appearance of these granules at the opposite sides of cell walls and their colocalization with the movement protein of Tobacco mosaic virus indicated an association of Hsp70h with PDs. Treatment with various cytoskeleton-specific drugs revealed that the intact actomyosin motility system is required for trafficking of Hsp70h in cytosol and its targeting to PDs. In contrast, none of the drugs interfered with the PD localization of Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein. Collectively, these findings suggest that Hsp70h is translocated and anchored to PDs in association with the actin cytoskeleton.
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is incorporated within the membrane of primate lentiviral virions. Here we demonstrate that Hsp70 is also incorporated into oncoretroviral virions and that it remains associated with membrane-stripped human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion cores. To determine if Hsp70 promotes virion infectivity, we attempted to generate Hsp70-deficient virions with gag deletion mutations, Hsp70 transdominant mutants, or RNA interference, but these efforts were confounded, largely because they disrupt virion assembly. Given that polypeptide substrates are bound and released by Hsp70 in an ATP-hydrolytic reaction cycle, we supposed that incubation of HIV-1 virions with ATP would perturb Hsp70 interaction with substrates in the virion and thereby decrease infectivity. Treatment with ATP or ADP had no observable effect, but ATPγS and GTPγS, nucleotide triphosphate analogues resistant to Hsp70 hydrolysis, dramatically reduced the infectivity of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus virions. ATPγS-treated virions were competent for fusion with susceptible target cells, but viral cDNA synthesis was inhibited to an extent that correlated with the magnitude of decrease in infectivity. Intravirion reverse transcription by HIV-1, simian immunodeficiency virus, or murine leukemia virus was also inhibited by ATPγS. The effects of ATPγS on HIV-1 reverse transcription appeared to be indirect, resulting from disruption of virion core morphology that was evident by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with effects on capsid conformation, ATPγS-treated viruslike particles failed to saturate host antiviral restriction activity. Our observations support a model in which the catalytic activity of virion-associated Hsp70 is required to maintain structural integrity of the virion core.
A reporter open reading frame (ORF) coding for a fusion of bacterial β-glucuronidase (GUS) with a proteinase domain (Pro) derived from tobacco etch potyvirus was utilized for tagging individual genes of beet yellows closterovirus (BYV). Insertion of this reporter ORF between the first and second codons of the BYV ORFs encoding the HSP70 homolog (HSP70h), a major capsid protein (CP), and a 20-kDa protein (p20) resulted in the expression of the processed GUS-Pro reporter from corresponding subgenomic RNAs. The high sensitivity of GUS assays permitted temporal analysis of reporter accumulation, revealing early expression from the HSP70h promoter, followed by the CP promoter and later the p20 promoter. The kinetics of transcription of the remaining BYV genes encoding a 64-kDa protein (p64), a minor capsid protein (CPm), and a 21-kDa protein (p21) were examined via Northern blot analysis. Taken together, the data indicated that the temporal regulation of BYV gene expression includes early (HSP70h, CPm, CP, and p21 promoters) and late (p64 and p20 promoters) phases. It was also demonstrated that the deletion of six viral genes that are nonessential for RNA amplification resulted in a dramatic increase in the level of transcription from one of the two remaining subgenomic promoters. Comparison with other positive-strand RNA viruses producing multiple subgenomic RNAs showed the uniqueness of the pattern of closterovirus transcriptional regulation.
The Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNA 2 mutant p1-5b was previously isolated from Bemisia tabaci-transmitted virus maintained in Chenopodium murale plants. p1-5b RNA 2 contains a single-nucleotide deletion in the minor coat protein (CPm) open reading frame (ORF) that is predicted to result in a frameshift and premature termination of the protein. Using the recently developed agroinoculation system for LIYV, we tested RNA 2 containing the p1-5b CPm mutant genotype (agro-pR6-5b) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We showed that plant infection triggered by agro-pR6-5b spread systemically and resulted in the formation of virions similar to those produced in p1-5b-inoculated protoplasts. However, virions derived from these mutant CPm genotypes were not transmitted by whiteflies, even though virion concentrations were above the typical transmission thresholds. In contrast, and as demonstrated for the first time, an engineered restoration mutant (agro-pR6-5bM1) was capable of both systemic movement in plants and whitefly transmission. These results provide strong molecular evidence that the full-length LIYV-encoded CPm is dispensable for systemic plant movement but is required for whitefly transmission.
Aphid transmission of poleroviruses is highly specific, but the viral determinants governing this specificity are unknown. We used a gene exchange strategy between two poleroviruses with different vectors, Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), to analyze the role of the major and minor capsid proteins in vector specificity. Virus recombinants obtained by exchanging the sequence of the readthrough domain (RTD) between the two viruses replicated in plant protoplasts and in whole plants. The hybrid readthrough protein of chimeric viruses was incorporated into virions. Aphid transmission experiments using infected plants or purified virions revealed that vector specificity is driven by the nature of the RTD. BWYV and CABYV have specific intestinal sites in the vectors for endocytosis: the midgut for BWYV and both midgut and hindgut for CABYV. Localization of hybrid virions in aphids by transmission electron microscopy revealed that gut tropism is also determined by the viral origin of the RTD.
Members of the human heat shock (HSP) family of related proteins are involved in the intracellular folding, transport, and assembly of proteins and protein complexes. We have observed that human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is associated with the capsid precursor P1 of poliovirus and coxsackievirus B1 in infected HeLa cells. Antiserum generated against HSP70 coimmunoprecipitated the poliovirus protein P1, an intermediate in capsid assembly. Similarly, alpha-virion serum coimmunoprecipitated HSP70 from virus-infected cell extracts, but not from mock-infected cell extracts. The HSP70-P1 complex was stable in high-salt medium but was sensitive to incubation with 2 mM ATP, which is a characteristic of other known functional complexes between HSP70 and cellular proteins. The P1 in the complex was predominantly newly synthesized, and the half-life of complexed P1 was nearly twice as long as that of total P1. The HSP70-P1 complex was found to sediment at 3S to 6S, suggesting that it may be part of, or a precursor to, the "5S promoter particles" thought to be an assembly intermediate of picornaviruses. The finding that HSP70 was associated with the capsid precursors of at least two enteroviruses may suggest a functional role of these complexes in the viral life cycles.
To determine if any heat shock proteins are incorporated into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions in a manner similar to that of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase cyclophilin A, we probed purified virions with antibodies against heat shock proteins Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsc70, and Hsp90. Of these proteins, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsc70 associated with virions purified based on either particle density or size and were shown to be incorporated within the virion membrane, where they were protected from digestion by exogenous protease. Virion incorporation of Hsp70 was also observed with HIV-2 and with simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVMAC and SIVAGM, but it appears to be specific for primate lentiviruses, since Hsp70 was not detected in association with Moloney murine leukemia virus virions. Of the HIV-1 genes, gag was found to be sufficient for Hsp70 incorporation, though Hsp70 was roughly equimolar with pol-encoded proteins in virions.
The UL17 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 is essential for packaging the viral genome into the procapsid, a spherical assembly intermediate, and is present in the mature virus particle. We have examined the distribution of UL17 in various assembly products and virions to determine which component of the virus particle UL17 is associated with and at what stage in capsid assembly UL17 is required. UL17 was present in the procapsid, in the DNA-containing angularized C capsid, and in two other angularized capsid forms, A and B, that lack DNA and are thought to be dead-end products. The results suggest that UL17 is a minor capsid protein which is incorporated into the procapsid during assembly of the particle. UL17 was also found in virions and in noninfectious structures known as light (L) particles, which possess a tegument and envelope but lack a capsid. The level of UL17 in these particles was much greater than the amount that could be attributed to capsid contamination of the purified L-particle preparation, suggesting that UL17 is also a tegument protein. The finding that virions contain approximately twofold more UL17 than do C capsids provided further support for the idea that UL17 is present in two different structural components within the mature virion. The UL25 packaging protein, which is also present in virions, was not found in significant amounts in L particles, indicating that it is associated only with the capsid. UL6, the third virion-associated packaging protein, was present in slightly increased levels in L particles.
Heat shock proteins (hsps) and cyclophilins (CypA) are intracellular chaperone molecules that facilitate protein folding and assembly. These proteins are selectively expressed in cells following exposure to a range of stress stimuli, including viral infection. Hsp species are highly immunogenic, eliciting humoral, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and natural killer (NK) cell responses against viruses, tumours, and infectious diseases. This review discusses the roles of stress proteins in immunity and viral life cycles, vis-à-vis the development of Hsp-based therapeutic strategies against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Cumulative findings are cited implicating the requirement of CypA in HIV-1 replication and formation of infectious virions. Studies by our group show the upregulated expression of hsp27 and hsp70 during single-cycle HIV infections. These species redistribute to the cell surface following HIV-infection and heat stress, serving as targets for NK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies show that hsp27, hsp70, and hsp78 complex with HIV-1 viral proteins intracellularly. Hsp70, hsp56, and CypA are assembled into HIV-1 virions. The ability of hsps to interact with HIV-1 viral proteins, combined with their inherent adjuvant and immunogenic properties, indicates that hsps may serve as vehicles for antigen delivery and the design of vaccines against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
We have created yeast strains in which the mitochondrial chaperonin, hsp60, can be either physically depleted or functionally inactivated. Cells completely depleted of hsp60 stop growing but retain for awhile the capacity to reaccumulate hsp60. While this newly made hsp60 is targeted to and processed correctly within the mitochondrion, assembly of a functional hsp60 complex does not occur. Rather, the hsp60 monomers are localized in different-size soluble complexes containing another mitochondrial chaperone, the mitochondrial form of hsp70. A number of other mitochondrial matrix-targeted proteins synthesized in the absence of functional hsp60 are imported into mitochondria but often show some buildup of precursor forms and, unlike hsp60, accumulate as insoluble aggregates. By contrast, several mitochondrial proteins normally targeted to the intermembrane space show normal processing in the complete absence of a functional hsp60 complex. Similar and complementary results were obtained when we examined the metabolism of matrix- and intermembrane space-localized proteins in cells expressing three different temperature-sensitive alleles of HSP60. In all cases, matrix-targeted proteins synthesized at nonpermissive (i.e., hsp60-inactivating) temperatures were correctly targeted to and processed within mitochondria but accumulated predominantly or totally as insoluble aggregates. The metabolism of two intermembrane space proteins, cytochrome b2 and cytochrome c1, was unaffected at the nonpermissive temperature, as judged by the correct processing and complete solubility of newly synthesized forms of both proteins. These findings are discussed with regard to current models of intermembrane targeting.
Hsp70 chaperones play a role in polyoma- and papillomavirus assembly, as evidenced by their interaction in vivo with polyomavirus capsid proteins at late times after virus infection and by their ability to assemble viral capsomeres into capsids in vitro. We studied whether Hsp70 chaperones might also participate in the uncoating reaction. In vivo, Hsp70 coimmunoprecipitated with polyomavirus virion VP1 at 3 h after infection of mouse cells. In vitro, prokaryotic and eukaryotic Hsp70 chaperones efficiently disassembled polyoma- and papillomavirus-like particles and virions in energy-dependent reactions. These observations support a role for cell chaperones in the disassembly of these viruses.
Chaperone-enriched domains are formed in the nuclei of cells lytically infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). These domains, called VICE, for virus induced chaperone enriched, contain Hsc70, Hsp70, Hsp40, Hsp90, polyubiquitinated proteins, and components of the proteasome machinery. Accumulating evidence indicates that these sites may be utilized during infection to sequester misfolded, modified, or otherwise unwanted proteins away from viral replication compartments, sites of robust transcription, DNA synthesis, and capsid maturation. To further explore the role of cellular chaperones and VICE domains during HSV-1 infection, we have analyzed the cytoprotective chaperone Hsp27. Here we present evidence that Hsp27, which is known to possess several antioxidant functions, is rapidly reorganized and modified at early stages in response to HSV-1 infection and signaling from the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. Immunofluorescence analysis and fractionation experiments reveal disparate subcellular localizations of nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of Hsp27 during wild-type HSV-1 infection. Unmodified forms of Hsp27 are localized in nuclear foci that are outside of replication compartments, adjacent to VICE domains, and in the cytoplasm. Conversely, we find that phosphorylated forms of Hsp27 are localized exclusively in the cytoplasm. Last, in cells depleted of all forms of Hsp27, virus replication is significantly reduced.
Incorporation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins into assembling particles is crucial for virion infectivity. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that the matrix (MA) domain of Gag and the cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 play an important role in coordinating Env incorporation; however, the molecular mechanism and possible role of host factors in this process remain to be defined. Recent studies suggested that Env incorporation is mediated by interactions between matrix and tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47; also known as perilipin-3 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor-binding protein 1), a member of the perilipin, adipophilin, TIP47 (PAT) family of proteins implicated in protein sorting and lipid droplet biogenesis. We have confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy titration experiments and surface plasmon resonance that MA binds TIP47. We also reevaluated the role of TIP47 in HIV-1 Env incorporation in HeLa cells and in the Jurkat T-cell line. In HeLa cells, TIP47 overexpression or RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion had no significant effect on HIV-1 Env incorporation, virus release, or particle infectivity. Similarly, depletion of TIP47 in Jurkat cells did not impair HIV-1 Env incorporation, virus release, infectivity, or replication. Our results thus do not support a role for TIP47 in HIV-1 Env incorporation or virion infectivity.
Hsp70 and Hsp90 protein chaperones cooperate in a protein-folding pathway required by many “client” proteins. The co-chaperone Sti1p coordinates functions of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in this pathway. Sti1p has three tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains. TPR1 binds Hsp70, TPR2a binds Hsp90, and the ligand for TPR2b is unknown. Although Sti1p is thought to be dedicated to the client folding pathway, we earlier showed that Sti1p regulated Hsp70, independently of Hsp90, in a way that impairs yeast [PSI+] prion propagation. Using this prion system to monitor Sti1p regulation of Hsp70 and an Hsp90-inhibiting compound to monitor Hsp90 regulation, we identified Sti1p mutations that separately affect Hsp70 and Hsp90. TPR1 mutations impaired Sti1p regulation of Hsp70, but deletion of TPR2a and TPR2b did not. Conversely, TPR2a and TPR2b mutations impaired Sti1p regulation of Hsp90, but deletion of TPR1 did not. All Sti1p mutations variously impaired the client folding pathway, which requires both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Thus, Sti1p regulated Hsp70 and Hsp90 separately, Hsp90 is implicated as a TPR2b ligand, and mutations separately affecting regulation of either chaperone impair a pathway that is dependent upon both. We further demonstrate that client folding depended upon bridging of Hsp70 and Hsp90 by Sti1p and find conservation of the independent regulation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 by human Hop1.
Two full-length cDNAs of heat shock protein (HSP) genes (Se-hsp90 and Se-hsp70) were cloned from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and their expression was investigated in relation to cold shock, heat shock, and development. The open reading frames of Se-hsp90 and Se-hsp70 are 2,154 and 2,004 bp in length, encoding polypeptides of 717 and 667 amino acids with a molecular mass of 82.6 and 72.5 kDa, respectively. Both genes showed high similarity to their counterparts in other species. Transcriptional expression profiles revealed that both genes were significantly up-regulated under thermal stress. However, the temperature at which expression level became significantly higher than that of controls varied between genes. Intensity of response to temperature was more intense for Se-hsp70 than for Se-hsp90, regardless of temperature or developmental stage. However, intensities of response to temperature of either Se-hsp90 or Se-hsp70 varied with developmental stage. The basal expression of both genes was highest in young larvae and decreased with age. Translational expression of Se-Hsp70 was observed by using Western blot, the expression profiles of Se-Hsp70 protein were in high agreement with those of Se-hsp70 RNA under heat or cold stress in larvae and pupae. However, it does not completely accord with that of Se-hsp70 RNA expression during development without thermal stress. These results indicated that, in addition to heat shock responses, both Se-hsp90 and Se-hsp70 might be involved in development.
Spodoptera exigua; Se-Hsp90; Se-Hsp70; Expression; Thermal stress; Development
Proper folding of newly synthesized viral proteins in the cytoplasm is a prerequisite for the formation of infectious virions. The major capsid protein Vp1 of simian virus 40 forms a series of disulfide-linked intermediates during folding and capsid formation. In addition, we report here that Vp1 is associated with cellular chaperones (HSP70) and a cochaperone (Hsp40) which can be coimmunoprecipitated with Vp1. Studies in vitro demonstrated the ATP-dependent interaction of Vp1 and cellular chaperones. Interestingly, viral cochaperones LT and ST were essential for stable interaction of HSP70 with the core Vp1 pentamer Vp1 (22-303). LT and ST also coimmunoprecipitated with Vp1 in vivo. In addition to these identified (co)chaperones, stable, covalently modified forms of Vp1 were identified for a folding-defective double mutant, C49A-C87A, and may represent a “trapped” assembly intermediate. By a truncation of the carboxyl arm of Vp1 to prevent the Vp1 folding from proceeding beyond pentamers, we detected several apparently modified Vp1 species, some of which were absent in cells transfected with the folding-defective mutant DNA. These results suggest that transient covalent interactions with known or unknown cellular and viral proteins are important in the assembly process.
Assembly of viral replicase complexes of eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses is a regulated process: multiple viral and host components must be assembled on intracellular membranes and ordered into quaternary complexes capable of synthesizing viral RNAs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In this study, we used a model virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), whose replicase complex can be detected readily as the 480-kDa functional protein complex. We found that host heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 are required for RCNMV RNA replication and that they interact with p27, a virus-encoded component of the 480-kDa replicase complex, on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Using a cell-free viral translation/replication system in combination with specific inhibitors of Hsp70 and Hsp90, we found that inhibition of p27-Hsp70 interaction inhibits the formation of the 480-kDa complex but instead induces the accumulation of large complexes that are nonfunctional in viral RNA synthesis. In contrast, inhibition of p27-Hsp90 interaction did not induce such large complexes but rendered p27 incapable of binding to a specific viral RNA element, which is a critical step for the assembly of the 480-kDa replicase complex and viral RNA replication. Together, our results suggest that Hsp70 and Hsp90 regulate different steps in the assembly of the RCNMV replicase complex.
In Streptomyces albus during the heat shock response, a small heat shock protein of 18 kDa is dramatically induced. This protein was purified, and internal sequences revealed that S. albus HSP18 showed a marked homology with proteins belonging to the family of small heat shock proteins. The corresponding gene was isolated and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis confirmed that the hsp18 gene product is an analog of the 18-kDa antigen of Mycobacterium leprae. No hsp18 mRNA could be detected at 30 degrees C, but transcription of this gene was strongly induced following heat shock. The transcription initiation site was determined by nuclease S1 protection. A typical streptomycete vegetative promoter sequence was identified upstream from the initiation site. Disruption mutagenesis of hsp18 showed that HSP18 is not essential for growth in the 30 to 42 degrees C temperature range. However, HSP18 is involved in thermotolerance at extreme temperatures.
The chaperones of the ClpB/HSP100 family play a central role in thermotolerance in bacteria, plants, and fungi by ensuring solubilization of heat-induced protein aggregates. In addition in yeast, Hsp104 was found to be required for prion propagation. Herein, we analyze the role of Podospora anserina Hsp104 (PaHsp104) in the formation and propagation of the [Het-s] prion. We show that ΔPaHsp104 strains propagate [Het-s], making [Het-s] the first native fungal prion to be propagated in the absence of Hsp104. Nevertheless, we found that [Het-s]-propagon numbers, propagation rate, and spontaneous emergence are reduced in a ΔPaHsp104 background. In addition, inactivation of PaHsp104 leads to severe meiotic instability of [Het-s] and abolishes its meiotic drive activity. Finally, we show that ΔPaHSP104 strains are less susceptible than wild type to infection by exogenous recombinant HET-s(218–289) prion amyloids. Like [URE3] and [PIN+] in yeast but unlike [PSI+], [Het-s] is not cured by constitutive PaHsp104 overexpression. The observed effects of PaHsp104 inactivation are consistent with the described role of Hsp104 in prion aggregate shearing in yeast. However, Hsp104-dependency appears less stringent in P. anserina than in yeast; presumably because in Podospora prion propagation occurs in a syncitium.
Point mutations were introduced into or near five conserved sequence motifs of the readthrough domain of the beet western yellows virus minor capsid protein P74. The mutant virus was tested for its ability to accumulate efficiently in agroinfected plants and to be transmitted by its aphid vector, Myzus persicae. The stability of the mutants in the agroinfected and aphid-infected plants was followed by sequence analysis of the progeny virus. Only the mutation Y201D was found to strongly inhibit virus accumulation in planta following agroinfection, but high accumulation levels were restored by reversion or pseudoreversion at this site. Four of the five mutants were poorly aphid transmissible, but in three cases successful transmission was restored by pseudoreversion or second-site mutations. The same second-site mutations in the nonconserved motif PVT(32-34) were shown to compensate for two distinct primary mutations (R24A and E59A/D60A), one on each side of the PVT sequence. In the latter case, a second-site mutation in the PVT motif restored the ability of the virus to move from the hemocoel through the accessory salivary gland following microinjection of mutant virus into the aphid hemocoel but did not permit virus movement across the epithelium separating the intestine from the hemocoel. Successful movement of the mutant virus across both barriers was accompanied by conversion of A59 to E or T, indicating that distinct features of the readthrough domain in this region operate at different stages of the transmission process.
The inner structural Gag proteins and the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) traffic independently to the plasma membrane, where they assemble the nascent virion. HIV-1 carries a relatively low number of glycoproteins in its membrane, and the mechanism of Env recruitment and virus incorporation is incompletely understood. We employed dual-color super-resolution microscopy visualizing Gag assembly sites and HIV-1 Env proteins in virus-producing and in Env expressing cells. Distinctive HIV-1 Gag assembly sites were readily detected and were associated with Env clusters that always extended beyond the actual Gag assembly site and often showed enrichment at the periphery and surrounding the assembly site. Formation of these Env clusters depended on the presence of other HIV-1 proteins and on the long cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. CT deletion, a matrix mutation affecting Env incorporation or Env expression in the absence of other HIV-1 proteins led to much smaller Env clusters, which were not enriched at viral assembly sites. These results show that Env is recruited to HIV-1 assembly sites in a CT-dependent manner, while Env(ΔCT) appears to be randomly incorporated. The observed Env accumulation surrounding Gag assemblies, with a lower density on the actual bud, could facilitate viral spread in vivo. Keeping Env molecules on the nascent virus low may be important for escape from the humoral immune response, while cell-cell contacts mediated by surrounding Env molecules could promote HIV-1 transmission through the virological synapse.
Newly formed HIV-1 particles assemble at the plasma membrane of virus producing cells. The inner structural protein Gag and the envelope glycoprotein Env, which are both essential components of infectious virus particles, traffic to the membrane via different pathways. Attached to the inner side of the membrane, Gag assembles into spherical particles that incorporate Env proteins in their surrounding lipid envelope. The mechanism of Env incorporation is incompletely understood, however. Here, we have exploited recently developed super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques that yield a near-molecular spatial resolution to analyze HIV-1 Gag and Env distribution patterns at the surface of virus producing cells. We observed recruitment of Env to the surroundings of Gag assembly sites, dependent on the presence of its cytoplasmic domain. A large proportion of Env was found in the vicinity of the Gag assembly sites rather than directly co-localizing with it. These results support an indirect mechanism of Env recruitment, presumably mediated through virus induced changes in the environment of the nascent Gag assembly. Furthermore, they suggest a role for the Env protein in HIV-1 transmission that goes beyond its well-characterized function as an entry protein on the viral surface.
To investigate the role of heat shock proteins (HSP) of Yersinia enterocolitica for the host immune response against this pathogen, we cloned and expressed a 60-kDa HSP of Y. enterocolitica serotype O8. A fragment of Y. enterocolitica O8 HSP60 encoded by amino acids 90 to 286 was sequenced and showed more than 90% homology with HSP60 of Y. enterocolitica O3 and GroEL of Escherichia coli and 59% homology with HSP65 of Mycobacterium bovis. The arthritogenic T-cell epitope of mycobacterial HSP65 (amino acid residues 180 to 188) was not found on Yersinia HSP60. To determine whether Yersinia HSP60 is an immunodominant antigen, the immune responses of Yersinia-infected C57BL/6 mice were analyzed. Yersinia-infected mice evolved a significant serum antibody and splenic T-cell response against Yersinia HSP60. CD4+ alpha beta T-cell clones which were generated from splenic T cells isolated from either Yersinia-infected or Yersinia HSP60-immunized mice, recognized both heat-killed Yersinia serotypes O3 and O8 as well as recombinant Yersinia HSP60 but not heat-killed Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Salmonella typhimurium, or recombinant HSP65 of Mycobacterium bovis. The adoptive transfer of HSP60-reactive T-cell clones mediated significant protection against a lethal infection with Y. enterocolitica O8. These results indicate that HSP60 of Y. enterocolitica is an immunodominant antigen which is recognized by both antibodies and CD4+ alpha beta T cells. Moreover, this is the first report providing direct evidence that microbial HSP may elicit a protective immune response which is not associated with autoimmunity.