Human resources for health are in crisis worldwide, especially in economically disadvantaged areas and areas with high rates of HIV/AIDS in both health workers and patients. International organizations such as the Global Health Workforce Alliance have been established to address this crisis. A technical working group within the Global Health Workforce Alliance developed recommendations for scaling up education and training of health workers. The paper will illustrate how decision-makers can use evidence and tools from an equity-oriented toolkit to scale up training and education of health workers, following five recommendations of the technical working group. The Equity-Oriented Toolkit, developed by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Knowledge Translation and Health Technology Assessment in Health Equity, has four major steps: (1) burden of illness; (2) community effectiveness; (3) economic evaluation; and (4) knowledge translation/implementation. Relevant tools from each of these steps will be matched with the appropriate recommendation from the technical working group.
Community-based mass prophylaxis is a core public health operational competency, but staffing needs may overwhelm the local trained health workforce. Just-in-time (JIT) training of emergency staff and computer modeling of workforce requirements represent two complementary approaches to address this logistical problem.
Multnomah County, Oregon, conducted a high-throughput point of dispensing (POD) exercise to test JIT training and computer modeling to validate POD staffing estimates. The POD had 84% non-health-care worker staff and processed 500 patients per hour. Post-exercise modeling replicated observed staff utilization levels and queue formation, including development and amelioration of a large medical evaluation queue caused by lengthy processing times and understaffing in the first half-hour of the exercise.
The exercise confirmed the feasibility of using JIT training for high-throughput antibiotic dispensing clinics staffed largely by nonmedical professionals. Patient processing times varied over the course of the exercise, with important implications for both staff reallocation and future POD modeling efforts. Overall underutilization of staff revealed the opportunity for greater efficiencies and even higher future throughputs.
As many countries face primary care medical workforce shortages and find it difficult to provide timely and affordable care they seek to find new ways of delivering first point of contact health care through developing new service models. In common with other areas of rural and regional Australia, the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) is currently experiencing a general practitioner (GP) workforce shortage which impacts significantly on the ability of patients to access GP led primary care services. The introduction of a nurse led primary care Walk-in Centre in the ACT aimed to fulfill an unmet health care need in the community and meet projected demand for health care services as well as relieve pressure on the hospital system. Stakeholders have the potential to influence health service planning and policy, to advise on the potential of services to meet population health needs and to assess how acceptable health service innovation is to key stakeholder groups. This study aimed to ascertain the views of key stakeholders about the Walk-in Centre.
Stakeholders were purposively selected through the identification of individuals and organisations which had organisational or professional contact with the Walk-in Centre. Semi structured interviews around key themes were conducted with seventeen stakeholders.
Stakeholders were generally supportive of the Walk-in Centre but identified key areas which they considered needed to be addressed. These included the service's systems, full utilisation of the nurse practitioner role and adequate education and training. It was also suggested that a doctor could be available to the Centre as a source of referral for patients who fall outside the nurses' scope of practice. The location of the Centre was seen to impact on patient flows to the Emergency Department.
Nurse led Walk-in Centres are one response to addressing primary health care medical workforce shortages. Whilst some stakeholders have reservations about the model others are supportive and see the potential the model has to provide accessible primary health care. Any further developments of nurse-led Walk-in Centres need to take into account the views of key stakeholders so as to ensure that the model is acceptable and sustainable.
Reports generated by the workforce information system can be used by ASCO and others in the oncology community to advocate for needed health care system and policy changes to help offset future workforce shortages.
In anticipation of oncologist workforce shortages projected as part of a 2007 study, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) worked with a contractor to create a workforce information system (WIS) to assemble the latest available data on oncologist supply and cancer incidence and prevalence. ASCO plans to publish findings annually, reporting on new data and tracking trends over time.
The WIS report is composed of three sections: supply, new entrants, and cancer incidence and prevalence. Tabulations of the number of oncologists in the United States are derived mainly from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Information on fellows and residents in the oncology workforce pipeline come from published sources such as Journal of the American Medical Association. Incidence and prevalence estimates are published by the American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute.
The WIS reports a total of 13,084 oncologists working in the United States in 2011. Oncologists are defined as those physicians who designate hematology, hematology/oncology, or medical oncology as their specialty. The WIS compares the characteristics of these oncologists with those of all physicians and tracks emerging trends in the physician training pipeline.
Observing characteristics of the oncologist workforce over time allows ASCO to identify, prioritize, and evaluate its workforce initiatives. Accessible figures and reports generated by the WIS can be used by ASCO and others in the oncology community to advocate for needed health care system and policy changes to help offset future workforce shortages.
Assessing the training needs of local public health workers is an important step toward providing appropriate training programs in emergency preparedness and core public health competencies. The North Carolina Public Health Workforce Training Needs Assessment survey was implemented through the collaboration of several organizations, including the North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness at the North Carolina Institute for Public Health, the outreach and service unit of the University of North Carolina School of Public Health, the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response in the North Carolina Division of Public Health Epidemiology Section, and local health departments across the state.
We determined the competency of the public health epidemiology workforce within state health agencies based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists Competencies for Applied Epidemiologists in Governmental Public Health Agencies (AECs).
The competence level of current state health agency staff and the need for additional training was assessed against 30 mid-level AECs. Respondents used a five-point Likert scale—ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”—to designate whether staff was competent in certain areas or whether additional training was needed for each of the competencies.
Most states indicated their epidemiology workforce was competent in most of the AECs subject areas. Subject areas with the greatest number of states reporting competency (82%) are creating and managing databases and applying privacy laws. However, at least one-third of the states reported a need for additional training in all competencies assessed. The greatest reported needs were for additional training in surveillance system evaluation and use of knowledge of environmental and behavioral science in epidemiology practice.
The results indicate that most epidemiologists mastered the traditional discipline-specific competencies. However, it is unclear how this level of competency was achieved and what strategies are in place to sustain and strengthen it. The results indicate that epidemiologists have lower levels of competence in the nontraditional epidemiologic fields of knowledge. Future steps to ensure a well-qualified epidemiology workforce include assessing the full AECs in a subgroup of Tier 2 epidemiologists and implementing competencies in academic curricula to sustain reported competency achievements.
Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population.
Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce.
The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs.
Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30%) of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations). Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants.
The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals whose roles include a special focus on emergency preparedness and response along the US-Mexico border.
While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM) to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce.
Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA) to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability) in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency.
In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization.
The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence-based. The survey can serve as a valuable tool for other health departments and non-governmental organizations to assess EBDM capacity within their own workforce and to assist in the identification of approaches that will enhance the uptake of EBDM processes in public health programming and policymaking. Localized survey findings can provide direction for focusing workforce training programs and can indicate the types of incentives and policies that could affect the culture of EBDM in the workplace.
Evidence-based practice; Public health
Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements.
The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a) Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care); (b) Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction); and (c) Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability). Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions.
This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how; what benefits have been realised and for whom; the level of community satisfaction with the service; and the impact of a health service on community viability. While the need to reduce the rural-urban health service disparity in Australia is pressing, the evidence regarding how to move forward is inadequate. This comprehensive evaluation will add significant new knowledge regarding the characteristics associated with a sustainable rural primary health care service.
The South Central Center for Public Health Preparedness (SCCPHP) is a collaboration among the schools of public health at Tulane University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the state health departments in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The SCCPHP provides competency-based training via distant delivery methods to prepare public health workers to plan for and rapidly respond to public health threats and emergency events. This article presents the training system model used by the SCCPHP to assess, design, develop, implement, and evaluate training that is both competency driven and practice based. The SCCPHP training system model ensures a standardized process is used across public health occupations and geographic regions, while allowing for tailoring of the content to meet the specific training needs of the workforce in the respective state and local health departments. Further, the SCCPHP training system model provides evidence of the reciprocal nature between research and practice needed to advance the area of emergency preparedness training and workforce development initiatives in public health.
Hawai‘i lacks the number of skilled professionals needed to meet current and future healthcare demands. In order to meet the growing needs of Hawai‘i's residents, the Workforce Development Council, a state agency attached to the State Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, is looking to expand the primary care workforce 20% by the year 2020. Using funds from a Healthcare Workforce Planning grant, the state formed several Healthcare Industry Skill Panels, a workforce development best practice from the State of Washington, to address the gap in healthcare services and healthcare workforce opportunities for Hawai‘i residents. Over 150 stakeholders—from employers, education, the public workforce system, economic development and labor—contributed their time and expertise to identify current workforce issues and develop action-oriented strategies to close industry skill gaps. So far these Skill Panels have developed a Critical Care Nursing Course Curriculum, a Workforce Readiness Curriculum and Certification pilot project, and a group to address specific barriers that are impeding Certified Nurse Aides (CNA). Upcoming initiatives include the distribution of a comprehensive statewide healthcare workforce development plan entitled Hawai‘i's Healthcare Workforce 20/20 Plan & Report: Addendum to the Comprehensive State Plan for Workforce Development 2009–2014, and the creation of HawaiiHealthCareers.org, a website to both recruit and support individuals interested in pursuing careers in the healthcare industry.
Information technology has the capability to improve the way public health is practiced. Realization of this potential is possible only with a workforce ready to utilize these technologies. This project team assessed informatics competencies of employees in two county departments of health. The goal was to determine the status quo in terms of informatics competencies by surveying current levels of proficiency and relevance, and identify areas of needed training. A survey was adapted from the recommendations of a Working Group document by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and administered to all employees in the two health departments. Respondents evaluated proficiency and relevance for each of 26 recommended competencies. A gap score was generated between these two measures; results were compared to the recommendations of the Working Group.
The following data for each job level are presented: mean gap scores by competency class; the percentage of respondents demonstrating a gap in the competencies reported to be most relevant; and the percentage of respondents meeting the target recommendations of the Working Group. The percentage of respondents who reached the targets was low in higher-level staff. And overall, employees reported low levels of relevance for most of the competencies. The average public health employee does not feel that prescribed informatics competencies are relevant to their work. Before the public health system can take advantage of information technology, relevant employee skills should be identified or developed. There needs to be a shift in thinking that will recognize the promise of information technology in everyday work.
Field epidemiology training programs have been successful models to address a country's needs for a skilled public health workforce, partly due to their responsiveness to the countries' unique needs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has partnered with ministries of health to strengthen their workforce through customized competency-based training programs. While desirable, emphasis on program flexibility can result in redundancy and inconsistency. To address this challenge, the ADDIE model (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) of instructional design was used by a cross-functional team to guide completion of a standard curriculum based on 15 competencies. The standard curriculum has supported the development and expansion of programs while still allowing for adaptation. This article describes the process that was used to develop the curriculum, which, together with needs assessment and evaluation, is crucial for successful training programs.
Cancer is the source of significant morbidity and mortality in the United States, and eliminating cancer-related racial and ethnic disparities has become an ever-increasing focus of public health efforts. Increasing workforce diversity plays a major role in the reduction of health disparities, and a well-trained professional workforce is essential for the prevention, control, and ultimate elimination of this disease.
To help address this need, the Public Health/General Preventive Medicine residency program at Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) developed an innovative Cancer Prevention and Control Track (CPCT). We describe the structure of the track, funding, examples of resident activities, and program successes.
Since the development of the track in 2007, there have been 3 graduates, and 2 residents are currently enrolled. Residents have conducted research projects and have engaged in longitudinal community-based activities, cancer-focused academic experiences, and practicum rotations. There have been 3 presentations at national meetings, 1 research grant submitted, and 1 research award.
The CPCT provides residents with comprehensive cancer prevention and control training with emphasis in community engagement, service, and research. It builds on the strengths of the diversity training already offered at MSM and combines resources from academia, the private sector, and the community at large.
The aim of the study was a recommendation and establishment the concept of the appropriate communication between public health, other competent services and population in emergency as the corner stone which guarantee that all goals which are important for community life will be achieved.
We used methodology appropriate for social science: analyses of documents, historical approach and comparative analysis.
The finding shows the urgent need for accepting of crises and emergency risk communication principles, or some similar concepts, in Serbia, and implementing effective two way communication especially in multiethnic region. The pragmatic value of the paper lays in information about the recent improvement of health workforce and emergency services in emergencies using new concept of communication and as source of numerous useful documents published in USA and few recent Serbian examples.
Health workforce has significant role in the process of protection of population in emergencies. Policy makers should work on finding a way to improve their coordination and communication, creating new academic programs, providing of adequate training, and financial means in order to give them different role in society and provide visibility. From other side health workforce should build back to the citizen trust in what they are doing for society welfare using all their skills and abilities.
Health workforce; Emergency; Communication; Crises; Serbia
A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit.
The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist.
Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.
Internationally, the health workforce has undergone rapid transformation to help meet growing staffing demands and population requirements. Several tools have been developed to support workforce change processes. The Calderdale Framework (CF) is one such tool designed to facilitate competency-based training by engaging team members in a seven step process involving awareness raising, service and task analysis, competency identification, establishing support systems, training, and sustaining. This paper explores the utility of the CF as an appraisal tool to assess whether adherence to the tool influences outcomes. The CF was applied retrospectively to three complete evaluations of allied health assistant role introduction: a new podiatry assistant role (Australia), speech pathology assistant (Australia), and occupational therapy assistant practitioner role (UK). Adherence to the CF was associated with more effective and efficient use of the role, role flexibility and career development opportunities for assistants, and role sustainability. Services are less likely to succeed in their workforce change process if they fail to plan for and use a structured approach to change, assign targeted leadership, undertake staff engagement and consultation, and perform an initial service analysis. The CF provides a clear template for appraising the implementation of new roles and highlights the potential consequences of not adhering to particular steps in the implementation process.
workforce change; allied health; assistant practitioner; Calderdale Framework; evaluation; podiatry; occupational therapy; speech pathology
Over the last two decades, concern has been expressed about the readiness of the public health workforce to adequately address the scientific, technological, social, political and economic challenges facing the field. A 1988 report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) served as a catalyst for the re-examination of the public health workforce. The IOM's call to increase the relevance of public health education and training prompted a renewed effort to identify competences needed by public health personnel and the organizations that employ them.
A recent evaluation sought to address the role of the 10 essential public health services in job services among the Texas public health workforce. Additionally, the evaluation examined the Texas public health workforce's need for training in the 10 essential public health services.
Results and conclusion
Overall, the level of perceived training needs varied dramatically by job category and health department type. When comparing aggregate training needs, public health workers with greater day-to-day contact (nurses, health educators) indicated a greater need for training than their peers who did not, such as those working in administrative positions. When prioritizing and designing future training modules regarding the 10 essential public health services, trainers should consider the effects of job function, location and contact with the public.
In common with other jurisdictions, Alberta faces challenges in ensuring a balance in health worker supply and demand. As the provider organization with province-wide responsibility, Alberta Health Services needed to develop a forecasting tool to inform its position on key workforce parameters, in the first instance focused on modeling the situation for Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses and health care aides. This case study describes the development of the model, highlighting the choices involved in model development.
A workforce planning model was developed to test the effect of different assumptions (for instance about vacancy rates or retirement) and different policy choices (for example about the size of intakes into universities and colleges, different composition of the workforce). This case study describes the choices involved in designing the model. The workforce planning model was used as part of a consultation process and to develop six scenarios (based on different policy choices).
Discussion and evaluation
The model outputs highlighted the problems with continuation of current workforce strategies and the impact of key policy choices on workforce parameters.
Models which allow for transparency of the underlying assumptions, and the ability to assess the sensitivity of assumptions and the impact of policy choices are required for effective workforce planning.
In 2002, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health (UMNSPH) adopted an approach that supports basic, advanced, and continuing education curricula to train current and future public health workers. This model for lifelong learning for public health practice education allows for the integration of competency domains from the Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice's core public health workforce competency levels and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Bioterrorism and Emergency Readiness Competencies.
This article describes how UMNSPH has implemented the model through coordination with state planning efforts and needs assessments in the tristate region of Minnesota, North Dakota, and Wisconsin. In addition, we discuss methods used for credentialing practitioners who have achieved competency at various levels of performance to enhance the capacity of the public health preparedness systems.
Developing a health information technology (HIT) workforce is critical for health care transformation and has taken on added urgency as federal and state governments incentivize providers to implement and adopt electronic health records (EHRs) by 2015. We conducted in-depth interviews with HIT workers in three communities throughout New York State that received state funding to implement EHRs in order to characterize the skilled workforce in each community and compare their roles to the HIT workforce roles recently outlined by the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC). We found that workers were placed within different organizational models, possessed a variety of backgrounds, and carried out implementations by addressing work gaps between technologies, processes, and personnel. Workers’ self-described roles fit ONC’s defined workforce roles but appeared to differ in how those roles were operationalized. This paper describes how communities are utilizing available workforce that may inform state and federal training programs.
The health coverage of low-income workers represents an area of continuing disparities in the United States system of health insurance. Using the 2001 California Health Interview Survey, we estimate the effect of low-income wage earners' citizenship and gender on the odds of obtaining primary employment-based health insurance (EBHI), dependent EBHI, public program coverage, and coverage from any source. We find that non-citizen men and women who comprise 40% of California's low-income workforce, share the disadvantage of much lower rates of insurance coverage, compared to naturalized and U.S.-born citizens. However, poor coverage rates of noncitizen men, regardless of permanent residency status, result from the cumulative disadvantage in obtaining dependent EBHI and public insurance. If public policies designed to provide a health care safety net fail to address the health care coverage needs of low-wage noncitizens, health disparities will continue to increase in this group that contributes essentially to the U.S. economy.
Health insurance; Health disparities; Immigrants; Latinos; Gender; Citizenship
The Institute of Medicine has issued numerous reports calling for the public health workforce to be adept in policy-making, communication, science translation, and other advocacy skills. Public health competencies include advocacy capabilities, but few public health graduate institutions provide systematic training for translating public health science into policy action. Specialized health-advocacy training is needed to provide future leaders with policy-making knowledge and skills in generating public support, policy-maker communications, and policy campaign operations that could lead to improvements in the outcomes of public health initiatives. Advocacy training should draw on nonprofit and government practitioners who have a range of advocacy experiences and skills. This article describes a potential model curriculum for introductory health-advocacy theory and skills based on the course, Health Advocacy, a winner of the Delta Omega Innovative Public Health Curriculum Award, at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland.
More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives.
The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and professional standards in this region of Africa. The African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will measure the progress of country projects and conduct an annual evaluation of the initiative’s regional impact, thereby contributing to the global evidence base of health workforce interventions.
The African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives is designed to address priority needs in health workforce development and improve regulation of the health workforce. This model may assist others countries and regions facing similar workforce challenges.
Health workforce; Regulation; Health profession; Human resources for health; Collaborative; Global health; Regional approach; Strengthening; Nursing; Midwifery
The AMIA 2001 Spring Congress brought together members of the the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions of funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes—that all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research; and that informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health.