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1.  Treatment principles for osteochondral lesions in foot and ankle 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(9):1697-1706.
Osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) is a broad term used to describe an injury or abnormality of the talar articular cartilage and adjacent bone. A variety of terms have been used to refer to this clinical entity, including osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), osteochondral fracture and osteochondral defect. Whether OLT is a precursor to more generalised arthrosis of the ankle remains unclear, but the condition is often symptomatic enough to warrant treatment. In more than one third of cases, conservative treatment is unsuccessful, and surgery is indicated. There is a wide variety of treatment strategies for osteochondral defects of the ankle, with new techniques that have substantially increased over the last decade. The common treatment strategies of symptomatic osteochondral lesions include nonsurgical treatment, with rest, cast immobilisation and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Surgical options are lesion excision, excision and curettage, excision combined with curettage and microfracturing, filling the defect with autogenous cancellous bone graft, antegrade (transmalleolar) drilling, retrograde drilling, fixation and techniques such as osteochondral transplantation [osteochondral autograft transfer system (OATS)] and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Furthermore, smaller lesions are symptomatic and when left untreated, OCDs can progress; current treatment strategies have not solved this problem. The target of these treatment strategies is to relieve symptoms and improve function. Publications on the efficacy of these treatment strategies vary. In most cases, several treatment options are viable, and the choice of treatment is based on defect type and size and preferences of the treating clinician.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2076-1
PMCID: PMC3764304  PMID: 23982639
Osteochondral lesions; Osteochondritis dissecans; Talus; Foot and ankle; Cartilage damage; Subchondral bone
2.  Midterm results of biologic fixation or mosaicplasty and drilling in osteochondritis dissecans 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2011;45(5):445-449.
Background:
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) primarily affects subchondral bone. Multiple drilling, fixation implant or autogenous osteochondral grafts are reported as treatment options. We present the midterm results of cases in which an OCD lesion was treated by osteochondral autograft transfer and drilling.
Materials and Methods:
Between 2002 and 2006, 14 knees with International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS-OCD) type II and III lesions were treated in our clinic using osteochondral autograft transfer and drilling by arthroscopic or open surgery. The average age of our patients was 22.14 years (range 17-29 years) and average followup was of 24.3 months (range 11-40 months). Lesion type was ICRS type II in five patients (35.7%) and ICRS type III in nine patients (64.3%). In cases with ICRS-OCD type II lesions, in situ fixation was applied following circumferential multiple drilling, while mosaicplasty was done following debridement and multiple drilling in cases with ICRS-OCD type III lesion. Mosaicplasty was performed in the lesion area by an average of 2.5 (range 1-3) cylindrical osteochondral autografts. Patients were not allowed to perform loading activities for 3 weeks in the postoperative period; movement was initiated by using CPM device in the early phase; full range of motion was achieved in third week, and full weight bearing was permitted in 6 to 8 weeks
Results:
While 6 and 8 patients were classified preoperatively as fair and poor, respectively, according to Hughston scale, excellent and good results were obtained postoperatively in 10 and 4 patients, respectively. During the followup, no problems were detected in any of the patients in the regions where osteochondral graft was harvested.
Conclusion:
Biologic fixation or mosaicplasty and drilling as a technique to treatment of the lesion in OCD by osteochondral autograft transfer has resulted in good and excellent clinical outcomes in our patients and it is considered that providing blood flow to subchondral bone by circumferencial drilling leads to an increase in the robustness of biological internal fixation and shortens the duration of recovery.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.83137
PMCID: PMC3162682  PMID: 21886927
Osteochondritis dissecans; Hughston scale; knee; mosaicplasty
3.  No Effect of Hole Geometry in Microfracture for Talar Osteochondral Defects 
Background
Débridement and bone marrow stimulation is an effective treatment option for patients with talar osteochondral defects. However, whether surgical factors affect the success of microfracture treatment of talar osteochondral defects is not well characterized.
Questions/purposes
We hypothesized (1) holes that reach deeper into the bone marrow-filled trabecular bone allow for more hyaline-like repair; and (2) a larger number of holes with a smaller diameter result in more solid integration of the repair tissue, less need for new bone formation, and higher fill of the defect.
Methods
Talar osteochondral defects that were 6 mm in diameter were drilled bilaterally in 16 goats (32 samples). In eight goats, one defect was treated by drilling six 0.45-mm diameter holes in the defect 2 mm deep; in the remaining eight goats, six 0.45-mm diameter holes were punctured to a depth of 4 mm. All contralateral defects were treated with three 1.1-mm diameter holes 3 mm deep, mimicking the clinical situation, as internal controls. After 24 weeks, histologic analyses were performed using Masson-Goldner/Safranin-O sections scored using a modified O’Driscoll histologic score (scale, 0–22) and analyzed for osteoid deposition. Before histology, repair tissue quality and defect fill were assessed by calculating the mean attenuation repair/healthy cartilage ratio on Equilibrium Partitioning of an Ionic Contrast agent (EPIC) micro-CT (μCT) scans. Differences were analyzed by paired comparison and Mann-Whitney U tests.
Results
Significant differences were not present between the 2-mm and 4-mm deep hole groups for the median O’Driscoll score (p = 0.31) and the median of the μCT attenuation repair/healthy cartilage ratios (p = 0.61), nor between the 0.45-mm diameter and the 1.1-mm diameter holes in defect fill (p = 0.33), osteoid (p = 0.89), or structural integrity (p = 0.80).
Conclusions
The results indicate that the geometry of microfracture holes does not influence cartilage healing in the caprine talus.
Clinical Relevance
Bone marrow stimulation technique does not appear to be improved by changing the depth or diameter of the holes.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3189-y
PMCID: PMC3792274  PMID: 23893362
4.  Fluoroscopy-guided retrograde core drilling and cancellous bone grafting in osteochondral defects of the talus 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(8):1635-1640.
Purpose
In undetached osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the talus both revitalisation of the subchondral necrosis and cartilage preservation are essential. For these cases, we assess the results of minimally invasive retrograde core drilling and cancellous bone grafting.
Methods
Forty-one osteochondral lesions of the talus (12x grade I, 22x grade II and 7x grade III according to the Pritsch classification, defect sizes 7–14 mm) in 38 patients (mean age 33.2 years) treated by fluoroscopy-guided retrograde core drilling and autologous cancellous bone grafting were evaluated by clinical scores and MRI. The mean follow-up was 29.0 (±13) months.
Results
The AOFAS score increased significantly from 47.3 (±15.3) to 80.8 (±18.6) points. Lesions with intact cartilage (grades I and II) had a tendency to superior results than grade III lesions (83.1 ± 17.3 vs. 69.4 ± 22.2 points, p = 0.07). First-line treatments and open distal tibial growth plates led to significantly better outcomes (each p < 0.05). Age, gender, BMI, time to follow-up, defect localisation or a traumatic origin did not influence the score results. On a visual analogue scale pain intensity reduced from 7.5 (±1.5) to 3.7 (±2.6) while subjective function increased from 4.6 (±2.0) to 8.2 (±2.3) (each p < 0.001). In MRI follow-ups, five of the 41 patients showed a complete bone remodelling. In two cases demarcation was detectable.
Conclusions
The technique reported is a highly effective therapeutic option in OCL of the talus with intact cartilage grades I and II. However, second-line treatments and grade III lesions with cracked cartilage surface can not be generally recommended for this procedure.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1530-9
PMCID: PMC3535023  PMID: 22491802
5.  Improved Visualization of the 70° Arthroscope in the Treatment of Talar Osteochondral Defects 
Arthroscopy Techniques  2013;2(2):e129-e133.
Osteochondral defects (OCDs) of the talus are a common cause of residual pain after ankle injuries. When conservative treatment fails, arthroscopic debridement combined with drilling/microfracturing of the lesion (bone marrow stimulation [BMS] procedures) has been shown to provide good to excellent outcomes. Not uncommonly, talar OCDs involve the borders of the talar dome. These uncontained lesions are sometimes difficult to visualize with the 30° arthroscope, with potential negative effect on the clinical outcome of an arthroscopic BMS procedure. The use of the 70° arthroscope has been described for a multitude of common knee, shoulder, elbow, and hip procedures. The purpose of this article is to show the usefulness of the 70° arthroscope in arthroscopic BMS procedures, pointing out which kinds of talar OCDs can benefit most from its use.
doi:10.1016/j.eats.2013.01.001
PMCID: PMC3716212  PMID: 23875138
6.  Treatment of deep articular talus lesions by matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation—results at five years 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(11):2279-2285.
Purpose
Treatment of focal full-thickness chondral or osteochondral defects of the talus remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the postoperative success and the long-term efficacy of matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation in these defects.
Methods
Matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) was applied in 22 consecutive patients (mean age 23.9 years) with full-thickness chondral or osteochondral lesions of the talus. The average defect-size was 1.94 cm² (range 1–6). In case of osteochondritis dissecans (n = 13) an autologous bone graft was performed simultaneously. Follow-ups were routinely scheduled up to 63.5 (±7.4) months, consisting of clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging.
Results
The AOFAS score improved significantly from 70.1 to 87.9/92.6/93.5/95.0/95.5 and 95.3 points at three, six, 12, 24, 36 and 63.5 months, respectively. On a visual analogue scale, pain intensity decreased from 5.7 (±2.6) to 0.9 (±0.8) while subjective function increased from 5.3 (±2.3) to 8.9 (±0.9) at final follow-up (each p < 0.001). The Tegner score rose significantly from 2.4 (±1.2) to 4.7 (±0.6). The MOCART score improved from 62.6 (±19.4) at three months to 83.8 (±9.4) at final follow-up. No significant differences were found between lesions caused by osteochondritis dissecans or trauma and between first- or second-line treatments. For all scores, the most benefit was seen within the first 12 months with stable results afterwards. No major complications were noted.
Conclusions
Matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation is capable of significant and stable long-term improvement of pain and functional impairment caused by focal full-thickness chondral and osteochondral talus lesions.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1635-1
PMCID: PMC3479272  PMID: 22885840
7.  Current Treatments of Isolated Articular Cartilage Lesions of the Knee Achieve Similar Outcomes 
Background
Many surgical techniques, including microfracture, periosteal and perichondral grafts, chondrocyte transplantation, and osteochondral grafts, have been studied in an attempt to restore damaged articular cartilage. However, there is no consensus regarding the best method to repair isolated articular cartilage defects of the knee.
Questions/purposes
We compared postoperative functional outcomes, followup MRI appearance, and arthroscopic examination after microfracture (MF), osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT), or autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI).
Methods
We prospectively investigated 30 knees with MF, 22 with OAT, and 18 with ACI. Minimum followup was 3 years (mean, 5 years; range, 3–10 years). We included only patients with isolated cartilage defects and without other knee injuries. The three procedures were compared in terms of function using the Lysholm knee evaluation scale, Tegner activity scale, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score; modified Outerbridge cartilage grades using MRI; and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) repair grade using arthroscopy.
Results
All three procedures showed improvement in functional scores. There were no differences in functional scores and postoperative MRI grades among the groups. Arthroscopy at 1 year showed excellent or good results in 80% after MF, 82% after OAT, and 80% after ACI. Our study did not show a clear benefit of either ACI or OAT over MF.
Conclusions
Owing to a lack of superiority of any one treatment, we believe MF is a reasonable option as a first-line therapy given its ease and affordability relative to ACI or OAT.
Level of Evidence
Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2304-9
PMCID: PMC3392395  PMID: 22422593
8.  Does Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Enhance Healing of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Rabbit Knee?: A Pilot Study 
Background
Severe osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in children and adolescents often necessitates surgical interventions (ie, drilling, excision, or débridement). Since extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) enhances healing of long-bone nonunion fractures, we speculated ESWT would reactivate the healing process in OCD lesions.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether ESWT would enhance articular cartilage quality, bone and cartilage density, and histopathology of osteochondral lesions compared to nontreated controls in an OCD rabbit model.
Methods
We harvested a 4-mm-diameter plug of the weightbearing osteochondral surface on the medial femoral condyle of each knee in 20 skeletally immature (8-week-old) female rabbits. We placed a piece of acellular collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix into the cavity and then replaced the plug. Two weeks after surgery, we sedated each rabbit and treated the right knee in a single setting with shock waves: 4000 impulses at 4 Hz and 18 kV. The left knee was a sham control. Ten weeks after surgery, we assessed cartilage morphology of the lesion using a modified Outerbridge Grading System, bone and cartilage density using histologic imaging, bone and cartilage morphology using the histopathology assessment system, and radiographic bone density and union and compared these parameters between ESWT-treated and control knees.
Results
Histologically, we observed more mature bone formation and better healing (1.1 versus 3.4) and density of the cartilage (60 versus 49) on the treated side. Radiographically, we noted an increase in bony density (154 versus 138) after ESWT.
Conclusions
ESWT accelerated the healing rate and improved cartilage and subchondral bone quality in the OCD rabbit model.
Clinical Relevance
This therapeutic modality may be applicable in OCD treatment in the pediatric population. Future research will be necessary to determine whether it may play a role in healing of human osteochondral defects.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2410-8
PMCID: PMC3586044  PMID: 22669551
9.  Traumatic Osteochondral Injury of the Femoral Head Treated by Mosaicplasty: A Report of Two Cases 
HSS Journal  2010;6(2):228-234.
The increased risk of symptomatic progression towards osteoarthritis after chondral damage has led to the development of multiple treatment options for cartilage repair. These procedures have evolved from arthroscopic lavage and debridement, to marrow stimulation techniques, and more recently, to osteochondral autograft and allograft transplants, and autogenous chondrocyte implantation. The success of mosaicplasty procedures in the knee has led to its application to other surfaces, including the talus, tibial plateau, patella, and humeral capitellum. In this report, we present two cases of a chondral defect to the femoral head after a traumatic hip dislocation, treated with an osteochondral autograft (OATS) from the ipsilateral knee, and the inferior femoral head, respectively, combined with a surgical dislocation of the hip. At greater than 1 year and greater than 5 years of follow-up, MRI studies have demonstrated good autograft incorporation with maintenance of articular surface conformity, and both patients clinically continue to have no pain and full active range of motion of their respective hips. In our opinion, treatment of osteochondral defects in the femoral head surface using a surgical dislocation combined with an OATS procedure is a promising approach, as full exposure of the femoral head can be obtained while preserving its vasculature, thus enabling adequate restoration of the articular cartilage surface.
doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9159-y
PMCID: PMC2926357  PMID: 21886541
hip dislocation; osteochondral autograft transplant; femoral head; osteochondral defect; osteochondral injury; mosaicplasty
10.  Drilling Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans: Retro- or Transarticular? 
Background
Early diagnosis and successful treatment of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) is essential in preventing articular degeneration at a young age. Surgical treatment of stable JOCD lesions failing nonoperative treatment involves retroarticular or transarticular drilling to induce revascularization and healing. Multiple case series report high healing rates and infrequent complications for both retroarticular and transarticular drilling modalities; however, it is unclear from these individual reports whether one mode of drilling provides higher healing rates.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether transarticular or retroarticular drilling of stable JOCD lesions results in differing patient-oriented outcomes, rates of radiographic healing, time to radiographic healing, and complication rates.
Methods
We systematically reviewed the short-term clinical outcomes of retroarticular and transarticular drilling of stable OCD lesions. PubMed and additional sources identified 65 studies; 12 studies met inclusion criteria.
Results
Heterogeneity and quality of studies limited review to qualitative analysis. No clear differences were seen in patient-oriented outcomes after treatment with either drilling modality. Radiographic healing for JOCD lesions drilled retroarticularly occurred in 96 of 111 (86%) lesions in an average of 5.6 months. Transarticular drilling of JOCD lesions resulted in 86 of 94 (91%) lesions healing by radiography in an average of 4.5 months. No complications were reported for either drilling modality.
Conclusions
Retroarticular and transarticular drilling of stable lesions results in comparable short-term patient-oriented outcomes and radiographic healing. Further high-quality comparative studies are required to adequately compare drilling modalities, clearly define radiographic healing, and patient-oriented outcomes after nonoperative treatment.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2237-8
PMCID: PMC3586042  PMID: 22274726
11.  Cartilage repair techniques of the talus: An update 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(3):171-179.
Symptomatic chondral or osteochondral defects of the talus reduce the quality of life of many patients. Although their pathomechanism is well understood, it is well known that different aetiologic factors play a role in their origin. Additionally, it is well recognised that the talar articular cartilage strongly differs from that in the knee. Despite this fact, many recommendations for the management of talar cartilage defects are based on approaches that were developed for the knee. Conservative treatment seems to work best in paediatric and adolescent patients with osteochondritis dissecans. However, depending on the size of the lesions, surgical approaches are necessary to treat many of these defects. Bone marrow stimulation techniques may achieve good results in small lesions. Large lesions may be treated by open procedures such as osteochondral autograft transfer or allograft transplantation. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation, as a restorative procedure, is well investigated in the knee and has been applied in the talus with increasing popularity and promising results but the evidence to date is poor. The goals of the current article are to summarise the different options for treating chondral and osteochondral defects of the talus and review the available literature.
doi:10.5312/wjo.v5.i3.171
PMCID: PMC4095009  PMID: 25035819
Cartilage defect; Talus; Repair techniques; Arthroscopy; Marrow stimulation; Mosaicplasty; Autologous chondrocyte implantation
12.  Adoptive Cellular Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e62847.
Purpose
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), as one of the most immunogenic tumors has been the focus of adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACI), but the effects of ACI on objective response and survival in patients with mRCC are still controversial. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to address this issue.
Methods
A search was conducted in the PubMed database for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with ACI in mRCC. All included articles in this study were assessed according to the selection criteria and were divided into two groups: ACI versus no ACI. Outcomes were toxicity, objective response, 1-, 3- and 5-year survival. Risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was measured by value of I2 or P.
Results
4 studies (469 patients) were included. Most of ACI-related adverse reactions were grade 1 or 2 and reversible. ACI provided significant benefit in terms of objective response (RR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.38; P = 0.007, I2 = 49%), 1-year survival (RR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.52; P = 0.0008, I2 = 0%), 3-year survival (RR = 2.76; 95% CI, 1.85 to 4.14; P<0.00001, I2 = 46%) and 5-year survival (RR = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.21 to 4.83; P = 0.01, I2 = 28%).
Conclusions
ACI may be a safe and effective treatment for improving objective response, 1-, 3- and 5-year survival in patients with mRCC. Besides, five obstacles for ACI, including high degree of personalization, unsuitable WHO/RECIST response criteria, inadequate identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), lack of effective combination treatments and less attention paid to the quality of ACI products, should be overcome during the successful development of more potent ACI for cancer in the future.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062847
PMCID: PMC3647060  PMID: 23667530
13.  One-step bone marrow-derived cell transplantation in talarosteochondral lesions: mid-term results 
Joints  2014;1(3):102-107.
Purpose
to verify the capability of scaffold-supported bone marrow-derived cells to be used in the repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus.
Methods
using a device to concentrate bone marrow-derived cells, a scaffold (collagen powder or hyaluronic acid membrane) for cell support and platelet gel, a one-step arthroscopic technique was developed for cartilage repair. In a prospective clinical study, we investigated the ability of this technique to repair talar osteochondral lesions in 64 patients. The mean follow-up was 53 months. Clinical results were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale score. We also considered the influence of scaffold type, lesion area, previous surgery, and lesion depth.
Results
the mean preoperative AOFAS scale score was 65.2 ± 13.9. The clinical results peaked at 24 months, before declining gradually to settle at a score of around 80 at the maximum follow-up of 72 months.
Conclusions
the use of bone marrow-derived cells supported by scaffolds to repair osteochondral lesions of the talus resulted in significant clinical improvement, which was maintained over time.
Level of Evidence
level IV, therapeutic case series.
PMCID: PMC4295704  PMID: 25606518
bone marrow-derived cells; cartilage; osteochondral defect; repair; talus
14.  Establishing proof of concept: Platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate may improve cartilage repair following surgical treatment for osteochondral lesions of the talus 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2012;3(7):101-108.
Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries in the athletic patient. They present a challenging clinical problem as cartilage has a poor potential for healing. Current surgical treatments consist of reparative (microfracture) or replacement (autologous osteochondral graft) strategies and demonstrate good clinical outcomes at the short and medium term follow-up. Radiological findings and second-look arthroscopy however, indicate possible poor cartilage repair with evidence of fibrous infill and fissuring of the regenerative tissue following microfracture. Longer-term follow-up echoes these findings as it demonstrates a decline in clinical outcome. The nature of the cartilage repair that occurs for an osteochondral graft to become integrated with the native surround tissue is also of concern. Studies have shown evidence of poor cartilage integration, with chondrocyte death at the periphery of the graft, possibly causing cyst formation due to synovial fluid ingress. Biological adjuncts, in the form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), have been investigated with regard to their potential in improving cartilage repair in both in vitro and in vitro settings. The in vitro literature indicates that these biological adjuncts may increase chondrocyte proliferation as well as synthetic capability, while limiting the catabolic effects of an inflammatory joint environment. These findings have been extrapolated to in vitro animal models, with results showing that both PRP and BMAC improve cartilage repair. The basic science literature therefore establishes the proof of concept that biological adjuncts may improve cartilage repair when used in conjunction with reparative and replacement treatment strategies for osteochondral lesions of the talus.
doi:10.5312/wjo.v3.i7.101
PMCID: PMC3399015  PMID: 22816065
Osteochondral lesion; Cartilage repair; Platelet-rich plasma; Bone marrow aspirate concentrate
15.  Osteochondral Allograft of the Talus 
Osteochondral lesions of the talus are being recognized as an increasingly common injury. They are most commonly located postero-medially or antero-laterally, while centrally located lesions are uncommon. Large osteochondral lesions have significant biomechanical consequences and often require resurfacing with osteochondral autograft transfer, mosaicplasty, autologous chondrocyte implantation (or similar methods) or osteochondral allograft transplantation. Allograft procedures have become popular due to inherent advantages over other resurfacing techniques. Cartilage viability is one of the most important factors for successful clinical outcomes after transplantation of osteochondral allografts and is related to storage length and intra-operative factors. While there is abundant literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation in the knee, there are few papers about this procedure in the talus. Failure of non-operative management, initial debridement, curettage or microfractures are an indication for resurfacing. Patients should have a functional ankle motion, closed growth plates, absence of cartilage lesions on the tibial side. This paper reviews the published literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation of the talus focusing on indications, pre-operative planning, surgical approaches, postoperative management, results and complications of this procedure.
PMCID: PMC4127728  PMID: 25328456
16.  Osteochondral autograft transplantation for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the knee: a series of twelve cases 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(11):2243-2248.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) lesions of the knee, especially time to return to sports.
Methods
Twelve knee JOCD lesions with OCD grade 3 and 4 categorised by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were treated with OAT. Nine male and two female skeletally immature patients averaging 13.7 years old were included. The OCD lesions were assessed arthroscopically and then fixed in situ using multiple osteochondral plugs harvested under fluoroscopy from the distal femoral condyle without damaging the physis. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score and Lysholm score were assessed pre- and postoperatively.
Results
After a mean follow-up of 26.2 ± 15.1 months, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score significantly improved (p < 0.01). According to the IKDC score, objective assessment showed that ten of 12 (83 %) had excellent results (score: A) after OAT and significantly improved (p < 0.01). Based on ICRS criteria, results were satisfactory in all patients. No patients experienced complications at the graft harvest site. All patients returned to their previous level of athletic activity at an average of 5.7 months after the surgery.
Conclusions
OAT for JOCD of the knee provided satisfactory results in all patients at a mean follow-up of 26.2 months.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1648-9
PMCID: PMC3479294  PMID: 22955675
17.  CAN OSTEOCHONDRAL GRAFTING BE AUGMENTED WITH MICROFRACTURE IN AN EXTENDED SIZED LESION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE 
BACKGROUND
Both microfracture and osteochondral autografting procedures have been useful in treating osteochondral lesions.
HYPOTHESIS
Combining microfracture and osteochondral autografting procedures can extend the size of lesions which can be treated with either technique.
STUDY DESIGN
Descriptive laboratory study.
METHODS
Eight adult goats underwent osteochondral autograft transfer of a 4.5mm femoral trochlea plug into an 8mm full thickness chondral defect in the weight bearing portion of the medial femoral condyle. In the gap region surrounding the autograft, microfracture was performed. The animals were allowed normal activity until the end of the experiment at 6 months, at which time the knees were harvested. At harvest the knees were assessed grossly, and then evaluation was performed by histology and histomorphometry, biochemistry and biomechanics. One animal died at 6 wks from gastroenteritis.
RESULTS
The osteochondral plugs healed well, with integration of the bone and preservation of the chondral cap. The chondral gap between the host site articular cartilage and the transferred plug had decreased from 3 mm at implant to less than 0.1 mm. Histological analysis demonstrated regions of variable cartilage repair, with integration of the cartilage layer at some sites but incomplete healing at others. Histomorphometry demonstrated filling of the chondral gap to 75–85% of the normal volume. Biochemical analysis revealed greater than 90% type II collagen at most sites with some areas containing 80% type II collagen. Biomechanical indentation testing, indicated that the repaired area had variable thickness and stiffness, with a trend of increased stiffness in the bulk graft and decreased softness at the proximal microfracture interface site.
CONCLUSIONS
The performance of a combined microfracture and osteochondral autograft transfer (OATS) procedure to resurface a large chondral defect appears promising. Transferred cartilage tissue can successfully be incorporated into a large recipient defect, and microfracture of the surrounding bone can lead to a repair process which remains variable. Attempts need to be made to improve consistency of the repair process. This is a potential treatment option for large chondral defects which does not require a large area of autogenous tissue to be harvested.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE TO SPORTS MEDICINE
This combined technique shows promise for treatment of large chondral defects with a single operative procedure with autogenous tissue which is safe, and potentially would have a shorter period of rehabilitation, similar to that of osteochondral transfers and microfracture in a cost effective setting.
doi:10.1177/0363546510363433
PMCID: PMC4111625  PMID: 20400750
Articular cartilage repair; osteochondral allograft; microfracture; knees
18.  Clinical and radiological outcomes of treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head using autologous osteochondral transfer (mosaicplasty). Preliminary report 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(7):1239-1244.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of autologous osteochondral transfer (OATS) for femoral head osteonecrosis.
Methods
Twenty-one hips in 20 patients (one woman and 19 men), average patients' age at the time of surgery of 35.4 (range 20–56) years, were treated with OATS for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Seven patients at pre-collapse ARCO stages IIA and IIB were treated with OATS alone. Thirteen patients with large pre-collapse ARCO IIC and post-collapse ARCO III and IV were treated with OATS and morselised bone allografts (OATS/allograft). Harris hip score (HHS) was used for clinical evaluation of outcomes; X-rays were performed to examine the evolution of the disease. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to determine the failure of the procedures with conversion to THR defined as endpoint.
Results
Follow-up of patients treated with OATS alone was 46.14 (range 18–75) months with HHS improvement from a preoperative mean of 42 to 87.85 points at the latest follow-up examination. Only one patient in this group needed a revision operation with THR. The survival for this group of patients was 85.71 % at four years. Follow-up of patients treated with AOTS/allograft was 32.7 (range 7–84) months with HHS improvement from a preoperative mean of 35.2 to 65.7 points at the latest follow-up examination. One patient died six months after the surgery. There were five conversions to THR because of femoral head collapse in this group of patients with survival of 61.54 % at three years.
Conclusion
The use of osteochondral grafts offers the possibility of successful treatment for ONFH at small and medium pre-collapse stages. The outcomes of large pre-collapse and post-collapse stages were below our expectations. OATS is a time buying procedure for young patients as it may defer total hip replacement.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1893-6
PMCID: PMC3685652  PMID: 23632987
19.  Does ORIF of an OCD Loose Body Result in Healing and Long Term Maintenance of Knee Function? 
Background
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) can progress to loose body formation resulting in a Grade IV defect. The decision to fix versus excise the loose body is controversial. Published operative fixation outcomes are small case series with short follow-up.
Hypothesis
Operative fixation (ORIF) of the loose body into the grade IV defect will heal and approximate “normal” knee function at long-term follow-up.
Study Design
Case series
Methods
Twelve patients were identified who underwent ORIF of a knee OCD loose body into the Grade IV osteochondral defects ranging in size from 2.0 to 8.0 cm2 (mean 3.5 cm2). After 12 weeks, hardware was removed and healing was assessed. Long-term outcomes were assessed with a Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and a Marx activity score.
Results
Arthroscopy for screw removal revealed stable healing in 92% (11/12) of patients. No patients required subsequent surgery for a loose body. At an average of 9.2 years follow-up (range 3.8-15.8 years) 83 % (10/12) of patients completed the KOOS. KOOS subscale scores for pain (mean 87.8, range 67-100), other symptoms (mean 81.8, range 61-96), function in activities of daily living (mean 93.1, range 72-100), and sports and recreation function (mean 74.0, range 40-100) were not significantly lower than published age matched controls. However the KOOS subscale for knee related quality of life (mean 61.9, range 31-88) was significantly lower (p = 0.003).
Conclusions
Operative fixation of Grade IV OCD loose bodies results in stable fixation. At an average 9 years after surgery, patients did not have symptoms of osteoarthritis pain and had normal function in activities of daily life. However, patients reported significantly lower knee related quality of life. Operative fixation of OCD loose bodies is a better alternative to lesion excision.
doi:10.1177/0363546508328119
PMCID: PMC3692365  PMID: 19204369
20.  Osteochondral lesion of the talus in a recreational athlete: a case report 
A 23-year-old recreational male athlete presented with intermittent pain of three weeks duration, localized to the left ankle. Pain was aggravated by walking, although his symptoms had not affected the patient’s jogging activity which was performed three times per week. Past history revealed an inversion sprain of the left ankle, sustained fifteen months previously. Examination showed mild swelling anterior to the ankle mortise joint while other tests including range of motion, strength and motion palpation of specific joints of the ankle were noted to be unremarkable. Radiographic findings revealed a defect in the medial aspect of the talus. An orthopaedic referral was made for further evaluation. Tomography revealed a Grade III osteochondral lesion of the talus.
It was determined that follow-up views be taken in three months to demonstrate if the lesion was progressing or healing. Within the three month period, activity modifications and modalities for pain control were indicated. Surgery was considered a reasonable option should conservative measures fail.
The present case illustrates an osteochondral lesion of the talus, a condition which has not previously been reported in the chiropractic literature. A review of the pertinent orthopaedic literature has indicated an average delay of three years in diagnosing the existence of this lesion.
Although considered rare, the diagnostic frequency of the condition appears to be on the rise due to increased awareness and the use of bone and CT scans. The osteochondral lesion of the talus deserves particular consideration by practitioners working with athletes due to its higher incidence within this group. This diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with chronic ankle pain particularly when a history of an inversion sprain exists.
The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of this condition, and review diagnosis and management strategies.
Images
PMCID: PMC2485432
osteochondral lesion; talus; osteochondritis dissecans; diagnosis; chiropractic; athletic injuries; ankle
21.  Surgical Treatment for Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum 
Sports Health  2012;4(5):425-432.
Context:
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is most often seen in adolescents who participate in sports that involve repetitive loading of the elbow. Unstable defects typically require surgical intervention that involves fragment fixation, debridement, or reconstruction with an osteochondral autograft transfer. Optimum surgical management of unstable defects remains controversial.
Type of Study:
Clinical review.
Evidence Acquisition:
Relevant articles published after 1992 were identified using MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, and the Cochrane Library.
Results:
Both debridement and osteochondral autograft transfer for treatment of capitellar OCD lesions result in good short- and midterm outcomes with a high rate of return to sports. Larger defects involving more than 50% of the articular surface or involving the lateral margin of the capitellum may have worse outcomes after debridement and may be better treated with fragment fixation or osteochondral autograft transfer.
Conclusions:
High-level evidence is lacking to determine the superiority of debridement or osteochondral autograft transfer for the treatment of capitellar OCD lesions. A prospective longitudinal multicenter study, using validated outcome measures, that enrolls a large number of patients is needed to establish optimal treatment for unstable capitellar OCD lesions.
doi:10.1177/1941738112444707
PMCID: PMC3435938  PMID: 23016116
osteochondritis dissecans; elbow; capitellum
22.  Juvenile osteochondritis of femoral condyles: treatment with transchondral drilling. Analysis of 40 cases 
Introduction
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the femoral condyle is a rare lesion.
Materials and methods
A retrospective study (level IV evidence) analyzing a series of 40 pediatric cases with juvenile femoral condyles osteochondritis treated by arthroscopic multiple transchondral drilling between February 1999 and June 2008 was undertaken. This lesion affected the medial condyle in 87.5% of cases. The average age at treatment was 13.4 years. Our study took into account the location of the lesion and its radiological evolutionary stage. The average follow up was 14.8 months. The postoperative evaluation was based on the clinical and radiological scores of Hughston.
Results
Good clinical and radiological results in 97.5 and 95% of cases, respectively were obtained, with a significant correlation (P < 0.001) between clinical scores and radiological Hughston scores. The closed nature of the growth plate during surgery has a significant deleterious effect (P < 0.001) on the clinical and radiological score of Hughston.
Conclusion
All patients presenting juvenile condylar osteochondritis with open growth plate during treatment had good clinical and radiological results, confirming the validity and effectiveness of multiple transchondral drilling in this type of lesion.
doi:10.1007/s11832-009-0225-2
PMCID: PMC2811686  PMID: 20016956
Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans; Femoral condyles; Arthroscopic transchondral drilling
23.  Effect of anterior translation of the talus on outcomes of three-component total ankle arthroplasty 
Background
Ankle osteoarthritis commonly involves sagittal malalignment with anterior translation of the talus relative to the tibia. Total ankle arthroplasty has become an increasingly popular treatment for patients with symptomatic ankle osteoarthritis. However, no comprehensive study has been conducted on the outcomes of total ankle arthroplasty for osteoarthritis with preoperative sagittal malalignment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of anterior translation of the talus on outcomes of three-component total ankle arthroplasty.
Methods
One hundred and four osteoarthritic ankles in 104 patients who underwent three-component total ankle arthroplasty were included in this study. The 104 ankles were divided into 2 groups: ankles with anteriorly translated talus (50 ankles), and ankles with non-translated talus (54 ankles). Clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed in both groups. The mean follow-up duration was 42.8 ± 17.9 months (range, 24 to 95 months).
Results
Forty-six (92%) of 50 ankles with anterior translation of the talus showed relocation of the talus within the mortise at 6 months, and 48 (96%) ankles were relocated at 12 months after total ankle arthroplasty. But, 2 (4%) ankles were not relocated until the final follow-up. The AOFAS scores, ankle range of motion, and radiographic outcomes showed no significant difference between the two groups at the final follow-up (p > 0.05 for each).
Conclusions
In majority of cases, the anteriorly translated talus in osteoarthritic ankles was restored to an anatomical position within 6 months after successful three-component total ankle arthroplasty. The clinical and radiographic outcomes in the osteoarthritic ankles with anteriorly translated talus group were comparable with those in non-translated talus group.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-260
PMCID: PMC3766657  PMID: 24007555
Osteoarthritis; Total ankle arthroplasty; Three-component prosthesis; Anterior translation of the talus
24.  Three Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions in One Knee: A Case Report 
Background
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) has been defined as a localized process in which a focus of subchondral bone and adjacent articular cartilage separates from the surrounding bone. With the knee being the most common location for OCD development and the propensity for this lesion to be found in those who participate in sports, a repetitive microtrauma hypothesis for its cause has gained favor. However, the cause of OCD remains controversial, as does the most appropriate treatment for the varying degrees of OCD lesions.
Case Description
We present a unique case of three OCD lesions in one knee. The patient was a young, athletic boy who developed three separate OCD lesions in his right knee over the course of 4 years. Temporally, the OCD lesions developed first in the lateral femoral condyle, then in the medial femoral condyle, and finally in the trochlea.
Literature Review
Our literature review yielded a few reports of bicondylar OCD lesions. We identified no previous reports of three separate OCD lesions found in a single joint.
Purposes and Clinical Relevance
This report illustrates how a uniquely affected knee with three OCD lesions was treated in three different ways with resolution of symptoms. Each of the OCD lesions was evaluated individually and treatment for each based on the severity of the lesion from the physical examination, imaging studies, and arthroscopic findings.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2324-5
PMCID: PMC3586005  PMID: 22453935
25.  The use of autologous chondrocyte implantation following and combined with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 
International Orthopaedics  2005;30(1):48-53.
We report our experience of using autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) to treat osteochondral defects of the knee in combination with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The outcome of symptomatic osteochondral lesions treated with ACI following previous successful ACL reconstruction is also reviewed. Patients were followed for a mean of 23 months. Nine patients underwent ACL reconstruction in combination with ACI. Mean modified Cincinnati knee scores improved from 42 to 69 following surgery. Seven patients described their knee as better and two as the same. A second group of nine patients underwent ACI for symptomatic articular cartilage defects following previous ACL reconstruction. In this group, the mean modified Cincinnati knee score improved from 53 to 62 after surgery. Six patients described their knee as better and three as worse. Combined treatment using ACI with ACL reconstruction is technically feasible and resulted in sustained improvement in pain and function. The results following previous ACL reconstruction also resulted in clinical improvement, although results were not as good as following the combined procedure.
doi:10.1007/s00264-005-0025-3
PMCID: PMC2254665  PMID: 16320051

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