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1.  A two-phased screening paradigm for evaluating candidate medications for cocaine cessation or relapse prevention: Modafinil, levodopa-carbidopa, naltrexone 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2014;136:100-107.
Background
Cocaine pharmacotherapy trials are often confounded by considerable variability in baseline cocaine-use levels, obscuring possible medication efficacy. Testing the feasibility of using a prerandomization, abstinence-induction protocol, we screened three candidate medications to explore treatment response in patients who did, or did not, achieve abstinence during an extended baseline phase.
Method
Eligible treatment-seeking, cocaine-dependent subjects entered a 4-week baseline period (Phase I) with high-value abstinence contingent vouchers and two motivational interviewing sessions, followed by a 12-week medication trial (Phase II) with random assignment stratified on Phase I abstinence status to (1) modafinil (400mg/d), (2) levodopa/carbidopa (800/200mg/d), (3) naltrexone (50mg/d), or (4) placebo. Treatment consisted of thrice-weekly clinic visits for urine benzoylecgonine testing and weekly cognitive behavioral therapy with contingency management targeting medication compliance.
Results
Of the 118 subjects enrolled, 81 (80%) completed Phase I, with 33 (41%) achieving abstinence, defined a priori as 6 consecutive cocaine-negative urines. Tests of the interaction of each medication (active vs. placebo) by baseline status (abstinent vs. nonabstinent) permitted moderator effect analysis. Overall, baseline abstinence predicted better outcome. Cocaine-use outcomes for levodopa and naltrexone treatment differed as a function of Phase I abstinence status, with both medications producing benefit in nonabstinent but not baseline-abstinent subjects. There was no evidence of a moderator effect for modafinil.
Conclusions
The two-phase screening trial demonstrated that subgrouping of patients with respect to baseline abstinence status is feasible and clinically useful for exploring cocaine cessation and relapse-prevention effects of candidate medications.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.015
PMCID: PMC3944935  PMID: 24424425
Contingency management; levodopa; modafinil; naltrexone; cocaine cessation; relapse prevention
2.  Levodopa Pharmacotherapy for Cocaine Dependence: Choosing the Optimal Behavioral Therapy Platform 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2007;94(1-3):142-150.
Background:
The dopamine precursor levodopa has shown some, albeit relatively weak, promise in treating cocaine dependence. This study sought to identify the most appropriate behavioral therapy platform for levodopa pharmacotherapy by evaluating its effect when administered in combination with behavioral platforms of varying intensities.
Method:
A total of 161 treatment-seeking cocaine dependent subjects received sustained release levodopa/carbidopa (400/100 mg bid, Sinemet) or placebo delivered in combination with Clinical Management (ClinMan); ClinMan+Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT); or ClinMan+CBT+Voucher-Based Reinforcement Therapy (VBRT) in a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind (for medication condition) trial. Medication compliance was monitored with riboflavin (100 mg/capsule) and the Medication Event Monitoring System. Protocol compliance was addressed in weekly, 10-minute nurse-delivered ClinMan sessions. Weekly, 1-hour CBT sessions focused on coping skills training. VBRT (with escalating reinforcer value) provided cash-valued vouchers contingent on cocaine-negative urine toxicology results. Urine benzoylecgonine assays collected thrice-weekly were analyzed by intention-to-treat criteria using generalized linear mixed models.
Results:
Levodopa main effects were found on all outcome measures of cocaine use. Contrasts testing the levodopa-placebo difference within each behavioral platform found reliable effects, favoring levodopa, only in the VBRT platform. Levodopa treatment with vouchers produced higher proportions of cocaine-negative urines and longer periods of consecutive abstinence compared to other treatment combinations.
Conclusion:
This is the first study to find a significant treatment effect for levodopa and, in doing so, to demonstrate that the magnitude of this effect is dependent upon conditions of the behavioral therapy platform. The data support use of levodopa with abstinence-based reinforcement therapy as one efficacious combination in cocaine dependence disorder treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.11.004
PMCID: PMC2293271  PMID: 18164144
levodopa-carbidopa; cocaine treatment; contingency management; Voucher-Based Reinforcement Therapy; VBRT
3.  Evaluation of Subjective Effects of Aripiprazole and Methamphetamine in Methamphetamine-Dependent Volunteers 
A variety of neuropharmacological strategies are being pursued in the search for an effective treatment for methamphetamine addiction. In this study, we investigated the safety and potential efficacy of aripiprazole, an antipsychotic agent acting on both dopamine and serotonin systems. We conducted a double-blind inpatient clinical pharmacology study to assess potential interactions between intravenous (IV) methamphetamine (15mg and 30mg) and oral aripiprazole (15mg). In addition, the effects of aripiprazole treatment on abstinence related craving and cue-induced craving were evaluated. Participants included non-treatment seeking, methamphetamine dependent patients (N=16), 18-45 years of age, currently using methamphetamine. Following baseline methamphetamine dosing (15mg and 30mg), participants received 2 weeks of treatment with aripiprazole (n=8) or placebo (n=8). Participants then completed cue exposure sessions using neutral and methamphetamine-related cues. Methamphetamine dosing (15mg and 30mg) was then repeated. Aripiprazole treatment had no effect on cue-induced methamphetamine craving, or on daily baseline craving assessed over the course of medication treatment, though aripiprazole treatment was associated with increased craving independent of methamphetamine dosing. Aripiprazole treatment was associated with significantly higher ratings on ARCI subscales reflecting euphoria and amphetamine-like effects following methamphetamine dosing. Aripiprazole was treatment was also associated with significant reductions in ratings of “bad effects” and reductions on the ARCI subscale for sedation effects following methamphetamine dosing. Aripiprazole treatment reduced the increase in systolic blood pressure following methamphetamine dosing, but had no other effects on cardiovascular responses to methamphetamine. Aripiprazole treatment did not alter the pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine. These findings indicate that aripiprazole treatment appears to be safe in volunteers with methamphetamine dependence, though the finding that aripiprazole increased some of the rewarding and stimulatory effects produced by acute methamphetamine suggests that 15mg aripiprazole is unlikely to be efficacious for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Further research with lower doses of aripiprazole, possibly using study designs aimed at evaluating efficacy for relapse prevention, are needed before ruling out aripiprazole as a treatment for methamphetamine dependence.
doi:10.1017/S1461145708009097
PMCID: PMC2782728  PMID: 18664303
4.  Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
Executive Summary
In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.
After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model
Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature
For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty member_giacomini.htm.
For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.
The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact.
Objective
The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. It is estimated that 50% of older smokers develop COPD and more than 80% of COPD-associated morbidity is attributed to tobacco smoking. According to the Canadian Community Health Survey, 38.5% of Ontarians who smoke have COPD. In patients with a significant history of smoking, COPD is usually present with symptoms of progressive dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, and sputum production. Patients with COPD who smoke have a particularly high level of nicotine dependence, and about 30.4% to 43% of patients with moderate to severe COPD continue to smoke. Despite the severe symptoms that COPD patients suffer, the majority of patients with COPD are unable to quit smoking on their own; each year only about 1% of smokers succeed in quitting on their own initiative.
Technology
Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing the practice of inhaling a smoked substance. Smoking cessation can help to slow or halt the progression of COPD. Smoking cessation programs mainly target tobacco smoking, but may also encompass other substances that can be difficult to stop smoking due to the development of strong physical addictions or psychological dependencies resulting from their habitual use.
Smoking cessation strategies include both pharmacological and nonpharmacological (behavioural or psychosocial) approaches. The basic components of smoking cessation interventions include simple advice, written self-help materials, individual and group behavioural support, telephone quit lines, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and antidepressants. As nicotine addiction is a chronic, relapsing condition that usually requires several attempts to overcome, cessation support is often tailored to individual needs, while recognizing that in general, the more intensive the support, the greater the chance of success. Success at quitting smoking decreases in relation to:
a lack of motivation to quit,
a history of smoking more than a pack of cigarettes a day for more than 10 years,
a lack of social support, such as from family and friends, and
the presence of mental health disorders (such as depression).
Research Question
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions compared with usual care for patients with COPD?
Research Methods
Literature Search
Search Strategy
A literature search was performed on June 24, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations (1950 to June Week 3 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010 Week 24), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination for studies published between 1950 and June 2010. A single reviewer reviewed the abstracts and obtained full-text articles for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Data were extracted using a standardized data abstraction form.
Inclusion Criteria
English-language, full reports from 1950 to week 3 of June, 2010;
either randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses, or non-RCTs with controls;
a proven diagnosis of COPD;
adult patients (≥ 18 years);
a smoking cessation intervention that comprised at least one of the treatment arms;
≥ 6 months’ abstinence as an outcome; and
patients followed for ≥ 6 months.
Exclusion Criteria
case reports
case series
Outcomes of Interest
≥ 6 months’ abstinence
Quality of Evidence
The quality of each included study was assessed taking into consideration allocation concealment, randomization, blinding, power/sample size, withdrawals/dropouts, and intention-to-treat analyses.
The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Findings
Nine RCTs were identified from the literature search. The sample sizes ranged from 74 to 5,887 participants. A total of 8,291 participants were included in the nine studies. The mean age of the patients in the studies ranged from 54 to 64 years. The majority of studies used the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD staging criteria to stage the disease in study subjects. Studies included patients with mild COPD (2 studies), mild-moderate COPD (3 studies), moderate–severe COPD (1 study) and severe–very severe COPD (1 study). One study included persons at risk of COPD in addition to those with mild, moderate, or severe COPD, and 1 study did not define the stages of COPD. The individual quality of the studies was high. Smoking cessation interventions varied across studies and included counselling or pharmacotherapy or a combination of both. Two studies were delivered in a hospital setting, whereas the remaining 7 studies were delivered in an outpatient setting. All studies reported a usual care group or a placebo-controlled group (for the drug-only trials). The follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 5 years. Due to excessive clinical heterogeneity in the interventions, studies were first grouped into categories of similar interventions; statistical pooling was subsequently performed, where appropriate. When possible, pooled estimates using relative risks for abstinence rates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The remaining studies were reported separately.
Abstinence Rates
Table ES1 provides a summary of the pooled estimates for abstinence, at longest follow-up, from the trials included in this review. It also shows the respective GRADE qualities of evidence.
Summary of Results*
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; NRT, nicotine replacement therapy.
Statistically significant (P < 0.05).
One trial used in this comparison had 2 treatment arms each examining a different antidepressant.
Conclusions
Based on a moderate quality of evidence, compared with usual care, abstinence rates are significantly higher in COPD patients receiving intensive counselling or a combination of intensive counselling and NRT.
Based on limited and moderate quality of evidence, abstinence rates are significantly higher in COPD patients receiving NRT compared with placebo.
Based on a moderate quality of evidence, abstinence rates are significantly higher in COPD patients receiving the antidepressant bupropion compared to placebo.
PMCID: PMC3384371  PMID: 23074432
5.  A PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL OF MEMANTINE FOR COCAINE DEPENDENCE WITH HIGH-VALUE VOUCHER INCENTIVES DURING A PRE-RANDOMIZATION LEAD-IN PERIOD 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2010;111(1-2):97-104.
Preclinical findings suggest that the inhibition of NMDA glutamatergic neurotransmission may have beneficial effects in the treatment of cocaine dependence. We hypothesized that memantine, a low potency, uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, would be safe and effective in the treatment of cocaine dependence, particularly in preventing relapse to cocaine use in abstinent individuals.
Cocaine dependent patients (N =112) were enrolled. The trial began with a 2-week placebo lead-in period during which patients received high-value voucher contingency management to induce abstinence. Participants were then randomized to receive either memantine 20 mg bid (N=39) or placebo (N=42) for 12-weeks in combination with individual relapse-prevention therapy. The randomization was stratified by abstinence status during the lead-in period. The primary outcome was the weekly proportion of days of cocaine use.
There were no significant differences in cocaine use outcome between the groups treated with memantine versus placebo. Thus, the efficacy of memantine 40 mg/d for the treatment of cocaine dependence was not supported. Urine-confirmed abstinence during the lead-in period was achieved by 44% of participants, and was a strong predictor of subsequent cocaine abstinence during the trial. This suggests that this clinical trial design, an intensive behavioral intervention during a lead-in period, resolves cocaine dependent patients into two subgroups, one that rapidly achieves sustained abstinence and may not need a medication, and another that displays persistent cocaine use and would most likely benefit from a medication to help induce abstinence. Targeting the latter subgroup may advance medication development efforts.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.04.006
PMCID: PMC2930076  PMID: 20537812
Cocaine dependence; Pharmacotherapy trials; NMDA receptors; Placebo lead-in; High value contingency reinforcement
6.  Clinical potential of methylphenidate in the treatment of cocaine addiction: a review of the current evidence 
Background
Cocaine use continues to be a public health problem, yet there is no proven effective pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence. A promising approach to treating cocaine dependence may be agonist-replacement therapy, which is already used effectively in the treatment of opioid and tobacco dependence. The replacement approach for cocaine dependence posits that administration of a long-acting stimulant medication should normalize the neurochemical and behavioral perturbations resulting from chronic cocaine use. One potential medication to be substituted for cocaine is methylphenidate (MPH), as this stimulant possesses pharmacobehavioral properties similar to those of cocaine.
Aim
To provide a qualitative review addressing the rationale for the use of MPH as a cocaine substitute and its clinical potential in the treatment of cocaine dependence.
Methods
We searched MEDLINE for clinical studies using MPH in patients with cocaine abuse/dependence and screened the bibliographies of the articles found for pertinent literature.
Results
MPH, like cocaine, increases synaptic dopamine by inhibiting dopamine reuptake. The discriminative properties, reinforcing potential, and subjective effects of MPH and cocaine are almost identical and, importantly, MPH has been found to substitute for cocaine in animals and human volunteers under laboratory conditions. When taken orally in therapeutic doses, its abuse liability, however, appears low, which is especially true for extended-release MPH preparations. Though there are promising data in the literature, mainly from case reports and open-label studies, the results of randomized controlled trials have been disappointing so far and do not corroborate the use of MPH as a substitute for cocaine dependence in patients without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Conclusion
Clinical studies evaluating MPH substitution for cocaine dependence have provided inconsistent findings. However, the negative findings may be explained by specific study characteristics, among them dosing, duration of treatment, or sample size. This needs to be considered when discussing the potential of MPH as replacement therapy for cocaine dependence. Finally, based on the results, we suggest possible directions for future research.
doi:10.2147/SAR.S50807
PMCID: PMC4476488  PMID: 26124696
agonist replacement; dependence; substitution
7.  Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients 
Objective
Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes.
Methods
Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers.
Results
All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up.
Conclusions
Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence.
doi:10.1037/a0037888
PMCID: PMC4362849  PMID: 25198284
contingency management; cocaine; methadone maintenance
8.  Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons 
Brain structure & function  2014;221(1):261-276.
Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for three weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also suggest that wheel running may be preventing certain allostatic changes in the brain reward and stress systems contributing to the negative reinforcement and perpetuation of the addiction cycle.
doi:10.1007/s00429-014-0905-7
PMCID: PMC4383734  PMID: 25273280
Self-administration; BrdU; c-Fos; nNOS; VMAT2; tyrosine hydroxylase; PAG
9.  Topiramate for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction: a multi-center placebo-controlled trial 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2012;107(7):1297-1306.
Aims
Topiramate has shown efficacy at facilitating abstinence from alcohol and cocaine abuse. This double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient trial tested topiramate for treating methamphetamine addiction.
Design
Participants (N=140) were randomized to receive topiramate or placebo (13 weeks) in escalating doses from 50 mg/day to the target maintenance of 200 mg/day in weeks 6–12 (tapered in week 13). Medication was combined with weekly brief behavioral compliance enhancement treatment.
Setting
The trial was conducted at eight medical centers in the United States.
Participants
One hundred forty methamphetamine-dependent adults took part in the trial.
Measurements
The primary outcome was abstinence from methamphetamine during weeks 6 – 12. Secondary outcomes included use reduction versus baseline, as well as psychosocial variables.
Findings
In the intent-to-treat analysis, topiramate did not increase abstinence from methamphetamine during weeks 6–12. For secondary outcomes, topiramate reduced weekly median urine methamphetamine levels and observer-rated severity of dependence scores significantly. Subjects with negative urine before randomization (N=26) had significantly greater abstinence on topiramate versus placebo during study weeks 6–12. Topiramate was safe and well tolerated.
Conclusions
Topiramate does not appear to promote abstinence in methamphetamine users but can reduce the amount taken and reduce relapse rates in those who are already abstinent.
doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03771.x
PMCID: PMC3331916  PMID: 22221594
topiramate; methamphetamine abuse; abstinence facilitation; treatment
10.  Brain mu-opioid receptor binding predicts treatment outcome in cocaine-abusing outpatients 
Biological psychiatry  2010;68(8):697-703.
Background
Cocaine users not seeking treatment have increased regional brain mu-opioid receptor (mOR) binding that correlates with cocaine craving and tendency to relapse. In cocaine-abusing outpatients in treatment, the relationship of mOR binding and treatment outcome is unknown.
Methods
We determined whether regional brain mOR binding before treatment correlates with outcome and compared it to standard clinical predictors of outcome. Twenty-five individuals seeking outpatient treatment for cocaine abuse or dependence (DSM-IV) received up to 12 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy and cocaine-abstinence reinforcement whereby each cocaine-free urine was reinforced with vouchers redeemable for goods. Regional brain mOR binding was measured before treatment using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C] carfentanil (a selective mOR agonist). Main outcome measures were: 1) overall percentage of urines positive for cocaine during first month of treatment, 2) longest duration (weeks) of abstinence from cocaine during treatment, all verified by urine toxicology.
Results
Elevated mOR binding in the medial frontal and middle frontal gyri before treatment correlated with greater cocaine use during treatment. Elevated mOR binding in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal, middle frontal, middle temporal, and sub-lobar insular gyri correlated with shorter duration of cocaine abstinence during treatment. Regional mOR binding contributed significant predictive power for treatment outcome beyond that of standard clinical variables such as baseline drug and alcohol use.
Conclusions
Elevated mOR binding in brain regions associated with reward sensitivity is a significant independent predictor of treatment outcome in cocaine-abusing outpatients, suggesting a key role for the brain endogenous opioid system in cocaine addiction.
doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.05.003
PMCID: PMC2949457  PMID: 20579973
cocaine; mu-opioid receptor; PET; treatment; addiction; dependence
11.  Maintenance of reinforcement to address the chronic nature of drug addiction 
Preventive medicine  2012;55(Suppl):S46-S53.
Background
Drug addiction can be a chronic problem. Abstinence reinforcement can initiate drug abstinence, but as with other treatments many patients relapse after the intervention ends. Abstinence reinforcement can be maintained to promote long-term drug abstinence, but practical means of implementing long-term abstinence reinforcement are needed.
Methods
We reviewed 8 clinical trials conducted in Baltimore, MD from 1996 through 2010 that evaluated the therapeutic workplace as a vehicle for maintaining reinforcement for the treatment of drug addiction. The therapeutic workplace uses employment-based reinforcement in which employees must provide objective evidence of drug abstinence or medication adherence to work and earn wages.
Results
Employment-based reinforcement can initiate (3 of 4 studies) and maintain (2 studies) cocaine abstinence in methadone patients, although relapse can occur even after long-term exposure to abstinence reinforcement (1 study). Employment-based reinforcement can also promote abstinence from alcohol in homeless alcohol dependent adults (1 study), and maintain adherence to extended-release naltrexone in opioid dependent adults (2 studies).
Conclusion
Treatments should seek to promote life-long effects in patients. Therapeutic reinforcement may need to be maintained indefinitely to prevent relapse. Workplaces could be effective vehicles for the maintenance of therapeutic reinforcement contingencies for drug abstinence and adherence to addiction medications.
doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.03.013
PMCID: PMC3437006  PMID: 22668883
Reinforcement; Incentives; Contingency Management; Cocaine; Heroin; Drug Addiction; Treatment; Employment; Poverty; Relapse
12.  Effects of monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for releasing dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin on choice between cocaine and food in rhesus monkeys 
Behavioural pharmacology  2011;22(8):824-836.
Monoamine releasers constitute one class of candidate medications for treatment of cocaine abuse, and concurrent cocaine-versus-food choice procedures are potentially valuable as experimental tools to evaluate the efficacy and safety of candidate medications. This study assessed choice between cocaine and food by rhesus monkeys during treatment with five monoamine releasers that varied in selectivity to promote release of dopamine and norepinephrine (DA/NE) vs. serotonin (5HT) [m-fluoroamphetamine, (+)-phenmetrazine, (+)-methamphetamine, napthylisopropylamine and (±)-fenfluramine]. Rhesus monkeys (n=8) responded under a concurrent-choice schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0 – 0.1 mg/kg/inj, fixed-ratio 10 schedule). Cocaine choice dose-effect curves were determined daily during continuous seven-day treatment with saline or each test compound dose. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice, and the highest cocaine doses (0.032 – 0.1 mg/kg/inj) maintained almost exclusive cocaine choice. Efficacy of monoamine releasers to decrease cocaine choice corresponded to their pharmacological selectivity to release DA/NE vs. 5HT. None of the releasers reduced cocaine choice or promoted reallocation of responding to food choice to the same extent as substituting saline for cocaine. These results extend the range of conditions across which DA/NE-selective releasers have been shown to reduce cocaine self-administration.
doi:10.1097/FBP.0b013e32834d63ac
PMCID: PMC3476464  PMID: 22015808
Cocaine; choice; nonhuman primates; monoamine releasers; dopamine; serotonin, norepinephrine
13.  A randomized controlled trial of fluoxetine in the treatment of cocaine dependence among methadone-maintained patients 
Background
Cocaine abuse and dependence continue to be widespread. Currently there are no pharmacotherapies shown to be effective in the treatment of cocaine dependence.
Methods
A 33-week outpatient clinical trial of fluoxetine (60 mg/day, p.o.) for cocaine dependence was conducted that incorporated abstinence-contingent voucher incentives. Participants (n=145) were both cocaine and opioid dependent and treated with methadone. A stratified randomization procedure assigned subjects to one of four conditions: fluoxetine plus voucher incentives (FV), placebo plus voucher incentives (PV), fluoxetine without vouchers (F), and placebo without vouchers (P). Dosing of fluoxetine/placebo was double blind. Primary outcomes were treatment retention and cocaine use based on thrice-weekly urine testing.
Results
The PV group had the longest treatment retention (mean of 165 days) and lowest probability of cocaine use. The adjusted predicted probabilities of cocaine use were: 65% in the P group, 60% in the F group, 56% in the FV group, and 31% in the PV group.
Conclusions
Fluoxetine was not efficacious in reducing cocaine use in patients dually dependent on cocaine and opioids.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2010.11.010
PMCID: PMC3078567  PMID: 21266301
Cocaine; Contingency management; Fluoxetine; Methadone
14.  Topiramate for Cocaine Dependence during Methadone Maintenance Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2014;140:92-100.
Background
Dual dependence on opiate and cocaine occurs in about 60% of patients admitted to methadone maintenance and negatively impacts prognosis (Kosten et al., 2003). Topiramate (TOP) is an antiepileptic drug that may have utility in the treatment of cocaine dependence because it enhances the GABAergic system, antagonizes the glutamatergic system, and has been identified by NIDA as one of only a few medications providing a “positive signal” warranting further clinical investigation. (Vocci and Ling, 2005).
Method
In this double-blind controlled clinical trial, cocaine dependent methadone maintenance patients (N=171) were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Under a factorial design, participants received either TOP or placebo, and monetary voucher incentives that were either contingent (CM) or non-contingent (Non-CM) on drug abstinence. TOP participants were inducted onto TOP over 7 weeks, stabilized for 8 weeks at 300 mg daily then tapered over 3 weeks. Voucher incentives were supplied for 12 weeks, starting during the fourth week of TOP induction. Primary outcome measures were cocaine abstinence (Y/N) as measured by thrice weekly urinalysis and analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) and treatment retention. All analyses were intent to treat and included the 12-week evaluation phase of combined TOP/P treatment and voucher intervention period.
Results
There was no significant difference in cocaine abstinence between the TOP vs P conditions nor between the CM vs Non-CM conditions. There was no significant TOP/CM interaction. Retention was not significantly different between the groups.
Conclusion
Topiramate is not efficacious for increasing cocaine abstinence in methadone patients.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.03.033
PMCID: PMC4431633  PMID: 24814607
Cocaine Dependence; antiepileptic; topiramate; glutamate; GABA; contingency management
15.  Delay Discounting is Associated with Treatment Response among Cocaine-Dependent Outpatients 
Rationale
Delay discounting (DD) describes the rate at which reinforcers lose value as the temporal delay to their receipt increases. Steeper discounting has been positively associated with vulnerability to substance use disorders, including cocaine use disorders.
Objectives
In the present study, we examined whether DD of hypothetical monetary reinforcers is associated with the duration of cocaine abstinence achieved among cocaine-dependent outpatients.
Methods
Participants were 36 adults who were participating in a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of voucher-based contingency management (CM) using low-magnitude (N = 18) or high-magnitude (N = 18) voucher monetary values.
Results
DD was associated with the number of continuous weeks of cocaine abstinence achieved, even after adjusting for treatment condition during the initial 12-week (t(33) = 2.48, p = .045) and entire recommended 24-week of treatment (t(33) = 2.40, p = .022). Participants who exhibited steeper discounting functions achieved shorter periods of abstinence in the Low-magnitude voucher condition (12-week: t(16) = 2.48, p = .025; 24-week: t(16) = 2.68, p = .017), but not in the High-magnitude voucher condition (12-week: t(16) = 0.51, p = .618; 24-week: t(16) = 1.08, p = .298), although the interaction between DD and treatment condition was not significant (12-week: t(32) = −1.12, p = .271; 24-week: t(32) = −0.37, p = .712).
Conclusions
These results provide further evidence on associations between DD and treatment response and extend those observations to a new clinical population (i.e., cocaine-dependent outpatients), while also suggesting that a more intensive intervention like the High-magnitude CM condition may diminish this negative relationship between DD and treatment response.
doi:10.1037/a0023617
PMCID: PMC3476946  PMID: 21517195
Temporal discounting; delay discounting; cocaine dependence; contingency management; vouchers; treatment response
16.  Methamphetamine Psychosis: Epidemiology and Management 
CNS drugs  2014;28(12):1115-1126.
Psychotic symptoms and syndromes are frequently experienced among individuals who use methamphetamine, with recent estimates of up to approximately 40% of users affected. Though transient in a large proportion of users, acute symptoms can include agitation, violence, and delusions, and may require management in an inpatient psychiatric or other crisis intervention setting. In a subset of individuals, psychosis can recur and persist and may be difficult to distinguish from a primary psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. Differential diagnosis of primary versus substance-induced psychotic disorders among methamphetamine users is challenging; nevertheless, with careful assessment of the temporal relationship of symptoms to methamphetamine use, aided by state-of-the art psychodiagnostic assessment instruments and use of objective indicators of recent substance use (i.e., urine toxicology assays), coupled with collateral clinical data gathered from the family or others close to the individual, diagnostic accuracy can be optimized and the individual can be appropriately matched to a plan of treatment. The pharmacological treatment of acute methamphetamine-induced psychosis may include the use of antipsychotic medications as well as benzodiazepines, although symptoms may resolve without pharmacological treatment if the user is able to achieve a period of abstinence from methamphetamine. Importantly, psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine dependence has a strong evidence base and is the optimal first-line treatment approach to reducing rates of psychosis among individuals who use methamphetamines. Prevention of methamphetamine relapse is the most direct means of preventing recurrence of psychotic symptoms and syndromes. Long-term management of individuals who present with recurrent and persistent psychosis, even in the absence of methamphetamine use, may include both behavioral treatment to prevent resumption of methamphetamine use and pharmacological treatment targeting psychotic symptoms. In addition, treatment of co-occurring psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety is important as a means of preventing relapse to methamphetamine use, which is often triggered by associated symptoms.
doi:10.1007/s40263-014-0209-8
PMCID: PMC5027896  PMID: 25373627
17.  How Does Medical Device Regulation Perform in the United States and the European Union? A Systematic Review 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(7):e1001276.
Aaron Kesselheim and colleagues conduct a systematic review to examine the strengths and weaknesses associated with approaches to medical device regulation in the US and EU.
Background
Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings.
Methods and Findings
We performed a systematic review to find empirical studies evaluating medical device regulation in the US or EU. We searched Medline using two nested categories that included medical devices and glossary terms attributable to the US Food and Drug Administration and the EU, following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. We supplemented this search with a review of the US Government Accountability Office online database for reports on US Food and Drug Administration device regulation, consultations with local experts in the field, manual reference mining of selected articles, and Google searches using the same key terms used in the Medline search. We found studies of premarket evaluation and timing (n = 9), studies of device recalls (n = 8), and surveys of device manufacturers (n = 3). These studies provide evidence of quality problems in pre-market submissions in the US, provide conflicting views of device safety based largely on recall data, and relay perceptions of some industry leaders from self-surveys.
Conclusions
Few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU. Existing studies of US and EU device approval and post-market evaluation performance suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both systems, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and post-market oversight in the EU. Assessment of regulatory performance in both settings is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Changes to these device approval and post-marketing systems must be accompanied by ongoing research to ensure that there is better assessment of what works in either setting.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Editors' Summary
Background
Medical devices—health technologies that are not medicines, vaccines, or clinical procedures—cover a vast range of equipment from the simple to the more complex. Medical devices are essential for patient care, and in the past decade, new devices have offered improved treatment alternatives for many diseases and conditions, leading to substantial growth in the US$350 billion medical device industry. However, new medical devices also pose substantial risks to patients, as shown in recent high-profile product recalls involving breast implants and artificial hip implants.
Why Was This Study Done?
Concerns about the safety of new medical devices have led to calls for greater testing of the safety and effectiveness of new devices before they come on the market and for improved monitoring of their performance after new devices have been approved for use by a regulatory body. In this study, the researchers systematically reviewed evidence about the performance of medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems in two of the most important world markets for medical devices—the United States and the European Union.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers performed a keyword search in Medline (a database of published biomedical literature) for all relevant articles, and supplemented this search with a review of reports on Food and Drug Administration (FDA) device regulation in the US Government Accountability Office's online database. Then they consulted with both US and EU experts and also conducted Google searches to capture reports by management consultant firms. The researchers included only those studies that reported empirical data, either qualitative or quantitative, about the characteristics, performance metrics, or effectiveness of device evaluation or post-market oversight in the US or EU.
Using these methods the researchers identified nine studies that focused on pre-market evaluation and timing, eight studies of device recalls, and three surveys of device manufacturers. Because of the variable quality and lack of outcomes from these studies and reports, the researchers concluded that these studies offered only limited insights into either the US or EU systems. But the available evidence does suggest that in the US, the FDA could improve oversight of device approval, for example, by following up on its commitment to reclassify high-risk medical devices and improve post-market surveillance of devices that are approved on the basis of limited data. The researchers also suggest that using recalls to measure the safety record of individual devices or classes of devices is flawed, as particular devices may be over- or underrepresented in recall data depending on the frequency of their use, design complexity, and the clinical manifestations of malfunction. In the EU, apart from a few studies addressing the timing of approval, the researchers found almost no robust data on device regulation. Some case reports suggested substantial dangers to patients in the EU from devices approved on the basis of limited data, but the researchers could not systematically compare the quality of studies used for device approval or post-approval safety outcomes between the EU and US, mainly because of the lack of transparency among the EU regulators (Notified Bodies).
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU, but the existing studies examined in this review suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both device approval and post-market evaluation of performance, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and postmarket oversight in the EU. However, assessment of regulatory performance in both the US and EU is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Any changes to medical device approval and post-marketing systems should be accompanied by ongoing research and evaluation to ensure that there is an improved assessment of what works in either setting.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001276.
This study is further discussed in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Sanket Dhruva and Rita Redberg
The WHO website has a comprehensive topic section on medical devices
Information on medical devices is also available from the FDA and the European Commission
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001276
PMCID: PMC3418047  PMID: 22912563
18.  Efficacy of buspirone for attenuating cocaine and methamphetamine reinstatement in rats 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2013;129(3):210-216.
Background
There are no approved pharmacotherapies for preventing psychomotor stimulant relapse. The operant reinstatement model has been suggested as a screen for identifying candidate medications. The present study examined if the anxiolytic buspirone could attenuate reinstatement of extinguished responding in Long-Evans rats that previously self-administered intravenous cocaine or methamphetamine.
Methods
Rats were trained in 2-h daily sessions to self-administer 0.5 mg/kg cocaine or 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine infusions followed by 12 days of instrumental extinction. Reinstatement was evoked by 17 mg/kg i.p. cocaine primes or response-contingent cocaine-paired cues in cocaine-reinforced rats, and by 1 mg/kg i.p. methamphetamine primes or response-contingent methamphetamine-paired cues in methamphetamine-reinforced rats.
Results
Buspirone (1 and 3 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) attenuated cocaine cue but not cocaine prime reinstatement. Buspirone (1 and 3 mg/kg) also significantly attenuated methamphetamine cue reinstatement. Buspirone (3 mg/kg) significantly attenuated methamphetamine prime reinstatement. During all reinstatement tests, 3 mg/kg buspirone reduced levels of inactive lever pressing relative to those of vehicle, significantly so during the cocaine cue-induced reinstatement tests.
Conclusions
Given the complexity of buspirone's neuropharmacology consisting of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist activity, and dopamine D2, D3 and D4 receptor antagonist effects, it is uncertain which of these activities or their combination is responsible for the present results. Overall, these results suggest that buspirone may reduce the likelihood of relapse to cocaine and methamphetamine use under some conditions, although this speculation must be interpreted with caution given buspirone's similar potency to attenuate inactive-lever responding.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.01.003
PMCID: PMC3628295  PMID: 23374566
reinstatement; cocaine; methamphetamine; buspirone; rats; self-administration
19.  Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients 
Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study utilized an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opiate and cocaine abstinence among opioid-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n=46) were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and earn incentives for work (n=16), a Work Only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and earn incentives independent of drug use (n=15), and a No Voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n=15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opiate, cocaine, and combined opiate/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-group differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The Work Only group had significantly greater workplace attendance and worked more minutes per day when compared to the No Voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.
doi:10.1037/a0034863
PMCID: PMC4332775  PMID: 24490712
HIV; contingency management; therapeutic workplace; incentive; injection drug use
20.  Effects of 7-day continuous d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys* 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2015;155:16-23.
Background
Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice.In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined.
Methods
Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h).
Results
During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1 mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys.
Conclusions
The present subchronic treatment resultssupport the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.08.022
PMCID: PMC4582002  PMID: 26361713
methamphetamine; choice; methylphenidate; cocaine; amphetamine
21.  Effects of Oral Methamphetamine on Cocaine Use: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2008;101(1-2):34-41.
Background
No medication is currently approved for the treatment of cocaine dependence, but several preclinical and clinical reports suggest agonist-like medications, e.g. amphetamine analogues, may be a productive strategy for medication development.
Objective
This current proof-of-concept study sought to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of methamphetamine as a candidate treatment for cocaine dependence.
Methods
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study served to evaluate three treatment conditions in 82 cocaine-dependent individuals: (1) placebo (0 mg, 6×/day; n = 27), (2) immediate release (IR) methamphetamine (5 mg, 6×/day; n = 30), (3) sustained release (SR) methamphetamine (30 mg first pill, 1×/day; 0 mg 5×/day; n = 25). The study employed a sequential, two-phase design (i.e., 4 weeks of medication and counseling followed by 4 weeks of medication/counseling plus a contingency management procedure).
Results
Both preparation forms of methamphetamine were well tolerated, with similar retention to placebo (0 mg, 33%; 30 mg IR, 30%, 30 mg SR, 32%). Methamphetamine SR was associated with decreased sleep and increased weight loss. Medication adherence rates were high for the first dose of the day (95%), while adherence for subsequent capsules was lower. Those in the SR condition exhibited consistently lower rates of cocaine-positive urine samples (0 mg, 60%; 30 mg IR, 66%, 30 mg SR, 29%), p<0.0001, and reported the greatest reduction in craving for cocaine, p<0.05.
Conclusions
SR methamphetamine significantly reduced cocaine use and craving. Additional research is warranted to develop and evaluate agonist-like medications that may effectively treat cocaine dependence.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.10.016
PMCID: PMC2742691  PMID: 19058926
cocaine; methamphetamine; dextroamphetamine; agonist-like treatment
22.  Buprenorphine Medication versus Voucher Contingencies in Promoting Abstinence from Opioids and Cocaine 
This study compared the relative efficacy of two contingency management (CM) interventions versus standard care. During a 12-week intervention, opioid dependent participants (N = 120) were maintained on thrice-a-week (M, W, F) buprenorphine plus therapist and computer-based counseling. They were randomized to receive: (a) medication contingencies (MC= thrice weekly dosing schedule vs. daily attendance and single-day 50% dose reduction imposed upon submission of an opioid and/or cocaine positive urine sample); (b) voucher contingency (VC=escalating schedule for opioid and/or cocaine negative samples with reset for drug-positive samples); or (c) standard care (SC), with no programmed consequences for urinalysis results. Voucher reinforcement resulted in better 12-week retention (85%) compared to contingent medication (58%; p=0.009), but neither differed from standard care (76% retained). The groups submitted a similar overall percentage of opioid and cocaine-free urines (MC = 79%, VC = 76%, SC = 69%). After adjusting for baseline differences in employment, the medication contingency group achieved 1.5 more continuous weeks of combined opioid/cocaine abstinence than standard care (p=0.030), while the voucher group had 2 more total weeks of abstinence than standard care (p=0.048). Drug use results suggest that the two interventions were both efficacious, with effects seen primarily in opioid rather than cocaine test results. Findings should be interpreted in light of the greater attrition associated with medication-based contingencies versus the greater monetary costs of voucher-based contingencies.
doi:10.1037/a0016597
PMCID: PMC2852314  PMID: 19653788
buprenorphine; cocaine; community reinforcement approach; contingency management; opiate or opioid dependence
23.  Contingency Management and Levodopa-Carbidopa for Cocaine Treatment: A Comparison of Three Behavioral Targets 
New data support use of levodopa pharmacotherapy with behavioral contingency management (CM) as one efficacious combination in cocaine dependence disorder treatment. A potential mechanism of the combined treatment effects may be related to dopamine-induced enhancement of the saliency of contingently delivered reinforcers. Evidence to support this mechanism was sought by evaluating levodopa-enhancing effects across distinct CM conditions that varied in behavioral targets. A total of 136 treatment-seeking, cocaine dependent subjects participated in this 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of levodopa (vs. placebo) administered in combination with one of three behavioral CM conditions. In the CM-URINE condition, subjects received cash-valued vouchers contingent on cocaine-negative urine toxicology results. In the CM-ATTEND condition, the same voucher schedule was contingent on attending thrice weekly clinic visits. In the CM-MEDICATION condition, the same voucher schedule was contingent on Medication Event Monitoring Systems- and riboflavin-based evidence of pill-taking behavior. Primary outcomes associated with each CM target behavior were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models for repeated outcomes. CM responding in the CM-ATTENDANCE and CM-MEDICATION conditions showed orderly effects, with each condition producing corresponding changes in targeted behaviors, regardless of medication condition. In contrast, CM responding in the CM-URINE condition was moderated by medication, with levodopa-treated subjects more likely to submit cocaine-negative urines. These findings specify the optimal target behavior for CM when used in combination with levodopa pharmacotherapy.
doi:10.1037/a0019195
PMCID: PMC3164487  PMID: 20545388
contingency management; levodopa; medication compliance; pharmacotherapy; behavior therapy
24.  Psychological treatments for stimulant misuse, comparing and contrasting those for amphetamine dependence and those for cocaine dependence 
Current opinion in psychiatry  2009;22(3):263-268.
Purpose of review
The aim is to compare and contrast psychological treatments for amphetamine and cocaine dependence.
Recent findings
Stimulant dependence, in the form of cocaine or amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence, is prevalent worldwide, and their ratio may vary across different countries and regions of countries. The treatment of stimulant disorders has greatly advanced in recent years, and scientific evaluation of behavioral therapies, using randomized clinical trials designs and a stage-wise approach, have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of interventions. Psychological interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine and methamphetamines use disorders are well tolerated and moderately effective in achieving drug abstinence. There is evidence that contingency management interventions can help to improve retention in treatment and, in turn, other treatment outcomes. Although there are important differences in the neuropsychiatric and medical consequences of cocaine and amphetamine use disorders, there is currently no evidence for a differential treatment effect of any psychosocial treatment in the management of these disorders.
Summary
As there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for the treatment of these disorders, psychological interventions form the basis of their treatment. More research is needed to address the specific psychosocial needs of cocaine and amphetamine-dependent individuals in order to improve their treatment outcomes.
doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32832a3b44
PMCID: PMC2825894  PMID: 19307968
amphetamine; behavioral; cocaine; methamphetamine; treatment
25.  In Vitro Fertilization and Multiple Pregnancies 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IVF for infertility treatment, as well as the role of IVF in reducing the rate of multiple pregnancies.
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Typically defined as a failure to conceive after a year of regular unprotected intercourse, infertility affects 8% to 16% of reproductive age couples. The condition can be caused by disruptions at various steps of the reproductive process. Major causes of infertility include abnormalities of sperm, tubal obstruction, endometriosis, ovulatory disorder, and idiopathic infertility. Depending on the cause and patient characteristics, management options range from pharmacologic treatment to more advanced techniques referred to as assisted reproductive technologies (ART). ART include IVF and IVF-related procedures such as intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and, according to some definitions, intra-uterine insemination (IUI), also known as artificial insemination. Almost invariably, an initial step in ART is controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), which leads to a significantly higher rate of multiple pregnancies after ART compared with that following natural conception. Multiple pregnancies are associated with a broad range of negative consequences for both mother and fetuses. Maternal complications include increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, gestational diabetes, fetal malpresentation requiring Caesarean section, postpartum haemorrhage, and postpartum depression. Babies from multiple pregnancies are at a significantly higher risk of early death, prematurity, and low birth weight, as well as mental and physical disabilities related to prematurity. Increased maternal and fetal morbidity leads to higher perinatal and neonatal costs of multiple pregnancies, as well as subsequent lifelong costs due to disabilities and an increased need for medical and social support.
The Technology Being Reviewed
IVF was first developed as a method to overcome bilateral Fallopian tube obstruction. The procedure includes several steps: (1) the woman’s egg is retrieved from the ovaries; (2) exposed to sperm outside the body and fertilized; (3) the embryo(s) is cultured for 3 to 5 days; and (4) is transferred back to the uterus. IFV is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for infertility today. According to data from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry, the average live birth rate after IVF in Canada is around 30%, but there is considerable variation in the age of the mother and primary cause of infertility.
An important advantage of IVF is that it allows for the control of the number of embryos transferred. An elective single embryo transfer in IVF cycles adopted in many European countries was shown to significantly reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies while maintaining acceptable birth rates. However, when number of embryos transferred is not limited, the rate of IVF-associated multiple pregnancies is similar to that of other treatments involving ovarian stimulation. The practice of multiple embryo transfer in IVF is often the result of pressures to increase success rates due to the high costs of the procedure. The average rate of multiple pregnancies resulting from IVF in Canada is currently around 30%.
An alternative to IVF is IUI. In spite of reported lower success rates of IUI (pregnancy rates per cycle range from 8.7% to 17.1%) it is generally attempted before IVF due to its lower invasiveness and cost.
Two major drawbacks of IUI are that it cannot be used in cases of bilateral tubal obstruction and it does not allow much control over the risk of multiple pregnancies compared with IVF. The rate of multiple pregnancies after IUI with COS is estimated to be about 21% to 29%.
Ontario Health Insurance Plan Coverage
Currently, the Ontario Health Insurance Plan covers the cost of IVF for women with bilaterally blocked Fallopian tubes only, in which case it is funded for 3 cycles, excluding the cost of drugs. The cost of IUI is covered except for preparation of the sperm and drugs used for COS.
Diffusion of Technology
According to Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry data, in 2004 there were 25 infertility clinics across Canada offering IVF and 7,619 IVF cycles performed. In Ontario, there are 13 infertility clinics with about 4,300 IVF cycles performed annually.
Literature Review
Royal Commission Report on Reproductive Technologies
The 1993 release of the Royal Commission report on reproductive technologies, Proceed With Care, resulted in the withdrawal of most IVF funding in Ontario, where prior to 1994 IVF was fully funded. Recommendations of the Commission to withdraw IVF funding were largely based on findings of the systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before 1990. The review showed IVF effectiveness only in cases of bilateral tubal obstruction. As for nontubal causes of infertility, there was not enough evidence to establish whether IVF was effective or not.
Since the field of reproductive technology is constantly evolving, there have been several changes since the publication of the Royal Commission report. These changes include: increased success rates of IVF; introduction of ICSI in the early 1990’s as a treatment for male factor infertility; and improved embryo implantation rates allowing for the transfer of a single embryo to avoid multiple pregnancies after IVF.
Studies After the Royal Commission Report: Review Strategy
Three separate literature reviews were conducted in the following areas: clinical effectiveness of IVF, cost-effectiveness of IVF, and outcomes of single embryo transfer (SET) in IVF cycles.
Clinical effectiveness of IVF: RCTs or meta-analyses of RCTs that compared live birth rates after IVF versus alternative treatments, where the cause of infertility was clearly stated or it was possible to stratify the outcome by the cause of infertility.
Cost effectiveness of IVF: All relevant economic studies comparing IVF to alternative methods of treatment were reviewed
Outcomes of IVF with SET: RCTs or meta-analyses of RCTs that compared live birth rates and multiple birth rates associated with transfer of single versus double embryos.
OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment database, and websites of other health technology assessment agencies were searched using specific subject headings and keywords to identify relevant studies.
Summary of Findings
Comparative Clinical Effectiveness of IVF
Overall, there is a lack of well composed RCTs in this area and considerable diversity in both definition and measurement of outcomes exists between trials. Many studies used fertility or pregnancy rates instead of live birth rates. Moreover, the denominator for rate calculation varied from study to study (e.g. rates were calculated per cycle started, per cycle completed, per couple, etc...).
Nevertheless, few studies of sufficient quality were identified and categorized by the cause of infertility and existing alternatives to IVF. The following are the key findings:
A 2005 meta-analysis demonstrated that, in patients with idiopathic infertility, IVF was clearly superior to expectant management, but there were no statistically significant differences in live birth rates between IVF and IUI, nor between IVF and gamete-intra-Fallopian transfer.
A subset of data from a 2000 study showed no significant differences in pregnancy rates between IVF and IUI for moderate male factor infertility.
In patients with moderate male factor infertility, standard IVF was also compared with ICSI in a 2002 meta-analysis. All studies included in the meta-analysis showed superior fertilization rates with ICSI, and the pooled risk ratio for oocyte fertilization was 1.9 (95% Confidence Interval 1.4-2.5) in favour of ICSI. Two other RCTs in this area published after the 2002 meta-analysis had similar results and further confirmed these findings. There were no RCTs comparing IVF with ICSI in patients with severe male factor infertility, mainly because based on the expert opinion, ICSI might only be an effective treatment for severe male factor infertility.
Cost-Effectiveness of IVF
Five economic evaluations of IVF were found, including one comprehensive systematic review of 57 health economic studies. The studies compared cost-effectiveness of IVF with a number of alternatives such as observation, ovarian stimulation, IUI, tubal surgery, varicocelectomy, etc... The cost-effectiveness of IVF was analyzed separately for different types of infertility. Most of the reviewed studies concluded that due to the high cost, IVF has a less favourable cost-effectiveness profile compared with alternative treatment options. Therefore, IVF was not recommended as the first line of treatment in the majority of cases. The only two exceptions were bilateral tubal obstruction and severe male factor infertility, where an immediate offer of IVF/ICSI might the most cost-effective option.
Clinical Outcomes After Single Versus Double Embryo Transfer Strategies of IVF
Since the SET strategy has been more widely adopted in Europe, all RCT outcomes of SET were conducted in European countries. The major study in this area was a large 2005 meta-analysis, followed by two other published RCTs.
All of these studies reached similar conclusions:
Although a single SET cycle results in lower birth rates than a single double embryo transfer (DET) cycle, the cumulative birth rate after 2 cycles of SET (fresh + frozen-thawed embryos) was comparable to the birth rate after a single DET cycle (~40%).
SET was associated with a significant reduction in multiple births compared with DET (0.8% vs. 33.1% respectively in the largest RCT).
Most trials on SET included women younger than 36 years old with a sufficient number of embryos available for transfer that allowed for selection of the top quality embryo(s). A 2006 RCT, however, compared SET and DET strategies in an unselected group of patients without restrictions on the woman’s age or embryo quality. This study demonstrated that SET could be applied to older women.
Estimate of the Target Population
Based on results of the literature review and consultations with experts, four categories of infertile patients who may benefit from increased access to IVF/ICSI were identified:
Patients with severe male factor infertility, where IVF should be offered in conjunction with ICSI;
Infertile women with serious medical contraindications to multiple pregnancy, who should be offered IVF-SET;
Infertile patients who want to avoid the risk of multiple pregnancy and thus opt for IVF-SET; and
Patients who failed treatment with IUI and wish to try IVF.
Since, however, the latter indication does not reflect any new advances in IVF technology that would alter existing policy, it was not considered in this analysis.
Economic Analysis
Economic Review: Cost–Effectiveness of SET Versus DET
Conclusions of published studies on cost-effectiveness of SET versus DET were not consistent. While some studies found that SET strategy is more cost-effective due to avoidance of multiple pregnancies, other studies either did not find any significant differences in cost per birth between SET and DET, or favoured DET as a more cost-effective option.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
An Ontario-based economic analysis compared cost per birth using three treatment strategies: IUI, IVF-SET, and IVF-DET. A decision-tree model assumed three cycles for each treatment option. Two separate models were considered; the first included only fresh cycles of IVF, while the second had a combination of fresh and frozen cycles. Even after accounting for cost-savings due to avoidance of multiple pregnancies (only short-term complications), IVF-SET was still associated with a highest cost per birth. The approximate budget impact to cover the first three indications for IVF listed above (severe male factor infertility, women with medical contraindications to multiple pregnancy, and couples who wish to avoid the risk of multiple pregnancy) is estimated at $9.8 to $12.8 million (Cdn). Coverage of only first two indications, namely, ICSI in patients with severe male factor infertility and infertile women with serious medical contraindications to multiple pregnancy, is estimated at $3.8 to $5.5 million Cdn.
Other Considerations
International data shows that both IVF utilization and the average number of embryos transferred in IVF cycles are influenced by IVF funding policy. The success of the SET strategy in European countries is largely due to the fact that IVF treatment is subsidized by governments.
Surveys of patients with infertility demonstrated that a significant proportion (~40%) of patients not only do not mind having multiple babies, but consider twins being an ideal outcome of infertility treatment.
A women’s age may impose some restrictions on the implementation of a SET strategy.
Conclusions and Recommendations
A review of published studies has demonstrated that IVF-SET is an effective treatment for infertility that avoids multiple pregnancies.
However, results of an Ontario-based economic analysis shows that cost savings associated with a reduction in multiple pregnancies after IVF-SET does not justify the cost of universal IVF-SET coverage by the province. Moreover, the province currently funds IUI, which has been shown to be as effective as IVF for certain types of infertility and is significantly less expensive.
In patients with severe male factor infertility, IVF in conjunction with ICSI may be the only effective treatment.
Thus, 2 indications where additional IVF access should be considered include:
IVF/ICSI for patients with severe male factor infertility
IVF-SET in infertile women with serious medical contraindications to multiple pregnancy
PMCID: PMC3379537  PMID: 23074488

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