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1.  A Rationale and Outline for an Undergraduate Course on the Philosophy and History of Science for Life Science Students 
There are compelling reasons for teaching a philosophy of science course to undergraduate life science students. The main reason is to help them understand that modern science is not based upon a single, consistent philosophical system; nor is it based upon common sense, or a method, set of rules or formulas that can be used to make unerring predictions. Rather, science is a dynamic process that is constantly being modified and refined to reflect and encompass an ever-expanding set of hypotheses, observations, and theories. To illustrate these points, we developed a course that examined the history and philosophical underpinnings of modern science, and we discussed famous experiments that challenged the prevailing norm and led to Kuhnian revolutions in scientific thought. Building upon this knowledge, students investigated how different philosophical systems address controversial social issues in the biological sciences. They examined the teaching of intelligent design and creationism in public schools, the implications of legalized abortion and physician-assisted suicide, the potential impact of DNA fingerprinting on human rights and racism, the promise and pitfalls of stem cell research, and the neurobiological basis of consciousness and its relevance to mental health therapies and the animal rights movement. We believe undergraduate life science students should be exposed to these issues and have an opportunity to develop informed opinions about them before they graduate from college. Exploration of such topics will help them become better prepared for the inevitable public debates that they will face as science educators, researchers, and leaders of society.
PMCID: PMC3031121  PMID: 21289866
natural philosophy; idealistic philosophy; process philosophy; case studies; social issues; science education
2.  A Rationale and Outline for an Undergraduate Course on the Philosophy and History of Science for Life Science Students 
There are compelling reasons for teaching a philosophy of science course to undergraduate life science students. The main reason is to help them understand that modern science is not based upon a single, consistent philosophical system; nor is it based upon common sense, or a method, set of rules or formulas that can be used to make unerring predictions. Rather, science is a dynamic process that is constantly being modified and refined to reflect and encompass an ever-expanding set of hypotheses, observations, and theories. To illustrate these points, we developed a course that examined the history and philosophical underpinnings of modern science, and we discussed famous experiments that challenged the prevailing norm and led to Kuhnian revolutions in scientific thought. Building upon this knowledge, students investigated how different philosophical systems address controversial social issues in the biological sciences. They examined the teaching of intelligent design and creationism in public schools, the implications of legalized abortion and physician-assisted suicide, the potential impact of DNA fingerprinting on human rights and racism, the promise and pitfalls of stem cell research, and the neurobiological basis of consciousness and its relevance to mental health therapies and the animal rights movement. We believe undergraduate life science students should be exposed to these issues and have an opportunity to develop informed opinions about them before they graduate from college. Exploration of such topics will help them become better prepared for the inevitable public debates that they will face as science educators, researchers, and leaders of society.
PMCID: PMC3031121  PMID: 21289866
natural philosophy; idealistic philosophy; process philosophy; case studies; social issues; science education
3.  The future of philosophy. 
There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries.
PMCID: PMC1692709  PMID: 10670025
4.  A Brief Philosophical Encounter with Science and Medicine  
We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.
doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2013.17
PMCID: PMC3937912  PMID: 24596845
Philosophy; Medicine; Science
5.  Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General 
Foundations of science  2010;15(1):303-344.
In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests.
doi:10.1007/s10699-010-9185-8
PMCID: PMC3898875  PMID: 24465151
Philosophy of Chemistry; Pragmatism; Reductionism; Sustainability; Systems science
6.  From ‘Implications’ to ‘Dimensions’: Science, Medicine and Ethics in Society 
Health Care Analysis  2012;21(1):31-42.
Much bioethical scholarship is concerned with the social, legal and philosophical implications of new and emerging science and medicine, as well as with the processes of research that under-gird these innovations. Science and technology studies (STS), and the related and interpenetrating disciplines of anthropology and sociology, have also explored what novel technoscience might imply for society, and how the social is constitutive of scientific knowledge and technological artefacts. More recently, social scientists have interrogated the emergence of ethical issues: they have documented how particular matters come to be regarded as in some way to do with ‘ethics’, and how this in turn enjoins particular types of social action. In this paper, I will discuss some of this and other STS (and STS-inflected) literature and reflect on how it might complement more ‘traditional’ modes of bioethical enquiry. I argue that STS might (1) cast new light on current bioethical issues, (2) direct the gaze of bioethicists towards matters that may previously have escaped their attention, and (3) indicate the import not only of the ethical implications of biomedical innovation, but also how these innovative and other processes feature ethics as a dimension of everyday laboratory and clinical work. In sum, engagements between STS and bioethics are increasingly important in order to understand and manage the complex dynamics between science, medicine and ethics in society.
doi:10.1007/s10728-012-0219-y
PMCID: PMC3555237  PMID: 22948440
Biomedical technology; Biomedicine; Empirical bioethics; Innovation; Science and technology studies; Sociology of bioethics
7.  The Role of Empirical Research in Bioethics 
There has long been tension between bioethicists whose work focuses on classical philosophical inquiry and those who perform empirical studies on bioethical issues. While many have argued that empirical research merely illuminates current practices and cannot inform normative ethics, others assert that research-based work has significant implications for refining our ethical norms. In this essay, I present a novel construct for classifying empirical research in bioethics into four hierarchical categories: Lay of the Land, Ideal Versus Reality, Improving Care, and Changing Ethical Norms. Through explaining these four categories and providing examples of publications in each stratum, I define how empirical research informs normative ethics. I conclude by demonstrating how philosophical inquiry and empirical research can work cooperatively to further normative ethics.
doi:10.1080/15265160902874320
PMCID: PMC2826359  PMID: 19998120
bioethics; clinical; empirical research; ethical analysis; ethical theory; ethics; principle-based ethics
8.  Behaviorism Makes Its Debut: A Review of Lattal and Chase's Behavior Theory and Philosophy 
Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pragmatism, selectionism, analytic philosophy). Part II examines behavior-analytic interpretations of mentalistic concepts (intention, imagination, ethics, cognition). Part III presents extensions and applications of basic research in behavior analysis (verbal behavior, creativity, development, education, disability, and corporate culture). The publication of this book signals that behaviorism has developed mature philosophical foundations.
doi:10.1901/jeab.2005.133-04
PMCID: PMC1193761
behaviorism; philosophy; Skinner; experimental analysis of behavior; applied behavior analysis; ethics
9.  Do Ethicists and Political Philosophers Vote More Often Than Other Professors? 
If philosophical moral reflection improves moral behavior, one might expect ethics professors to behave morally better than socially similar non-ethicists. Under the assumption that forms of political engagement such as voting have moral worth, we looked at the rate at which a sample of professional ethicists—and political philosophers as a subgroup of ethicists—voted in eight years’ worth of elections. We compared ethicists’ and political philosophers’ voting rates with the voting rates of three other groups: philosophers not specializing in ethics, political scientists, and a comparison group of professors specializing in neither philosophy nor political science. All groups voted at about the same rate, except for the political scientists, who voted about 10–15% more often. On the face of it, this finding conflicts with the expectation that ethicists will behave more responsibly than non-ethicists.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13164-009-0011-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s13164-009-0011-6
PMCID: PMC3339026  PMID: 22558060
Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Developmental Psychology; Neuropsychology; Epistemology; Cognitive Psychology; Philosophy of Mind
10.  Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras 
Science as Culture  2012;21(3):291-313.
The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability.
doi:10.1080/09505431.2011.630069
PMCID: PMC3617809  PMID: 23576848
Bioethical expertise; good science; anticipatory governance; human/animal chimeras
11.  The Ethics of the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury: Stem Cell Transplants, Motor Neuroprosthetics, and Social Equity 
The intense desire for a “cure” in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) has resulted in the transplantation of stem cells and embryonic and other cell types into the injured spinal cord to enable limb function. We review the ethical issues concerning the procurement and use of embryonic stem cells. A brief survey of the current state of human SCI transplantation is presented. We explore the interface between basic science and the clinical management of SCI and discuss the ethical issues of therapy. At what point is it ethical to conduct human experiments when the experimental data is still at an early stage of development? Is it ethical to perform these operations on a vulnerable group of patients without adequate scientific controls and analysis of the results? Motor neuroprosthetics is developing rapidly and will enable limb movement controlled by the paralyzed patient and other device control such as wheelchairs and communication boards. How can there be a more equitable distribution of such expensive technology and other treatments of SCI? Both clinicians and scientists should be mindful of these complex ethical issues when undertaking pioneering therapies for patients with SCI.
doi:10.1310/sci1401-76
PMCID: PMC2846325  PMID: 20351789
ethics; neuroprosthetics; repair; spinal cord injury; stem cells; transplantation
12.  Teaching the Process of Science: Faculty Perceptions and an Effective Methodology 
CBE Life Sciences Education  2010;9(4):524-535.
Most scientific endeavors require science process skills such as data interpretation, problem solving, experimental design, scientific writing, oral communication, collaborative work, and critical analysis of primary literature. These are the fundamental skills upon which the conceptual framework of scientific expertise is built. Unfortunately, most college science departments lack a formalized curriculum for teaching undergraduates science process skills. However, evidence strongly suggests that explicitly teaching undergraduates skills early in their education may enhance their understanding of science content. Our research reveals that faculty overwhelming support teaching undergraduates science process skills but typically do not spend enough time teaching skills due to the perceived need to cover content. To encourage faculty to address this issue, we provide our pedagogical philosophies, methods, and materials for teaching science process skills to freshman pursuing life science majors. We build upon previous work, showing student learning gains in both reading primary literature and scientific writing, and share student perspectives about a course where teaching the process of science, not content, was the focus. We recommend a wider implementation of courses that teach undergraduates science process skills early in their studies with the goals of improving student success and retention in the sciences and enhancing general science literacy.
doi:10.1187/cbe.10-01-0005
PMCID: PMC2995770  PMID: 21123699
13.  Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2003;111(14):1809-1818.
During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science.
PMCID: PMC1241729  PMID: 14594636
14.  Conceptual Issues in Studies of Resilience 
We begin this article by considering the following critical conceptual issues in research on resilience: (1) distinctions between protective, promotive, and vulnerability factors; (2) the need to unpack underlying processes; (3) the benefits of within-group experimental designs; and (4) the advantages and potential pitfalls of an overwhelming scientific focus on biological and genetic factors (to the relative exclusion of familial and contextual ones). The next section of the article is focused on guidelines for the selection of vulnerability and protective processes in future research. From a basic science standpoint, it is useful and appropriate to investigate all types of processes that might significantly affect adjustment among at-risk individuals. If the research is fundamentally applied in nature, however, it would be most expedient to focus on risk modifiers that have high potential to alter individuals’ overall life circumstances. The final section of this article considers conceptual differences between contemporary resilience research on children versus adults. Issues include differences in the types and breadth of outcomes (e.g., the tendencies to focus on others’ ratings of competence among children and on self-reports of well-being among adults respectively).
doi:10.1196/annals.1376.009
PMCID: PMC3480733  PMID: 17347344
resilience; protective processes; risk modifiers; interventions
15.  “Science means learning to say—I don’t know”: An interview with Dr. Ashok D.B. Vaidya 
Dr. Ashok D.B. Vaidya, the stalwart in the fields of Experimental Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology, and Reverse Pharmacology turns 75 on Nov, 27, 2011. A former Clinical Research Head of CIBA Geigy Research Centre, his name has been synonymous with the concept of the Golden Triangle for resurgence of Ayurveda and its reinterpretation in modern scientific terms. At a time when most fields are populated by intellectual dwarfs and unethical operators, he stands like a giant–a scientist, a philosopher, and an ardent fighter for ethical values. In this free-wheeling interview with Ravindra R.Pandharinath, he discusses the milestones in his life, his inspirations, and dreams for the confluence of modern science, modern medicine, and Ayurveda as the new health care model for the 21st century
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.90771
PMCID: PMC3255454  PMID: 22253513
Dr. Ashok Vaidya; golden triangle; reverse pharmacology
16.  Bioethics Science: Is it? 
Both western and eastern civilizations have linked moral teaching with theology followed by philosophy. New-knowledge-seekers about natural world, were called ‘natural philosophers’. There was a paradigm shift during industrial revolution in western world which culminated in modern science. The word “scientist” was coined during the 19th century. The paper examines whether natural philosophers could be called ‘scientists’? A short history of philosophical paradigm shift is given.
Although written moral and “ethical principles” were in vogue from the time of Hammurabi (1750–1795 BC), the phenomenon of bioethics is very recent. Bioethics is a bridge among different sciences and a bridge to the future. The question is: Is bioethics, by itself, science? The present paper is concerned with the quality of bioethics and about the nature of science during the next 30–50 years.
Science is value-free but bioethics is value-loaded. Science does not proclaim any value whereas bioethics underlines the moral life and its value to survive. The paper examines two issues: Can science be bioethics-friendly? and (ii) Can bioethics be science-friendly? It appears that both science and bioethics are incompatible. We need to develop a new system of knowledge to include/infuse the bioethical-notion of values in (into) science. Such a move may necessitate the development of an alternate but new model. Bioethics is not a science-discipline. A new term to replace science is needed. Elevating bioethics as an academic science may create job openings in India.
PMCID: PMC3713923  PMID: 23908732
Science; Scientists; Bioethics; Immoral sciences; Evolutionary ethics; morals
17.  What Is the Role of Theories in the Study of Schizophrenia? 
Schizophrenia Bulletin  2009;35(3):563-567.
As an epilogue to the themed papers on “Theories of Schizophrenia” in this issue of Schizophrenia Bulletin, this article reviews some basic philosophy of science principles in regard to the role of theories in the evolving state of a natural science discipline. While in early phases inductive and abductive logic are the primary vehicles for organizing observations and developing models, when a critical set of “facts” have been elucidated which can be explained by competing theoretical perspectives, hypothetico-deductive logic provides a more robust and efficient approach to scientific progress. The key principle is to determine where two or more theories predict different observations and then to devise studies that collect critical observations—correlations or experimental outcomes that are predicted differentially by the competing theories. To a large extent, current theories of schizophrenia (eg, focusing on aberrant dopaminergic signaling, neural dysconnectivity, and disrupted neural development) are not (and are not intended by their authors to be) mutually exclusive of each other. Rather, they provide explanations that differ in relative emphases, eg, on distal vs proximal causes and on broad vs narrow behavioral end points. It is therefore possible for all of them to be “right” at least in a general sense. This non-exclusivity is problematic when considered in light of the strong inferences principles characteristic of a mature natural science discipline. The contrast points are likely to be found in constructions that integrate influences across different levels of analysis, as in additive vs interactive models, direct effects vs mediation models, and developmental vs deteriorative models.
doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp008
PMCID: PMC2669583  PMID: 19336393
schizophrenia; theory; philosophy of science
18.  Welcome to Automated Experimentation: a new open access journal 
Modern experimental science provides more opportunities for yet larger series of experiments. Demand for experimental results also has become more diverse, requiring results that have direct connections to systems outside the laboratory. With this has come an ability to automate many areas of experimental science, not only the experiments themselves but also the larger processes that contribute to experimentation and analysis more broadly. As automated experimentation becomes more widely used and understood, we launch this journal to provide a proper publication channel for this new breed of interdisciplinary research as well as a bridge to all significant groundwork research that would facilitate possible automated experimentation. With this in mind, we are interested in publishing all kinds of research into scientific experimentation, including research where the potential for automation is at proof or concept or early deployment stage.
doi:10.1186/1759-4499-1-1
PMCID: PMC2809325  PMID: 20098588
19.  ‘MIND’ IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2002;44(4):315-325.
The place of mind in the philosophical systems of India is briefly discussed. The philosophies selected are - Vedas, Upanishads, Six systems of philosophies (saddarsanas), Gita and materialistic school of Carvaaka. That mind is of subtle physical nature and that self is postulated as higher than mind in the hierarchy is being pointed out. Mind can be man's own friend to elevate him or his foe debasing him. Modern neuro - science and the ancient materialistic schools do not subscribe to the existence of self. An integrated approach extending beyond the mind in psychiatric care is suggested. Scientific and technological advances do not necessarily preclude a transcendent (spiritual) dimension to the total care.
PMCID: PMC2955300  PMID: 21206593
Upanishads; Sankhya; Yoga; Gita; Nyaya-Vaiseshika; Caravaaka; Ashtavakr; Self
20.  Genomics and Ethics: The Case of Cloned and/or Transgenic Animals 
The point of the present study is to illustrate and, if possible, promote the existing link between genomics and ethics, taking the example of cloned and transgenic animals. These ‘new animals’ raise theoretical and practical problems that concern applied ethics. We will explore more particularly an original strategy showing that it is possible, starting from philosophical questioning about the nature of identity, to use a genomic approach, based on amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) detection, to provide useful tools to define more rigorously what cloned animals are, by testing their genetic and epigenetic identity. We expect from the future results of this combined approach to stimulate the creativity of the philosophical and ethical reflection about the impact of biotechnology on animals, and to increase scientific involvement in such issues.
doi:10.1002/cfg.243
PMCID: PMC2447398  PMID: 18629111
21.  Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice 
BMC Medical Ethics  2012;13:5.
Background
The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts.
Discussion
A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics.
Summary
High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis.
doi:10.1186/1472-6939-13-5
PMCID: PMC3355047  PMID: 22500496
22.  A survey of scientific production and collaboration rate among of medical library and information sciences in ISI, scopus and Pubmed databases during 2001-2010 
Background:
Research is essential for development. In other words, scientific development of each country can be evaluated by researchers’ scientific production. Understanding and assessing the activities of researchers for planning and policy making is essential. The significance of collaboration in the production of scientific publications in today's complex world where technology is everything is very apparent. Scientists realized that in order to get their work wildly used and cited to by experts, they must collaborate. The collaboration among researchers results in the development of scientific knowledge and hence, attainment of wider information. The main objective of this research is to survey scientific production and collaboration rate in philosophy and theoretical bases of medical library and information sciences in ISI, SCOPUS, and Pubmed databases during 2001-2010.
Materials and Methods:
This is a descriptive survey and scientometrics methods were used for this research. Then data gathered via check list and analyzed by the SPSS software. Collaboration rate was calculated according to the formula.
Results:
Among the 294 related abstracts about philosophy, and theoretical bases of medical library and information science in ISI, SCOPUS, and Pubmed databases during 2001-2010, the year 2007 with 45 articles has the most and the year 2003 with 16 articles has the least number of related collaborative articles in this scope. “B. Hjorland” with eight collaborative articles had the most one among Library and Information Sciences (LIS) professionals in ISI, SCOPUS, and Pubmed. Journal of Documentation with 29 articles and 12 collaborative articles had the most related articles. Medical library and information science challenges with 150 articles had first place in number of articles. Results also show that the most elaborative country in terms of collaboration point of view and number of articles was US. “University of Washington” and “University Western Ontario” are the most elaborative affiliation from a collaboration point.
Conclusion:
The average collaboration rate between researchers in this field during the years studied is 0.25. The most completive reviewed articles are single authors that included 60.54% of the whole articles. Only 30.46% of articles were provided with two or more than two authors.
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.117419
PMCID: PMC3826017  PMID: 24251283
Collaboration; collaboration rate; ISI databases; medical library and information science; Pubmed databases; scientometrics; SCOPUS databases
23.  Educational Challenges of Molecular Life Science: Characteristics and Implications for Education and Research 
CBE Life Sciences Education  2010;9(1):25-33.
Molecular life science is one of the fastest-growing fields of scientific and technical innovation, and biotechnology has profound effects on many aspects of daily life—often with deep, ethical dimensions. At the same time, the content is inherently complex, highly abstract, and deeply rooted in diverse disciplines ranging from “pure sciences,” such as math, chemistry, and physics, through “applied sciences,” such as medicine and agriculture, to subjects that are traditionally within the remit of humanities, notably philosophy and ethics. Together, these features pose diverse, important, and exciting challenges for tomorrow's teachers and educational establishments. With backgrounds in molecular life science research and secondary life science teaching, we (Tibell and Rundgren, respectively) bring different experiences, perspectives, concerns, and awareness of these issues. Taking the nature of the discipline as a starting point, we highlight important facets of molecular life science that are both characteristic of the domain and challenging for learning and education. Of these challenges, we focus most detail on content, reasoning difficulties, and communication issues. We also discuss implications for education research and teaching in the molecular life sciences.
doi:10.1187/cbe.08-09-0055
PMCID: PMC2830159  PMID: 20194805
24.  Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations 
In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.106882
PMCID: PMC3601236  PMID: 23532705
Animal experimentations; basic science; orthopedic research
25.  Launching the "Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration" 
The Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration was created to provide, for the first time, a unified forum to consider all factors that affect scientific practice and scientific discovery – with an emphasis on the changing face of contemporary biomedical science. In this endeavor we are bringing together three different groups of scholars: a) laboratory investigators, who make the discoveries that are the currency of the scientific enterprise; b) computer science and informatics investigators, who devise tools for data analysis, mining, visualization and integration; and c) social scientists, including sociologists, historians, and philosophers, who study scientific practice, collaboration, and information needs. We will publish original research articles, case studies, focus pieces, reviews, and software articles. All articles in the Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration will be peer reviewed, published immediately upon acceptance, freely available online via open access, and archived in PubMed Central and other international full-text repositories.
doi:10.1186/1747-5333-1-1
PMCID: PMC1440304

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