Critical limb ischemia (CLI) results from inadequate blood flow to supply and sustain the metabolic needs of resting muscle and tissue. Infragenicular atherosclerosis is the most common cause of CLI, and it is more likely to develop when multilevel or diffuse arterial disease coincides with compromised run-off to the foot. Reports of good technical and clinical outcomes have advanced the endovascular treatment options, which have gained a growing acceptance as the primary therapeutic strategy for CLI, especially in patients with significant risk factors for open surgical bypass. In fact, endovascular recanalization of below-the-knee arteries has proven to be feasible and safe, reduce the need for amputation, and improve wound healing. The distribution of various vascular territories or angiosomes in the foot has been recognized, and it appears advantageous to revascularize the artery supplying the territory directly associated with tissue loss. In addition, the targeted application and local delivery of drugs using drug-coated balloons (DCB) during angioplasty has the potential to improve patency rates compared to balloon angioplasty alone.
balloon angioplasty; infrapopliteal artery disease; drug coated balloon; critical limb ischemia; chronic limb ischemia; angiosome; diabetes
The development of intra-abdominal hypertension [IAH] in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU is an independent predictor of mortality. In an attempt to find an early, clinically relevant metabolic signal of modest IAH, we investigated abdominal wall metabolite concentrations in a small group of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. We hypothesized that elevated intra-abdominal pressure [IAP] due to pneumoperitoneum leads to an increased lactate/pyruvate [L/P] ratio in the rectus abdominis muscle [RAM], indicating anaerobic metabolism.
Six patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic gastric fundoplication were studied. Two hours before surgery, a microdialysis catheter (CMA 60, CMA Small Systems AB, Solna, Sweden) was inserted into the RAM under local anaesthesia. Catheter placement was confirmed by ultrasound. The microdialysis perfusion rate was set at 0.3 μL/min. Dialysate was collected hourly prior to pneumoperitoneum, during pneumoperitoneum, and for 2 h after pneumoperitoneum resolution. IAP was maintained at 12 to 13 mmHg during the surgery. The glucose, glycerol, pyruvate and lactate contents of the dialysate were measured.
The median (interquartile range) L/P ratio was 10.3 (7.1 to 15.5) mmol/L at baseline. One hour of pneumoperitoneum increased the L/P ratio to 16.0 (13.6 to 35.3) mmol/L (p = 0.03). The median pneumoperitoneum duration was 86 (77 to 111) min. The L/P ratio at 2 h post-pneumoperitoneum was not different from that at baseline (p = 1.0). No changes in glycerol or glucose levels were observed.
IAH of 12 to 13 mmHg, even for a relatively short duration, is associated with metabolic changes in the abdominal wall muscle tissue of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. We suggest that tissue hypoperfusion occurs even during a modest increase in IAP, and intramuscular metabolic monitoring could therefore serve as an early warning sign of deteriorating tissue perfusion.
microdialysis; intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; lactate-to-pyruvate ratio; muscle ischemia; early clinical sign
To evaluate the impact on wound healing and long-term clinical outcomes of endovascular revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI).
Materials and Methods
This is a retrospective study on 189 limbs with CLI treated with endovascular revascularization between 2008 and 2010 and followed for a mean 21 months. Angiographic outcome was graded to technical success (TS), partial failure (PF) and complete technical failure. The impact on wound healing of revascularization was assessed with univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models. Analysis of long-term event-free limb survival, and limb salvage rate (LSR) was performed by Kaplan-Meier method.
TS was achieved in 89% of treated limbs, whereas PF and CF were achieved in 9% and 2% of the limbs, respectively. Major complications occurred in 6% of treated limbs. The 30-day mortality was 2%. Wound healing was successful in 85% and failed in 15%. Impact of angiographic outcome on wound healing was statistically significant. The event-free limb survival was 79.3% and 69.5% at 1- and 3-years, respectively. The LSR was 94.8% and 92.0% at 1- and 3-years, respectively.
Endovascular revascularization improve wound healing rate and provide good long-term LSRs in CLI.
Critical limb ischemia; Infrapopliteal angioplasty; Diabetic foot
Diagnosis and treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) is increasingly important as the average age of the world population and the incidence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome increases. Fortunately, most patients will not progress to this stage of peripheral arterial disease, yet if left untreated, there is a high risk of future cardiovascular events. At the point of ischemic rest pain or tissue loss, there are significant implications for morbidity and mortality. There is a high prevalence of multisegment occlusive disease in the CLI patient with the infrapopliteal vessels frequently involved. Revascularization of the affected limb is of utmost importance as the prospects of wound healing and relief of ischemic rest pain are poor without reestablishing continuous flow to the distal extremity. With the advent of endovascular devices designed to treat this vexing problem, the ability to successfully treat this difficult patient population with less procedural morbidity has been greatly enhanced.
Peripheral arterial disease; angioplasty; endovascular therapy; ischemic rest pain
For an active, ambulant patient with critical, lower limb ischemia, amputation can lead to a poor quality of life. A small group of older people with critical limb ischemia are considered at high risk for revascularization under conventional anesthesia owing to their comorbid conditions. In these cases, when endovascular therapy is not an option, the decision to amputate or revascularize presents a dilemma, especially in ambulant patients. In this article, we present 2 cases in which the individuals had diabetic foot gangrene, rest pain, and multiple comorbidities, and were unfit to undergo conventional anesthesia. In addition, they had severe aortoiliac occlusive disease, which cannot be managed by endovascular methods. Both patients were living independently and were ambulant before their foot ulcer and ischemia. They underwent an axillofemoral bypass under local anesthesia. The postoperative course was uneventful. After a 3-year follow-up, both patients continue to be ambulant and have no complaints. With selective use of local anesthetic techniques, surgical teamwork to shorten the procedure time, and close meticulous postoperative care, an axillofemoral bypass can enable limb salvage for ambulant patients who are considered unfit for conventional anesthesia.
limb salvage; axillofemoral bypass; local anesthesia; high-risk patients
Vein bypass surgery is an effective therapy for atherosclerotic occlusive disease in the coronary and peripheral circulations; however, long-term results are limited by progressive attrition of graft patency. Failure of vein bypass grafts in patients with critical limb ischemia results in morbidity, limb loss, and additional resource use. Although technical factors are known to be critical to the success of surgical revascularization, patient-specific risk factors are not well defined. In particular, the relationship of race/ethnicity and gender to the outcomes of peripheral bypass surgery has been controversial.
Methods and Results
We analyzed the Project of Ex Vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection III (PREVENT III) randomized trial database, which included 1404 lower extremity vein graft operations performed exclusively for critical limb ischemia at 83 North American centers. Trial design included intensive ultrasound surveillance of the bypass graft and clinical follow-up to 1 year. Multivariable modeling (Cox proportional hazards and propensity score) was used to examine the relationships of demographic variables to clinical end points, including perioperative (30-day) events and 1-year outcomes (vein graft patency, limb salvage, and patient survival). Final propensity score models adjusted for 16 covariates (including type of institution, technical factors, selected comorbidities, and adjunctive medications) to examine the associations between race, gender, and outcomes. Among the 249 black patients enrolled in PREVENT III, 118 were women and 131 were men. Black men were at increased risk for early graft failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.832 for 30-day failure; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.393 to 5.759; P=0.0004), even when the analysis was restricted to exclude high-risk venous conduits. Black patients experienced reduced secondary patency (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.06; P=0.016) and limb salvage (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.20; P=0.003) at 1 year. Propensity score models demonstrate that black women were the most disadvantaged, with an increased risk for loss of graft patency (HR, 2.02 for secondary patency; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.20; P=0.003) and major amputation (HR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.18 to 4.83; P=0.016) at 1 year. Perioperative mortality and 1-year mortality were similar across race/gender groups.
Black race and female gender are risk factors for adverse outcomes after vein bypass surgery for limb salvage. Graft failure and limb loss are more common events in black patients, with black women being a particularly high-risk group. These data suggest the possibility of an altered biological response to vein grafting in this population; however, further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms underlying these observed disparities in outcome.
bypass; grafts; peripheral artery disease; race; women
Critical limb ischemia (CLI), defined as chronic ischemic rest pain, ulcers, or gangrene attributable to objectively proven arterial occlusive disease, is the most advanced form of peripheral arterial disease. Traditionally, open surgical bypass was the only effective treatment strategy for limb revascularization in this patient population. However, during the past decade, the introduction and evolution of endovascular procedures have significantly increased treatment options. In a certain subset of patients for whom either surgical or endovascular revascularization may not be appropriate, primary amputation remains a third treatment option. Definitive high-level evidence on which to base treatment decisions, with an emphasis on clinical and cost effectiveness, is still lacking. Treatment decisions in CLI are individualized, based on life expectancy, functional status, anatomy of the arterial occlusive disease, and surgical risk. For patients with aortoiliac disease, endovascular therapy has become first-line therapy for all but the most severe patterns of occlusion, and aortofemoral bypass surgery is a highly effective and durable treatment for the latter group. For infrainguinal disease, the available data suggest that surgical bypass with vein is the preferred therapy for CLI patients likely to survive 2 years or more, and for those with long segment occlusions or severe infrapopliteal disease who have an acceptable surgical risk. Endovascular therapy may be preferred in patients with reduced life expectancy, those who lack usable vein for bypass or who are at elevated risk for operation, and those with less severe arterial occlusions. Patients with unreconstructable disease, extensive necrosis involving weight-bearing areas, nonambulatory status, or other severe comorbidities may be considered for primary amputation or palliative measures.
Background. Inflammation plays an important part in the healing process. Little is known about the extent local inflammatory trauma response interacts with the central circulation and inflammation produced by central organs. The aim of the present study was to examine whether high cut-off microdialysis catheters offer potential to in real time assess interstitial cytokines variations in conjunction to markers of metabolism distal to a blunt vascular contusion. Methods. In a standardised contusion trauma model, microdialysis catheters (high MW (100kDa)) were inserted in the gracilis muscle distal to the trauma for the local assessment of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, total protein and the metabolic mediators (glycerol, puruvate and lactate). The contra lateral uninjured leg served as control of the centrally mediated inflammation propagated to the extremities. Results. The trauma led to a significant and quantitatively large (8-10 fold) increase in inflammatory cytokines (IL6 and 8) as measured both in the injured and control legs. There was only a minor, and not significant increase in concentrations of cytokines in the injured leg compared to the control leg.. There were no signs of ischemia in either leg. Conclusion. The new finding in this study is that both central, and local, inflammatory responses as well as metabolic mediators may be assessed continuously in skeletal muscle tissue distal to a major injury in an animal model. The findings suggest that the large trauma elicits a generalised inflammatory response to trauma rather than propagating a local one distal to the trauma.
Blunt trauma; microcirculation; inflammation; microdialysis; rat
In a multicenter, prospective phase II study without controls, no-option critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients were subjected to intra-arterial infusion of autologous bone marrow and followed for 12 months after the treatment. Patients showed improvement in objective and subjective measures of perfusion and improved amputation-free survival rates at 12 months after the treatment. This study provides evidence that autologous bone marrow transplantation is well tolerated by CLI patients without adverse effects, confirming the feasibility and safety of the procedure.
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a vascular disease affecting lower limbs, which is going to become a demanding challenge because of the aging of the population. Despite advances in endovascular therapies, CLI is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Patients without direct revascularization options have the worst outcomes. To date, 25%–40% of CLI patients are not candidates for surgical or endovascular approaches, ultimately facing the possibility of a major amputation. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow (BM) transplantation performed in “no-option” patients, in terms of restoring blood perfusion by collateral flow and limb salvage. A multicenter, prospective, not-controlled phase II study for no-option CLI patients was performed. Patients were subjected to intra-arterial infusion of autologous bone marrow and followed for 12 months after the treatment. Variation of blood perfusion parameters, evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry or transcutaneous oximetry, was set as the primary endpoint at 12 months after treatment and amputation-free survival as the secondary endpoint. Sixty patients were enrolled and treated with BM transplantation, showing improvement in objective and subjective measures of perfusion. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated improved amputation-free survival rates (75.2%) at 12 months after the treatment. This study provides further evidence that autologous bone marrow transplantation is well tolerated by CLI patients without adverse effects, demonstrating trends toward improvement in perfusion and reduced amputation rate, confirming the feasibility and safety of the procedure.
Adult human bone marrow; Adult stem cells; Angiogenesis; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Bone marrow transplant; Stem/progenitor cell; Transplantation; Vascular development
Foot ulcers are a major complication in patients with diabetes mellitus and involve dramatic restrictions to quality of life and also lead to enormous socio-economical loss due to the high amputation rate. The poor and slow wound healing is often aggravated by the frequent comorbidity of foot ulcers with peripheral arterial disease, making the treatment of this condition even more complicated. While the local treatment of foot ulcers is mainly based on mechanical relief and prevention or treatment of infection, improving perfusion of the impaired tissue remains the major challenge in peripheral arterial disease. While focal arterial stenosis is the domain of interventional angioplasty or vascular surgery, patients with critical limb ischemia and lacking options for revascularization have a much worse prognosis, because current treatment options avoiding amputation are scarce. However, based on recent research efforts, there is rising hope for promising and more-effective therapeutic approaches for these patients. Here, we discuss the current improvements of established therapies aimed at an improvement of limb perfusion, as well as the development of novel cutting-edge therapies based on stem-cell technology. The experiences of a ‘high-volume center’ for treatment of diabetic foot syndrome with a current major amputation rate of 4% are discussed.
autologous bone marrow transplantation; critical limb ischemia; diabetic foot; prostaglandins; therapy; urokinase
Axonal injury is believed to be a major determinant of adverse outcomes following traumatic brain injury. However, it has been difficult to assess acutely the severity of axonal injury in human traumatic brain injury patients. We hypothesized that microdialysis-based measurements of the brain extracellular fluid levels of tau and neurofilament light chain, two low molecular weight axonal proteins, could be helpful in this regard. To test this hypothesis, 100 kDa cut-off microdialysis catheters were placed in 16 patients with severe traumatic brain injury at two neurological/neurosurgical intensive care units. Tau levels in the microdialysis samples were highest early and fell over time in all patients. Initial tau levels were >3-fold higher in patients with microdialysis catheters placed in pericontusional regions than in patients in whom catheters were placed in normal-appearing right frontal lobe tissue (P = 0.005). Tau levels and neurofilament light-chain levels were positively correlated (r = 0.6, P = 0.013). Neurofilament light-chain levels were also higher in patients with pericontusional catheters (P = 0.04). Interestingly, initial tau levels were inversely correlated with initial amyloid-β levels measured in the same samples (r = −0.87, P = 0.000023). This could be due to reduced synaptic activity in areas with substantial axonal injury, as amyloid-β release is closely coupled with synaptic activity. Importantly, high initial tau levels correlated with worse clinical outcomes, as assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 6 months after injury (r = −0.6, P = 0.018). Taken together, our data add support for the hypothesis that axonal injury may be related to long-term impairments following traumatic brain injury. Microdialysis-based measurement of tau levels in the brain extracellular space may be a useful way to assess the severity of axonal injury acutely in the intensive care unit. Further studies with larger numbers of patients will be required to assess the reproducibility of these findings and to determine whether this approach provides added value when combined with clinical and radiological information.
traumatic brain injury; microdialysis; amyloid-β; tau; neurofilament
Ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by the Pringle maneuver is a well-known problem after liver surgery. The aim of this study was to monitor metabolic changes in the pig liver during warm ischemia and the following reperfusion preceded by ischemic preconditioning (IPC).
Eight Landrace pigs underwent laparotomy. Two microdialysis catheters were inserted in the liver, one in the left lobe and another in the right lobe. A reference catheter was inserted in the right biceps femoris muscle. Microdialysis samples were collected every 30 min during the study. After 2 h of baseline measurement, IPC was performed by subjecting pigs to 10 min of ischemia, followed by 10 min of reperfusion. Total ischemia for 60 min was followed by 3 h of reperfusion. The samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol. Blood samples were drawn three times to determine standard liver parameters.
All parameters remained stable during baseline. Glycerol and glucose levels increased significantly during ischemia, followed by a decrease from the start of reperfusion. During the ischemic period, lactate levels increased significantly and decreased during reperfusion. The lactate–pyruvate ratio increased significantly during ischemia and decreased rapidly during reperfusion. Only minor changes were observed in standard liver parameters.
The present study demonstrated profound metabolic changes before, during, and after warm liver ischemia under the influence of IPC. Compared with a similar study without IPC, the metabolic changes seem to be unaffected by preconditioning.
Warm liver ischemia; Portal triad clamping; Preconditioning; Metabolic changes; Microdialysis
Percutaneous treatment of tibioperoneal occlusive disease is associated with decreased morbidity compared with bypass surgery. The long-term patency and limb salvage rates are not well documented.
To evaluate the long-term outcome of endoluminal interventions for tibioperoneal lesions.
A retrospective study was performed to determine the outcomes of patients undergoing infrapopliteal catheter-based intervention for critical limb ischemia. Collected data included demographics, comorbidities, clinical presentation, pre- and postintervention noninvasive vascular measurements (segmental pressure and waveforms, and ankle-brachial index [ABI]), type of intervention, limb loss rate, patient follow-up and need for surgical revascularization. Statistical analysis was performed with the two-tailed t test. P<0.05 was considered significant; results were reported as mean ± SD. Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier limb survival analysis were performed to demonstrate freedom from amputation over time.
Thirty-five patients underwent intervention from 2003 to 2008; technical success was achieved in 26 patients (75%). Arterial segmental pressure studies revealed a significant increase in ABI – preprocedure ABI was 0.62±0.24 versus a postintervention ABI of 0.81±0.29 (P=0.02). The limb salvage rate was 63% during the follow-up period. Limb salvage was better for patients who underwent isolated infrapopliteal intervention versus combined above and below the knee intervention.
Percutaneous interventions for tibioperoneal occlusive disease offer an acceptable limb salvage rate and may be the preferred initial treatment for critical limb ischemia.
Atherectomy; Critical limb ischemia; Tibioperoneal angioplasty
Mononuclear cells (MNC) increase neovascularization and ulcer healing after injection into an ischemic extremity. Circulating MNC are composed of lymphocytes (85%), monocytes (15%) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC; 0.03%). We hypothesized that ischemic limbs secrete paracrine signals to recruit bone marrow-derived monocytes and EPC into the circulation, such that patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have increased circulating monocytes compared to control patients. We also hypothesized that circulating monocytes and EPC recruitment decrease after resolution of ischemia with successful revascularization.
We reviewed the records of all patients at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System undergoing lower extremity peripheral bypass surgery between 2002 and 2007, only including patients with both preoperative and postoperative complete blood counts with differentials.
Patients with CLI (n=24) had elevated preoperative monocyte counts compared to control patients (n=8) (0.753±0.04 vs. 0.516±0.05; p=0.0046), whereas the preoperative lymphocyte counts were not significantly different. After revascularization, ischemic patients had decreased monocyte counts compared to control patients (-20% vs. +55%; p=.0003), although lymphocyte counts were unchanged in both groups. Diabetic patients also had reduced postoperative monocyte counts (-32% vs. +13%; p=0.035). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that the only factor that independently predicted reduced postoperative monocyte count was preoperative CLI (p=0.038).
Patients with CLI have increased numbers of circulating monocytes, and the monocyte number decreases with resolution of ischemia after successful revascularization. Circulating monocytes may be a clinically useful perioperative marker in patients with CLI undergoing vascular surgery.
Blood Cells; Ischemia; Claudication; Monocyte; Peripheral Vascular Disease
The effectiveness of below-the-knee (BTK) percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to obtain successful revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, and many of these patients with chronic lower-extremity disease have been treated by endovascular intervention as the firstline treatment. Dorsal-plantaer loop technique is one of the new BTK interventional techiniques, and includes recanalization of both pedal and plantar arteries and their anatomical anastomoses. This method generally needs two approaches simultaneously, including antegrade and retrograde. In this report, however, we describe a case in which dorsal-plantar loop technique with only one antegrade approach, using chronic total occlusion devices via anterior tibial artery, was used to successfully recanalize BTK arteries. We think that this new technique, which may represent a safe and feasible endovascular option to avoid more invasive, time-consuming, and riskier surgical procedures, especially in end-stage renal disease and diabetes, should be considered whenever the foot is at risk, and results of above-the-ankle percutaneous transluminal angioplasty remain unsatisfactory or insufficient to achieve limb salvage.
Ischemia; peripheral arterial disease; angioplasty
The objective of this study was to summarize outcomes of subintimal angioplasty (SA) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase databases were searched to perform a systematic review of the literature from 1966 through May 2007 on outcomes of SA for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the infrainguinal vessels. The keywords “percutaneous intentional extraluminal revascularization,” “subintimal angioplasty,” “peripheral arterial disease,” “femoral artery,” “popliteal artery,” and “tibial artery” were used. Assessment of study quality was done using a form based on a checklist of the Dutch Cochrane Centre. The recorded outcomes were technical and clinical success, primary (assisted) patency, limb salvage, complications, and survival, in relation to the clinical grade of disease (intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia [CLI] or mixed) and location of lesion (femoropopliteal, crural, or mixed). Twenty-three cohort studies including a total of 1549 patients (range, 27 to 148) were included in this review. Methodological and reporting quality were moderate, e.g., there was selection bias and reporting was not done according to the reporting standards. These and significant clinical heterogeneity obstructed a meta-analysis. Reports about length of the lesion and TASC classification were too various to summarize or were not mentioned at all. The technical success rates varied between 80% and 90%, with lower rates for crural lesions compared with femoral lesions. Complication rates ranged between 8% and 17% and most complications were minor. After 1 year, clinical success was between 50% and 70%, primary patency was around 50% and limb salvage varied from 80% to 90%. In conclusion, taking into account the methodological shortcomings of the included studies, SA can play an important role in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, especially in the case of critical limb ischemia. Despite the moderate patency rates after one year, SA may serve as a “temporary bypass” to provide wound healing and limb salvage.
Subintimal angioplasty; Peripheral arterial disease; Revascularization; Percutaneous intentional extraluminal recanalization; Systematic review
Acute limb ischemia is a potentially life-threatening clinical event. Thrombosis in situ, bypass graft thrombosis, and embolic occlusion are the three major precipitating events leading to acute limb ischemia. Management of acute ischemia depends on the clinical status of the affected limb and patient comorbidities. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is the treatment of choice for patients with relatively mild acute limb ischemia (Rutherford categories I and IIa) with no contraindications to thrombolytic therapy. Patients with severe acute limb ischemia (Rutherford category IIb) need emergent revascularization. CDT should be considered, nonetheless, if the relative risks compared with primary operation are favorable. CDT is a life- and limb-saving treatment for many patients despite limitations of efficacy and associated complications. This article is a review of the etiology of acute arterial occlusion; clinical triage of patients presenting with acute limb ischemia; catheter guide wire techniques, pharmacological agents, and devices in current use for CDT; as well as the outcomes of CDT.
Thrombolysis; acute limb ischemia; plasminogen activator; anticoagulation
Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (LE-PAD) is a highly prevalent condition among diabetic patients, associated with reduced walking capacity and a high incidence of cardiovascular events. Endovascular revascularization of lower extremities arteries improves walking performance and quality of life of diabetic patients affected by intermittent claudication, but few studies evaluated the impact of revascularization on cardiovascular outcome in this high-risk population. Accordingly, in the present study we evaluated if leg-ischemia resolution by effective lower limbs percutaneous revascularization can also impact cardiovascular outcome in a homogeneous group of diabetic patients affected by intermittent claudication.
236 diabetic patients affected by LE-PAD at stage II of Fontaine’s classification, with ankle/brachial index ≤0.90 and one or more hemodynamically significant stenosis in at least one artery of the ileo-femoro-popliteal axis were enrolled in the study. According to the Trans-Atlantic Inter Society Consensus II recommendations, 123 (52.1%) underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA group), while 113 (47.9%) underwent conservative medical therapy only (MT group). The incidence of major cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary or carotid revascularization) was prospectively analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves and the risk of developing a cardiovascular event calculated by Cox analyses.
No baseline difference in cardiovascular risk factors were observed between the PTA and MT groups, except for a lower prevalence of males in PTA group (74.8% vs. 85.8%, p=0.034). Furthermore, patients in the PTA group showed a worse walking capacity as expressed by maximum walking distance (108.7 ± 300.9 vs 378.4 ± 552.3 meters, p<0.001). During a median follow-up of 20 months (12.0-29.0), the incidence of cardiovascular events was markedly lower in patients in the PTA group with respect to patients in the MT group (7.3% vs. 22.1%, p=0.001), and patients of the MT group had at Cox analysis a 3.9 increased risk with respect to PTA group, after adjustment for potential confounding factors (95% CI 1.1-15.3, p=0.049).
The present study shows that lower limbs revascularization of diabetic patients affected by intermittent claudication, in addition to improve walking performance, is associated with a reduction in the incidence of future major cardiovascular events.
Deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has drawn much attention in recent years. Given the limited energy for sensor nodes, it is critical to implement WSNs with energy efficiency designs. Sensing coverage in networks, on the other hand, may degrade gradually over time after WSNs are activated. For mission-critical applications, therefore, energy-efficient coverage control should be taken into consideration to support the quality of service (QoS) of WSNs. Usually, coverage-controlling strategies present some challenging problems: (1) resolving the conflicts while determining which nodes should be turned off to conserve energy; (2) designing an optimal wake-up scheme that avoids awakening more nodes than necessary. In this paper, we implement an energy-efficient coverage control in cluster-based WSNs using a Memetic Algorithm (MA)-based approach, entitled CoCMA, to resolve the challenging problems. The CoCMA contains two optimization strategies: a MA-based schedule for sensor nodes and a wake-up scheme, which are responsible to prolong the network lifetime while maintaining coverage preservation. The MA-based schedule is applied to a given WSN to avoid unnecessary energy consumption caused by the redundant nodes. During the network operation, the wake-up scheme awakens sleeping sensor nodes to recover coverage hole caused by dead nodes. The performance evaluation of the proposed CoCMA was conducted on a cluster-based WSN (CWSN) under either a random or a uniform deployment of sensor nodes. Simulation results show that the performance yielded by the combination of MA and wake-up scheme is better than that in some existing approaches. Furthermore, CoCMA is able to activate fewer sensor nodes to monitor the required sensing area.
wireless sensor network; sensing coverage; energy efficiency; memetic algorithm
Patients with severe critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to long tibial artery occlusions are often poor candidates for surgical revascularization and frequently end up with a lower limb amputation. Subintimal angioplasty (SA) offers a minimally invasive alternative for limb salvage in this severely compromised patient population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of SA in patients with CLI caused by long tibial occlusions who have no surgical options for revascularization and are facing amputation. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive patients with CLI due to long tibial occlusions who were scheduled for amputation because they had no surgical options for revascularization and who were treated by SA. A total of 26 procedures in 25 patients (14 males; mean age, 70 ± 15 [SD] years) were evaluated. Technical success rate was 88% (23/26). There were four complications, which were treated conservatively. Finally, in 10 of 26 limbs, no amputation was needed. A major amputation was needed in 10 limbs (7 below-knee amputations and 3 above-knee amputations). Half of the major amputations took place within 3 months after the procedure. Cumulative freedom of major amputation after 12 months was 59% (SE = 11%). In six limbs, amputation was limited to a minor amputation. Seven patients (28%) died during follow-up. In conclusion, SA of the tibial arteries seem to be a valuable treatment option to prevent major amputation in patients with CLI who are facing amputation due to lack of surgical options.
Subintimal angioplasty; Tibial arteries; Critical limb ischemia
Reliable drug concentration measurements at the target site are increasingly demanded and can be achieved by microdialysis. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the proof of principle of long-term subcutaneous microdialysis in humans. For long-term microdialysis, a special setting implementing both concentric and linear catheters has been developed ensuring good clinical practice compliance, tolerability, and convenience for participants and personnel. As a model compound, moderately lipophilic voriconazole was selected as a well-characterized drug in in vitro microdialysis experiments. Multiple in vivo relative recovery (RR) determinations for microdialysis were performed by retrodialysis during the entire study (n = 48 samples). Continuous microdialysis was successfully applied and well tolerated over 87 h in three adults for the first time. RR revealed low intra-individual (coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.4–12.5%) and inter-individual variability (CV = 4.3–12.5%) across all samples and catheters. Lower RR values were consistently determined for linear catheters. One catheter leakage was managed without an impact on the reliability of the RR values. Overall, RR values were calculated to be 73.3% (linear: CV = 18.5%, n = 23) and 84.9% (concentric: CV = 5.6%, n = 23). Long-term microdialysis application over almost 4 days was feasible by reliable multiple RR (proof of principle), well tolerated, and reduced the burden in humans avoiding several catheter insertions, thereby allowing to monitor concentration–time courses continuously. Moreover, a moderately lipophilic drug has been proven suitable for in vivo microdialysis, as previously suggested by in vitro microdialysis.
concentric/linear microdialysis catheter; long-term microdialysis; proof of principle; relative recovery; retrodialysis
Background and purpose
Bone healing is a complex process influenced by growth factors, cytokines, and other mediators. The regulation of this process is not well understood. In this pilot study, we used microdialysis technology in a critical-size bone defect in rat femurs to determine the feasibility of measuring cytokines and growth factors in the first 24 h after injury.
A 5-mm defect, stabilized by a plate, was created in the femurs of 30 male Wistar rats. The microdialysis probe (with 100 kDa molecular weight cutoff) was inserted into the defect and microdialysates were collected continuously for up to 24 h. Total protein concentration, interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) concentration were assessed under different conditions.
Microdialysis allowed continuous and consistent protein collection over 24 h from a critical-size bone defect starting at the time of injury. IL-6 was secreted within the first 3 h after the injury. The highest IL-6 concentration (344 pg/mL) was measured between 12 and 15 h after surgery. Addition of bovine serum albumin to the perfusate resulted in detectable concentrations of TGF-β1 ranging from 10 to 23 pg/mL.
Continuous sampling over 24 h of proteins from a bone defect directly after the injury is feasible and provides the opportunity for a detailed analysis of the initial stages of bone healing.
Diabetes mellitus with peripheral sensory neuropathy frequently results in forefoot ulceration. Ulceration at the first ray level tends to be recalcitrant to local wound care modalities and off-loading techniques. If healing does occur, ulcer recurrence is common. When infection develops, partial first ray amputation in an effort to preserve maximum foot length is often performed. However, the survivorship of partial first ray amputations in this patient population and associated re-amputation rate remain unknown. Therefore, in an effort to determine the actual re-amputation rate following any form of partial first ray amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy, the authors conducted a systematic review. Only studies involving any form of partial first ray amputation associated with diabetes mellitus and peripheral sensory neuropathy but without critical limb ischemia were included. Our search yielded a total of 24 references with 5 (20.8%) meeting our inclusion criteria involving 435 partial first ray amputations. The weighted mean age of patients was 59 years and the weighted mean follow-up was 26 months. The initial amputation level included the proximal phalanx base 167 (38.4%) times; first metatarsal head resection 96 (22.1%) times; first metatarsal-phalangeal joint disarticulation 53 (12.2%) times; first metatarsal mid-shaft 39 (9%) times; hallux fillet flap 32 (7.4%) times; first metatarsal base 29 (6.7%) times; and partial hallux 19 (4.4%) times. The incidence of re-amputation was 19.8% (86/435). The end stage, most proximal level, following re-amputation was an additional digit 32 (37.2%) times; transmetatarsal 28 (32.6%) times; below-knee 25 (29.1%) times; and LisFranc 1 (1.2%) time. The results of our systematic review reveal that one out of every five patients undergoing any version of a partial first ray amputation will eventually require more proximal re-amputation. These results reveal that partial first ray amputation for patients with diabetes and peripheral sensory neuropathy may not represent a durable, functional, or predictable foot-sparing amputation and that a more proximal amputation, such as a balanced transmetatarsal amputation, as the index amputation may be more beneficial to the patient. However, this remains a matter for conjecture due to the limited data available and, therefore, additional prospective investigations are warranted.
diabetic foot; hallux; ulceration; osteomyelitis; metatarsal; resection
Microdialysis sampling of lipophilic molecules in human tissues is challenging because protein binding and adhesion to the membrane limit recovery. Hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD) forms complexes with hydrophobic molecules thereby improving microdialysis recovery of lipophilic molecules in vitro and in rodents. We tested the approach in human subjects. First, we determined HP-ß-CD influences on metabolite stability, delivery, and recovery in vitro. Then, we evaluated HP-ß-CD as microdialysis perfusion fluid supplement in 20 healthy volunteers. We placed 20 kDa microdialysis catheters in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and in the vastus lateralis muscle. We perfused catheters with lactate free Ringer solution with or without 10% HP-ß-CD at flow rates of 0.3–2.0 µl/min. We assessed tissue metabolites, ultrafiltration effects, and blood flow. In both tissues, metabolite concentrations with Ringer+HP-ß-CD perfusate were equal or higher compared to Ringer alone. Addition of HP-ß-CD increased dialysate volume by 10%. Adverse local or systemic reactions to HP-ß-CD did not occur and analytical methods were not disturbed. HP-ß-CD addition allowed to measure interstitial anandamide concentrations, a highly lipophilic endogenous molecule. Our findings suggest that HP-ß-CD is a suitable supplement in clinical microdialysis to enhance recovery of lipophilic molecules from human interstitial fluid.
Iliac artery atherosclerotic disease may cause intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. It can lead to serious complications such as infection, amputation and even death. Revascularization relieves symptoms and prevents these complications. Historically, open surgical repair, in the form of endarterectomy or bypass, was used. Over the last decade, endovascular repair has become the first choice of treatment for iliac arterial occlusive disease. No definitive consensus has emerged about the best endovascular strategy and which type of stent, if any, to use. However, in more advanced disease, that is, long or multiple stenoses or occlusions, literature is most supportive of primary stenting with a balloon-expandable stent in the common iliac artery (Jongkind V et al., J Vasc Surg 52:1376-1383,2010). Recently, a PTFE-covered balloon-expandable stent (Advanta V12, Atrium Medical Inc., Hudson, NH, USA) has been introduced for the iliac artery. Covering stents with PTFE has been shown to lead to less neo-intimal hyperplasia and this might lower restenosis rates (Dolmatch B et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 18:527-534,2007, Marin ML et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 7:651-656,1996, Virmani R et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 10:445-456,1999). However, only one RCT, of mediocre quality has been published on this stent in the common iliac artery (Mwipatayi BP et al. J Vasc Surg 54:1561-1570,2011, Bekken JA et al. J Vasc Surg 55:1545-1546,2012). Our hypothesis is that covered balloon-expandable stents lead to better results when compared to uncovered balloon-expandable stents.
This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center trial. The study population consists of human volunteers aged over 18 years, with symptomatic advanced atherosclerotic disease of the common iliac artery, defined as stenoses longer than 3 cm and occlusions. A total of 174 patients will be included.
The control group will undergo endovascular dilatation or revascularization of the common iliac artery, followed by placement of one or more uncovered balloon-expandable stents. The study group will undergo the same treatment, however one or more PTFE-covered balloon-expandable stents will be placed. When necessary, the aorta, external iliac artery, common femoral artery, superficial femoral artery and deep femoral artery will be treated, using the standard treatment.
The primary endpoint is absence of binary restenosis rate. Secondary endpoints are reocclusion rate, target-lesion revascularization rate, clinical success, procedural success, hemodynamic success, major amputation rate, complication rate and mortality rate. Main study parameters are age, gender, relevant co-morbidity, and several patient, disease and procedure-related parameters.
Dutch Trial Register, NTR3381.
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease; Atherosclerotic disease; Common Iliac Artery; Intermittent Claudication; Critical Limb Ischemia; Endovascular; Stenting; Covered stent