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1.  Intensive medicine – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 14 
In intensive care patients parenteral nutrition (PN) should not be carried out when adequate oral or enteral nutrition is possible. Critically ill patients without symptoms of malnutrition, who probably cannot be adequately nourished enterally for a period of <5 days, do not require full PN but should be given at least a basal supply of glucose. Critically ill patients should be nourished parenterally from the beginning of intensive care if they are unlikely to be adequately nourished orally or enterally even after 5–7 days. Critically ill and malnourished patients should, in addition to a possible partial enteral nutrition, be nourished parenterally. Energy supply should not be constant, but should be adapted to the stage, the disease has reached. Hyperalimentation should be avoided at an acute stage of disease in any case. Critically ill patients should be given, as PN, a mixture consisting of amino acids (between 0.8 and 1.5 g/kg/day), carbohydrates (around 60% of the non-protein energy) and fat (around 40% of the non-protein energy) as well as electrolytes and micronutrients.
doi:10.3205/000073
PMCID: PMC2795375  PMID: 20049075
substrate supply; critically ill; sepsis; intensive care
2.  Alcoholic Liver Disease and Malnutrition 
Malnutrition, both protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and deficiencies in individual nutrients, is a frequent complication of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Severity of malnutrition correlates with severity of ALD. Malnutrition also occurs in patients with cirrhosis due to etiologies other than alcohol. The mechanisms for malnutrition are multifactorial, and malnutrition frequently worsens in the hospital due to fasting for procedures and metabolic complications of liver disease, such as hepatic encephalopathy. Aggressive nutritional support is indicated in inpatients with ALD, and patients often need to be fed through an enteral feeding tube to achieve protein and calorie goals. Enteral nutritional support clearly improves nutrition status and may improve clinical outcome. Moreover, late-night snacks in outpatient cirrhotics improve nutritional status and lean body mass. Thus, with no FDA-approved therapy for ALD, careful nutritional intervention should be considered as frontline therapy.
doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01405.x
PMCID: PMC3771636  PMID: 21284673
Malnutrition; Alcohol; Liver; Micronutrients; Encephalopathy
3.  Evaluation of parenteral nutritional support in the surgical and medical wards of a referral teaching hospital 
Background and purpose
Malnutrition is a common problem in patients who are hospitalized in surgical and medical wards. Surgical patients, geriatric populations and individuals with severe illness are more vulnerable to malnutrition during their hospitalization course.
The purpose of this study was evaluation of parenteral nutrition services in a referral teaching hospital, Tehran, Iran.
Method
Medical records of 72 patients who received parenteral nutrition during one year period in different surgical and medical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were reviewed retrospectively by clinical pharmacists. Criteria for initiation of parenteral nutrition, selection of appropriate formulation and monitoring parameters were assessed based on the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommendations.
Results
Based on the patients' anthropometric parameters and serum albumin levels, 4.2%, 75% and 20.8% of the patients were well-nourished, moderately malnourished and severely malnourished respectively at the hospital admission and before nutritional support. Adequate calorie, protein, carbohydrate and lipid supports were achieved in 21.1%, 32.4%, 23.7% and 10.5% of the patients respectively. About 91% of the patients experienced at least one complication of the nutritional support.
Conclusion
In this evaluation, several errors in assessment, establishing goals, and monitoring of parenteral nutrition regimens have been detected. Approximately all of the patients did not receive to the trace elements supports goals.
doi:10.1186/2008-2231-20-60
PMCID: PMC3575240  PMID: 23351175
Parenteral nutrition; Errors; Medical and surgical wards
4.  Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in the Perioperative Period: State of the Art 
Nutrients  2013;5(2):608-623.
Nutritional support of surgical and critically ill patients has undergone significant advances since 1936 when Studley demonstrated a direct relationship between pre-operative weight loss and operative mortality. The advent of total parenteral nutrition followed by the extraordinary progress in parenteral and enteral feedings, in addition to the increased knowledge of cellular biology and biochemistry, have allowed clinicians to treat malnutrition and improve surgical patient’s outcomes. We reviewed the literature for the current status of perioperative nutrition comparing parenteral nutrition with enteral nutrition. In a surgical patient with established malnutrition, nutritional support should begin at least 7–10 days prior to surgery. Those patients in whom eating is not anticipated beyond the first five days following surgery should receive the benefits of early enteral or parenteral feeding depending on whether the gut can be used. Compared to parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition is associated with fewer complications, a decrease in the length of hospital stay, and a favorable cost-benefit analysis. In addition, many patients may benefit from newer enteral formulations such as Immunonutrition as well as disease-specific formulations.
doi:10.3390/nu5020608
PMCID: PMC3635216  PMID: 23429491
total parenteral nutrition; enteral nutrition; perioperative; immunonutrition
5.  Surgery and transplantation – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 18 
In surgery, indications for artificial nutrition comprise prevention and treatment of catabolism and malnutrition. Thus in general, food intake should not be interrupted postoperatively and the re-establishing of oral (e.g. after anastomosis of the colon and rectum, kidney transplantation) or enteral food intake (e.g. after an anastomosis in the upper gastrointestinal tract, liver transplantation) is recommended within 24 h post surgery. To avoid increased mortality an indication for an immediate postoperatively artificial nutrition (enteral or parenteral nutrition (PN)) also exists in patients with no signs of malnutrition, but who will not receive oral food intake for more than 7 days perioperatively or whose oral food intake does not meet their needs (e.g. less than 60–80%) for more than 14 days. In cases of absolute contraindication for enteral nutrition, there is an indication for total PN (TPN) such as in chronic intestinal obstruction with a relevant passage obstruction e.g. a peritoneal carcinoma. If energy and nutrient requirements cannot be met by oral and enteral intake alone, a combination of enteral and parenteral nutrition is indicated. Delaying surgery for a systematic nutrition therapy (enteral and parenteral) is only indicated if severe malnutrition is present. Preoperative nutrition therapy should preferably be conducted prior to hospital admission to lower the risk of nosocomial infections. The recommendations of early postoperative re-establishing oral feeding, generally apply also to paediatric patients. Standardised operative procedures should be established in order to guarantee an effective nutrition therapy.
doi:10.3205/000069
PMCID: PMC2795372  PMID: 20049072
surgery; transplantation; fast track surgery; postoperative nutrition
6.  Enteral nutrition and the critically ill. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1996;72(849):395-402.
Critically ill patients invariably require nutritional intervention. Traditionally, enteral nutrition has not been widely employed in this patient population. This is due in part to the success of present-day parenteral nutrition, and to difficulties encountered with enteral feeding. Recent evidence has demonstrated that enteral is preferable to parenteral nutrition in terms of cost, complications, gut mucosal maintenance, and metabolic and immune function. Enterally administered nutritional support can and should be utilised as the preferred route of nourishment for the critically ill. The appropriate choice of access and formula, as well as a rational strategy for implementation, should improve the likelihood of success. This article describes the unique features of critical illness as they pertain to nutritional support, the benefits of enteral nutrition, and the obstacles to success, and offers suggestions which may improve the ability to provide nutrients adequately via the intestinal tract.
PMCID: PMC2398520  PMID: 8935598
7.  New perspective for nutritional support of cancer patients: Enteral/parenteral nutrition 
Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Nutritional support has been widely advocated as adjunctive therapy for a variety of underlying illnesses, including surgery and medical oncotherapy (radiation or chemotherapy for cancer). Glutamine, n-3 fatty acids and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer treatments. Enteral and parenteral nutrition may help improve patient survival, functional status and QoL, yet the benefits appear to be primarily limited to patients with good functional status and with gastrointestinal disease affecting nutritional intake. Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increased or maintenance of the nutrient intake in patients for whom normal food intake is inadequate and for whom enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. This article reviews evidence on issues relevant to enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with cancer.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.247
PMCID: PMC3440777  PMID: 22977559
cancer; cachexia; enteral/parenteral nutrition; n-3 fatty acids; glutamine; prebiotic-probiotic oligosaccharides
8.  Nutritional Status and Nutritional Support Before and After Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Cancer and Chronic Pancreatitis 
Cachexia, malnutrition, significant weight loss, and reduction in food intake due to anorexia represent the most important pathophysiological consequences of pancreatic cancer. Pathophysiological consequences result also from pancreatectomy, the type and severity of which differ significantly and depend on the type of the operation performed. Nutritional intervention, either parenteral or enteral, needs to be seen as a method of support in pancreatic cancer patients aiming at the maintenance of the nutritional and functional status and the prevention or attenuation of cachexia. Oral nutrition could reduce complications while restoring quality of life. Enteral nutrition in the post-operative period could also reduce infective complications. The evidence for immune-enhanced feed in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer is supported by the available clinical data. Nutritional support during the post-operative period on a cyclical basis is preferred because it is associated with low incidence of gastric stasis. Postoperative total parenteral nutrition is indicated only to those patients who are unable to be fed orally or enterally. Thus nutritional deficiency is a relatively widesoread and constant finding suggesting that we must optimise the nutritional status both before and after surgery.
doi:10.1007/s13193-012-0189-4
PMCID: PMC3521551  PMID: 24293974
Chronic pancreatitis; Nutritional status; Nutritional support; Pancreatic cancer; Pancreatectomy
9.  Ethical and legal points of view in parenteral nutrition – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 12 
Adequate nutrition is a part of medical treatment and is influenced by ethical and legal considerations. Patients, who cannot be sufficiently fed via the gastrointestinal tract, have the fundamental right to receive PN (parenteral nutrition) even so patients who are unable to give their consent. General objectives in nutrition support are to supply adequate nutrition with regards to the prevention of malnutrition and its consequences (increased morbidity and mortality), and thereby promoting improved outcome and/or quality of life for the patient considering always the patient’s needs and wishes. The requests of the patient to renounce PN should be respected where a signed living will is helpful. During the course of a terminal illness the nutrition has to be adapted individually according to the needs and wishes of a patient in the corresponding phase. Capability of consent should be checked in each individual case and for each measure on an individual basis. Consent should only be accepted if the patient is capable of recognizing the nature, meaning and importance of the intervention as well as the consequences of relinquishment of such an intervention, and is capable to make a self-determined decision. If the patient is not capable of consenting, the patient’s living will is the most important document when determining their assumed will and legally binding. Otherwise a guardian appointed by the patient, or the representative appointed by the court (if the patient has made no provisions) can make the decision.
doi:10.3205/000075
PMCID: PMC2795379  PMID: 20049079
10.  Malnutrition in the Critically Ill Child: The Importance of Enteral Nutrition 
Malnutrition affects 50% of hospitalized children and 25–70% of the critically ill children. It increases the incidence of complications and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with an altered metabolism of certain substrates, increased metabolism and catabolism depending on the severity of the lesion, and reduced nutrient delivery. The objective should be to administer individualized nutrition to the critically ill child and to be able to adjust the nutrition continuously according to the metabolic changes and evolving nutritional status. It would appear reasonable to start enteral nutrition within the first 24 to 48 hours after admission, when oral feeding is not possible. Parenteral nutrition should only be used when enteral nutrition is contraindicated or is not tolerated. Energy delivery must be individually adjusted to energy expenditure (40–65 kcal/100 calories metabolized/day) with a protein delivery of 2.5–3 g/kg/day. Frequent monitoring of nutritional and metabolic parameters should be performed.
doi:10.3390/ijerph8114353
PMCID: PMC3228575  PMID: 22163211
nutrition; malnutrition; enteral nutrition; parenteral nutrition; critically ill children
11.  Management of Hyperglycemia During Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Therapy 
Current diabetes reports  2013;13(1):155-162.
Hyperglycemia is a frequent complication of enteral and parenteral nutrition in hospitalized patients. Extensive evidence from observational studies indicates that the development of hyperglycemia during parenteral and enteral nutrition is associated with an increased risk of death and infectious complications. There are no specific guidelines recommending glycemic targets and effective strategies for the management of hyperglycemia during specialized nutritional support. Managing hyperglycemia in these patients should include optimization of carbohydrate content and administration of intravenous or subcutaneous insulin therapy. The administration of continuous insulin infusion and insulin addition to nutrition bag are efficient approaches to control hyperglycemia during parenteral nutrition. Subcutaneous administration of long-acting insulin with scheduled or corrective doses of short-acting insulin is superior to the sliding scale insulin strategy in patients receiving enteral feedings. Randomized controlled studies are needed to evaluate safe and effective therapeutic strategies for the management of hyperglycemia in patients receiving nutritional support.
doi:10.1007/s11892-012-0335-y
PMCID: PMC3746491  PMID: 23065369
Nutrition support; Insulin; Diabetes mellitus; Parenteral nutrition; Enteral nutrition; Hyperglycemia
12.  Malnutrition in Patients with Acute Stroke 
Stroke is a devastating event that carries a potential for long-term disability. Malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with stroke, and dysphagia contributes to malnutrition risk. During both the acute phase of stroke and rehabilitation, specific nutritional interventions in the context of a multidisciplinary team effort can enhance the recovery of neurocognitive function. Early identification and management of malnutrition with dietary modifications or specific therapeutic strategies to ensure adequate nutritional intake should receive more attention, since poor nutritional status appears to exacerbate brain damage and to contribute to adverse outcome. The main purpose of nutritional intervention should be the prevention or treatment of complications resulting from energy-protein deficit. This paper reviews the evaluation and management of malnutrition and the use of specialized nutrition support in patients with stroke. Emphasis is given to enteral tube and oral feeding and to strategies to wean from tube feeding.
doi:10.1155/2011/167898
PMCID: PMC3255318  PMID: 22254136
13.  Gastroenterology – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 15 
In patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated when enteral nutrition is not possible or should be avoided for medical reasons. In Crohn's patients PN is indicated when there are signs/symptoms of ileus or subileus in the small intestine, scars or intestinal fistulae. PN requires no specific compounding for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. In both diseases it should be composed of 55–60% carbohydrates, 25–30% lipids and 10–15% amino acids. PN helps in the correction of malnutrition, particularly the intake of energy, minerals, trace elements, deficiency of calcium, vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin B12, and zinc. Enteral nutrition is clearly superior to PN in severe, acute pancreatitis. An intolerance to enteral nutrition results in an indication for total PN in complications such as pseudocysts, intestinal and pancreatic fistulae, and pancreatic abscesses or pancreatic ascites. If enteral nutrition is not possible, PN is recommended, at the earliest, 5 days after admission to the hospital. TPN should not be routinely administered in mild acute pancreatitis or nil by moth status <7 days, due to high costs and an increased risk of infection. The energy requirements are between 25 and 35 kcal/kg body weight/day. A standard solution including lipids (monitoring triglyceride levels!) can be administered in acute pancreatitis. Glucose (max. 4–5 g/kg body weight/day) and amino acids (about 1.2–1.5 g/kg body weight/day) should be administered and the additional enrichment of TPN with glutamine should be considered in severe, progressive forms of pancreatitis.
doi:10.3205/000072
PMCID: PMC2795377  PMID: 20049077
inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn's disease; ulcerative colitis; pancreatitis
14.  Complications and Monitoring – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 11 
Compared to enteral or hypocaloric oral nutrition, the use of PN (parenteral nutrition) is not associated with increased mortality, overall frequency of complications, or longer length of hospital stay (LOS). The risk of PN complications (e.g. refeeding-syndrome, hyperglycaemia, bone demineralisation, catheter infections) can be minimised by carefully monitoring patients and the use of nutrition support teams particularly during long-term PN. Occuring complications are e.g. the refeeding-syndrome in patients suffering from severe malnutrition with the initiation of refeeding or metabolic, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycaemia, osteomalacia and osteoporosis, and hepatic complications including fatty liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholestasis, cholecystitis, and cholelithiasis. Efficient monitoring in all types of PN can result in reduced PN-associated complications and reduced costs. Water and electrolyte balance, blood sugar, and cardiovascular function should regularly be monitored during PN. Regular checks of serum electrolytes and triglycerides as well as additional monitoring measures are necessary in patients with altered renal function, electrolyte-free substrate intake, lipid infusions, and in intensive care patients. The metabolic monitoring of patients under long-term PN should be carried out according to standardised procedures. Monitoring metabolic determinants of bone metabolism is particularly important in patients receiving long-term PN. Markers of intermediary, electrolyte and trace element metabolism require regular checks.
doi:10.3205/000076
PMCID: PMC2795374  PMID: 20049074
refeeding syndrome; hyperglycaemia; hypertriglyceridemia; liver disease; catheter infection
15.  Continuous reinfusion of succus entericus associated with fistuloclysis in the management of a complex jejunal fistula on the abdominal wall 
INTRODUCTION
Fistuloclysis is an alternative method for enteral nutrition infusion, and has been successfully employed for the management of patients with high output small bowel fistula. However it has some deficiencies also.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 42-year-old woman with multiple high output enterocutaneous fistula was submitted to fistuloclysis with reinfusion of chyme, after a period of several complications due to parenteral nutrition.
DISCUSSION
Enteral nutrition provide better nutrition and fewer complications than parenteral nutrition. The enterocutaneous fistula usually does not allow enteral nutrition, however the use of fystuloclysis can fix this issue. The reinfusion of chyme provide the possibility of oral intake and better control of hydroeletrolitics disorders.
CONCLUSION
More studies on the physiological effects of the chyme recirculation could add more data contributing to the clarification of this complex issue, but we believe that patients with high output and very proximal enterocutaneous fistula can be sucessfully treated with fistuloclysis and recirculation of chyme.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.04.041
PMCID: PMC3710889  PMID: 23810921
Enterocutaneous fistulae; Fistuloclysis; Enteral nutrition
16.  Enteral Nutrition for Feeding Severely Underfed Patients with Anorexia Nervosa 
Nutrients  2012;4(9):1293-1303.
Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water) and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium). In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2) to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI) of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2. The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2 to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2 and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p < 0.0001). Caloric intake levels were established after measuring resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and nutritional support was performed with enteral feeding. Vitamins, phosphate, and potassium supplements were administered during refeeding. All patients achieved a significant modification of BMI; none developed refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding.
doi:10.3390/nu4091293
PMCID: PMC3475239  PMID: 23112917
feeding regimens; extreme undernutriton; refeeding syndrome; enteral feeding; anorexia nervosa; hypophosphoremia
17.  Relationship of Delayed Parenteral Nutrition Protocol with the Clinical Outcomes in a Medical Intensive Care Unit 
Clinical Nutrition Research  2014;3(1):33-38.
Although parenteral nutrition (PN) is an important treatment for patients who are unable to tolerate enteral nutrition (EN), recent international guidelines recommended that PN should be reserved and initiated only after 7 days in well-nourished patients. This retrospective study was conducted to analyze the effect on clinical outcomes of a PN protocol with PN starting 4 days after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Eighty-one patients who were admitted from January to March of 2012 were included in the pre-protocol group, and 74 patients who were admitted from April to June of 2012 were included in the post-protocol group. There were no significant differences between the two groups when the age, gender, and admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were compared. Significantly fewer patients in the post-protocol group were provided PN (58.1% vs. 81.3%, p = 0.002), which was initiated significantly later than in the pre-protocol group (2.7 ± 2.2 days vs. 1.9 ± 2.0 days, p = 0.046). Five patients (6.2%) in the pre-protocol group acquired central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI) in the ICU, yet none of the patients in the post-protocol group developed CLA-BSI (p = 0.03). The duration of antibiotic therapy and ICU stay were significantly shorter in the post-protocol group than in the pre-protocol group. By delaying initiation of PN, short-term clinical outcomes including incidence of CLA-BSI, antibiotic use, and ICU stay might be improved. Further research should be conducted to investigate the long-term effects of the decreased nutrient intake resulting from delayed PN.
doi:10.7762/cnr.2014.3.1.33
PMCID: PMC3921293  PMID: 24527418
Parenteral nutrition; Total; Catheter-related infection; Intensive care units
18.  Parenteral nutrition compared with transpyloric feeding. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1984;59(2):131-135.
Fifty nine infants of birthweight less than 1500 g were allocated alternately to initial total parenteral nutrition or to transpyloric feeding. Mortality was similar between the two groups. Ten of the 29 infants in the transpyloric group failed to establish full enteral nutrition during the first week of life. No beneficial effects on growth were shown in infants receiving parenteral nutrition. Acquired bacterial infection was higher in the parenteral group and associated with morbidity and mortality. Conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia occurred only in the parenterally fed infants. The incidence of necrotising enterocolitis was higher in the transpyloric group. Parenteral nutrition does not confer any appreciable benefit and because of greater complexity and higher risk of complications should be reserved for those infants in whom enteral feeding is impossible.
PMCID: PMC1628442  PMID: 6422864
19.  Prescribing practice and evaluation of appropriateness of enteral nutrition in a university teaching hospital 
Background
A retrospective utilization study was performed to evaluate utilization patterns for enteral nutrition in a university teaching hospital.
Methods
Enteral nutrition was divided into three types according to the nitrogen source, ie, total protein type [Nutrison Fibre®, Fresubin Energy Fibre®, Fresubin®, Supportan® (a special immunonutrition for cancer patients or patients with increased demands for omega-3 fatty acids), Fresubin Diabetes® (a diabetes-specific formula), Ensure®]; short peptide type (Peptison®); and amino acid type (Vivonex®). A pharmacoeconomic analysis was done based on defined daily dose methodology.
Results
Among hospitalized patients taking enteral nutrition, 34.8% received enteral nutrition alone, 30% concomitantly received parenteral nutrition, and 35.2% received enteral nutrition after parenteral nutrition. Combined use of the different formulas was observed in almost all hospitalized patients receiving enteral nutrition. In total, 61.5% of patients received triple therapy with Nutrison Fibre, Fresubin Diabetes, and Supportan. Number of defined daily doses (total dose consumed/defined daily dose, also called DDDs) of formulas in descending order were as follows: Nutrison Fibre, Fresubin Energy Fibre, Fresubin Diabetes > Supportan > Peptison, Ensure > Vivonex, Fresubin. The ratio of the cumulative DDDs for the three types of enteral nutrition was 35:2.8:1 (total protein type to short peptide type to amino acid type). Off-label use of Fresubin Diabetes was also observed, with most of this formula being prescribed for patients with stress hyperglycemia. Only 2.1% of cancer patients received Supportan. There were 35 cases of near misses in dispensing look-alike or sound-alike enteral nutrition formulas, and one adverse drug reaction in an elderly malnourished patient who did not receive vitamin K1-enriched enteral nutrition during treatment with cefoperazone. After 4 months of the trial intervention, off-label use of Fresubin Diabetes was no longer endorsed by the Drug and Therapeutics Committee for nondiabetic patients, and the proportion of this formula prescribed for patients with stress hyperglycemia decreased by 20%, with a 10-fold increase in the amount of Supportan prescribed for cancer patients. Near misses in dispensing look-alike or sound-alike enteral nutrition were successfully abolished, and no severe coagulation disorders occurred after prophylactic administration of vitamin K1-enriched enteral nutrition in elderly malnourished patients receiving cefoperazone.
Conclusion
This utilization study indicates that continuous quality improvement is necessary and that a Drug and Therapeutics Committee can play an important role in promoting rational and safe use of enteral nutrition. Appropriateness of this therapy still needs to be improved, especially in addressing the issues of non-evidence-based combined use of multiple enteral nutrition formulas, the relatively high rate of concomitant use of enteral and parenteral nutrition, off-label use of diabetes-specific Fresubin Diabetes, insufficient use of Supportan in cancer patients, and unnecessary use of Supportan in intensive care patients not suffering from cancer.
doi:10.2147/TCRM.S41022
PMCID: PMC3569378  PMID: 23404197
enteral nutrition; drug utilization; indications; parenteral nutrition; pharmacoeconomics; rational drug use
20.  Perioperative Immunonutrition in Surgical Cancer Patients: A Summary of a Decade of Research 
World Journal of Surgery  2013;38:803-812.
Background
Immunonutrition is assumed to enhance immune system function. In surgical patients, it is supposed to reduce postoperative complications. However, results of recent clinical trials have been puzzling and have not supported this theory.
Aim
The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of enteral and parenteral postoperative immunonutrition.
Methods
After initial evaluation of 969 patients, the intent-to-treat analysis included 776 patients (female 407, male 466, mean age 61.1 years) undergoing gastric or pancreatic resections between 2001 and 2009. All patients were randomly assigned after surgery to one of the following groups: standard enteral nutrition (SEN), immunomodulating enteral nutrition (IMEN), standard parenteral nutrition (SPN), or immunomodulating parenteral nutrition (IMPN). All malnourished patients received preoperative parenteral nutrition. Number and type of postoperative complications, length of hospitalization (length of stay [LOS]), and vital organ function were assessed.
Results
No statistically significant differences were observed in well-nourished patients, during either enteral or parenteral intervention, independent of the type of intervention (standard or immunomodulating). However, analysis of the malnourished group revealed the positive impact of enteral immunonutrition on reduction of postoperative complications (28.3 vs. 39.2 %, respectively; p = 0.043) and LOS (17.1 and 13.1 days, respectively; p < 0.05) compared with a standard enteral diet. The cross-analysis of SEN, IMEN, SPN, and IMPN was insignificant.
Conclusions
The type of postoperative nutrition was of no importance in well-nourished patients. However, in malnourished patients, enteral immunonutrition helped to improve treatment outcome. These findings suggest its use as a method of choice during the postoperative period.
doi:10.1007/s00268-013-2323-z
PMCID: PMC3956976  PMID: 24178185
21.  Effect of intravenous GLutamine supplementation IN Trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition study protocol (GLINT Study): a prospective, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial 
BMJ Open  2011;1(2):e000334.
Background
Trauma patients are characterised by alterations in the immune system, increased exposure to infectious complications, sepsis and potentially organ failure and death. Glutamine supplementation to parenteral nutrition has been proven to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, glutamine supplementation in patients receiving enteral nutrition and its best route are still controversial. Previous trials have been limited by a small sample size, use of surrogate outcomes or a limited period of supplementation. The aim of this trial is to investigate if intravenous glutamine supplementation to trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition is associated with improved clinical outcomes in terms of decreased organ dysfunction, infectious complications and other secondary outcomes.
Methods/design
Eighty-eight critically ill patients with multiple trauma receiving enteral nutrition will be recruited in this prospective, triple-blind, block-randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive either 0.5 g/kg/day intravenous undiluted alanyl-glutamine or intravenous placebo by continuous infusion (24 h/day). Both groups will be receiving the same standard enteral nutrition protocol and the same standard intensive care unit care. Supplementation will continue until discharge from the intensive care unit, death or a maximum duration of 3 weeks. The primary outcome will be organ-dysfunction evaluation assessed by the pattern of change in sequential organ failure assessment score over a 10-day period. The secondary outcomes are: the changes in total sequential organ failure assessment score on the last day of treatment, infectious complications during the ICU stay, 60-day mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit and body-composition analysis.
Discussion
This study is the first trial to investigate the effect of intravenous alanyl-glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition on reducing severity of organ failure and infectious complications and preservation of lean body mass.
Trial registration number
This trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. NCT01240291.
Article summary
Article focus
Glutamine supplementation has demonstrated improved clinical outcomes in patients receiving parenteral nutrition. However, its effect and the best route of administration remain inconclusive for patients receiving enteral nutrition.
Previous trials for patients receiving enteral nutrition had a number of limitations.
Key messages
This proposed research with other worldwide trials will have implications in improving the practice of glutamine supplementation in critically ill patients.
The results of this trial will provide pilot data for a large multicentre trial to investigate the effect of intravenous glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition on infectious complications and mortality.
Strengths and limitations of this study
This is the first trial to investigate the effect of intravenous glutamine supplementation in trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition on organ failure, infectious complications and body composition.
Supplementation is continued as long as the patient is in the intensive care unit or to a maximum duration of 21 days.
This is a single-centre trial, so it is not powered to investigate the effect of intravenous alanyl-glutamine supplementation on mortality.
Data will not be applicable to trauma patients with severe renal failure or hepatic impairment.
The long-term outcomes (eg, 6-month mortality) are not assessed.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000334
PMCID: PMC3221292  PMID: 22102646
22.  Clinical Guideline: Management of Gastroparesis 
This guideline presents recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is identified in clinical practice through the recognition of the clinical symptoms and documentation of delayed gastric emptying. Symptoms from gastroparesis include nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, and upper abdominal pain. Management of gastroparesis should include assessment and correction of nutritional state, relief of symptoms, improvement of gastric emptying and, in diabetics, glycemic control. Patient nutritional state should be managed by oral dietary modifications. If oral intake is not adequate, then enteral nutrition via jejunostomy tube needs to be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely required when hydration and nutritional state cannot be maintained. Medical treatment entails use of prokinetic and antiemetic therapies. Current approved treatment options, including metoclopramide and gastric electrical stimulation (GES, approved on a humanitarian device exemption), do not adequately address clinical need. Antiemetics have not been specifically tested in gastroparesis, but they may relieve nausea and vomiting. Other medications aimed at symptom relief include unapproved medications or off-label indications, and include domperidone, erythromycin (primarily over a short term), and centrally acting antidepressants used as symptom modulators. GES may relieve symptoms, including weekly vomiting frequency, and the need for nutritional supplementation, based on open-label studies. Second-line approaches include venting gastrostomy or feeding jejunostomy; intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection was not effective in randomized controlled trials. Most of these treatments are based on open-label treatment trials and small numbers. Partial gastrectomy and pyloroplasty should be used rarely, only in carefully selected patients. Attention should be given to the development of new effective therapies for symptomatic control.
doi:10.1038/ajg.2012.373
PMCID: PMC3722580  PMID: 23147521
23.  Parenteral Nutrition Additive Shortages: The Short-Term, Long-Term and Potential Epigenetic Implications in Premature and Hospitalized Infants 
Nutrients  2012;4(12):1977-1988.
Nutrition support practitioners are currently dealing with shortages of parenteral nutrition micronutrients, including multivitamins (MVI), selenium and zinc. A recent survey from the American Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (ASPEN) indicates that this shortage is having a profound effect on clinical practice. A majority of respondents reported taking some aggressive measures to ration existing supplies. Most premature infants and many infants with congenital anomalies are dependent on parenteral nutrition for the first weeks of life to meet nutritional needs. Because of fragile health and poor reserves, they are uniquely susceptible to this problem. It should be understood that shortages and rationing have been associated with adverse outcomes, such as lactic acidosis and Wernicke encephalopathy from thiamine deficiency or pulmonary and skeletal development concerns related to inadequate stores of Vitamin A and D. In this review, we will discuss the current parenteral shortages and the possible impact on a population of very low birth weight infants. This review will also present a case study of a neonate who was impacted by these current shortages.
doi:10.3390/nu4121977
PMCID: PMC3546617  PMID: 23223000
TPN; premature infant; nutrient deficiencies; neonate
24.  Total parenteral nutrition: value of a standard feeding regimen. 
In 1978 an unofficial total parenteral nutrition service was established in a regional hospital. For simplicity, safety, and economy patients needing this form of treatment were supplied, whenever possible, with a standard feeding regimen containing 14 g of nitrogen and equicaloric amounts (4.2 MJ) of non-nitrogen calories as fat and glucose. From May 1979 to April 1982 179 patients received 190 courses of total parenteral nutrition, and 134 (70.5%) of these courses were the standard regimen throughout. A positive nitrogen balance was maintained, and complications were mostly minor. One hundred and forty patients left hospital alive. One death was related to the total parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition is an effective method of nourishing selected patients and a simple standard regimen can safely provide the total nutritional requirements for the majority. The value of a nutrition team and close supervision of the feeding is emphasised.
PMCID: PMC1547619  PMID: 6404449
25.  Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes 
Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feeding tubes has evolved due to development of new feeding tubes and endoscopic technology. Enteral feeding can be divided into methods that provide short-term and long-term access to the GIT. This review article focuses on the current range of methods of gaining access to the GIT to provide enteral feed.
doi:10.4253/wjge.v2.i5.155
PMCID: PMC2998910  PMID: 21160743
Enteral feeding; Nutrition; Gastro-intestinal tract; Percutaneous; Jejunostomy; Gastrostomy

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