Cutaneous tuberculosis forms a small subset of extra pulmonary tuberculosis and has a worldwide distribution.
The present study is an attempt to find out the incidence, clinical spectrum, and histopathological features of cutaneous tuberculosis.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 42 cases of newly diagnosed patients of cutaneous tuberculosis attending dermatology out patient department over a period of 1 year were included in the study. A detailed clinical examination and investigations including histopathological examination were carried out.
Scrofuloderma was the most common form seen in 50% cases followed by lupus vulgaris in 42.86%, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in 4.76%, and lichen scrofulosorum in 2.38% cases. The Mantoux test was positive in 83.33% cases. Characteristic tuberculoid granulomas were seen in 72.22% cases of lupus vulgaris, 42.86% cases of scrofuloderma and all cases of tuberculosis verrucosa cutis and lichen scrofulosorum.
Cutaneous tuberculosis is still highly prevalent in upper Assam. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent its complications.
Cutaneous tuberculosis; histopathology; granuloma
Tuberculosis has been a well-known affliction of human kind, since antiquity. Cutaneous tuberculosis constitutes only a small proportion of extra pulmonary tuberculosis and multifocal involvement of cutaneous tuberculosis is an even rarer manifestation. We report one such case of multifocal tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in a 17-year old male patient in the absence of any primary tuberculous focus.
Multifocal; cutaneous; tuberculosis
The aim of this study is to report the control of lymphorrhea in the intensive treatment of elephantiasis, using an Unna boot. The case of a 29-year-old female patient is reported. This young patient evolved with the more serious form of lymphedema, elephantiasis, after surgical treatment of an abdominal neoplasm and radiotherapy. Warty excrescences were present on both legs and genitalia where lymphorrhea was constant. The patient arrived at the Godoy's Clinic for treatment. She was weighed and perimetric evaluations were made at the start of treatment and thereafter every day during an intensive outpatient treatment of eight hours daily for three weeks. Treatment included manual lymph drainage, mechanical lymph drainage using the RA Godoy device, and the continuous use of compression stockings with adjustments made every three hours. An Unna boot was employed as compression at sites of dermal lesions (warty excrescences) with overlapping use of individualized compression stockings that were individually adapted. The Unna boot was renewed every two days during the first week and every 3 days during the second and third weeks. By the end of this course of treatment, most of the warty excrescences had reduced in size or even disappeared and the lymphorrhea was controlled.
Transfer factor was first described in 1955 and constitutes a Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract. It has been widely used in several infectious diseases and malignancies with satisfactory results. Although not yet fully clarified, among the mechanisms of action the most accepted is the enhancement of the cellular immunity.
We tested transfer factor in a 1 year old and 3 months patient diagnosed with Ganglionar Tuberculosis. 1 week after the administrarion of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination, the present developed fever, cervical, submandibular, supraclavicular, inguinal and axillary lymphadenopathy. Later on the patient devoloped cutaneous clinical manifestations of tuberculosis such as scrofuloderma, fistulas, hypertrophic scars and ultimately, queloids. The patient had previously undergone short-term strictly supervised treatment for tuberculosis with very poor results. When the treatment was first administered, the patient had the following data: Total White Blood Count 12.9 Lymphocytes: 29% (12–46) CD3: 26.3% (59–90) T helper Cells (CD3/CD4) 21.6% (42–58) Cytotoxic T cells (CD3/CD8) 5.1% (17–33) Natural Killer Cells (CD56) 2.1% (3–7) B cells (CD19) 67.6 % (0–10).
At the end of the treatment, the patient´s immune system was enhanced in terms of cell count and improval of skin manifestations. Total White Blood Count 6.5 Lymphocytes: 51.3% CD3: 48.5% T helper cells (CD3/CD4) 31.2% Cytotoxic T Cells (CD3/CD8) 14.6% Natural Killer cells (CD56) 12.2% B cells (CD19) 985%. Cicatrization process was improved, with involution of skin lesions os scrofuloderma and fistulas. Lymphadenopathy was no longer encountered. We have followed the patient for a year and half and no relapses have been encountered.
We consider Transfer Factor a valuable option as adyuvant therapy in cases of ganglionar and cutaneous tuberculosis refractory to conventional treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of the disease treated satisfactorily with transfer factor.
Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem. Clinical tuberculosis manifests often as pulmonary and occasionally as extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The emergence of drug resistant tubercle bacilli and its association with HIV is a formidable challenge to curb the spread of tuberculosis. There have been concerted efforts by whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to identify genomic patterns and to establish a relationship between the genotype of the organism and clinical manifestation of tuberculosis. Extra-pulmonary TB constitutes 15–20 percent of the total clinical cases of tuberculosis reported among immunocompetent patients, whereas among HIV patients the incidence is more than 50 percent. Genomic analysis of M. tuberculosis isolates from extra pulmonary patients has not been explored.
The genomic DNA of 5 extra-pulmonary clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis derived from cerebrospinal fluid, lymph node fine needle aspirates (FNAC) / biopsies, were sequenced. Next generation sequencing approach (NGS) was employed to identify Single Nucleotide Variations (SNVs) and computational methods used to predict their consequence on functional genes. Analysis of distribution of SNVs led to the finding that there are mixed genotypes in patient isolates and that many SNVs are likely to influence either gene function or their expression. Phylogenetic relationship between the isolates correlated with the origin of the isolates. In addition, insertion sites of IS elements were identified and their distribution revealed a variation in number and position of the element in the 5 extra-pulmonary isolates compared to the reference M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain.
The results suggest that NGS sequencing is able to identify small variations in genomes of M. tuberculosis isolates including changes in IS element insertion sites. Moreover, variations in isolates of M. tuberculosis from non-pulmonary sites were documented. The analysis of our results indicates genomic heterogeneity in the clinical isolates.
Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis; Next-generation Sequencing; Genetic Heterogeneity; Single Nucleotide Variations; Insertion Elements; Phylogeny; Spoligotyping
Extra pulmonary tuberculosis accounts for less than 15% of all cases of tuberculosis whereas the Intestinal one constitutes less than 1% of the extrapulmonary forms of the disease. The lesions of abdominal organs are more common while they rarely occur in the anoperineal area for the spread of the disease to the anus is extremely rare. We report a case of a 37-year-old male patient with large bilateral infected perianal tubercular ulcerations as well as pulmonary and peritoneal tuberculosis. The treatment was both surgical and medical and the therapy lasted for seven months. After six months from the beginning of the treatment, the lesion had totally disappeared and there is still no recurrence after one year of followup. Tuberculosis should generally be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of the ulcerative lesions of the anal and perianal regions for these lesions do occur in the said areas despite their rarity. The treatment is usually both surgical and medical so as to get excellent results.
The results of sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis must be awaited in most cases, which delays the start of treatment in patients with sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. We investigated whether plasma chitotriosidase activity is a strong marker for early diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients for whom a bacillus smear is negative and tuberculosis culture is positive.
Clinical, radiological, and laboratory features were evaluated in 75 patients, 17 of whom were diagnosed as having active tuberculosis by negative acid-fast bacillus smear and positive culture, 38 as having sequel tuberculosis which was radiologically and microbiologically negative, and 20 who served as healthy controls. Serum chitotriosidase activity levels were measured in both cases and controls.
The mean age of the cases with active pulmonary tuberculosis, cases with sequel lesions, and controls was 23 ± 2.4 years, 22 ± 1.7 years, and 24 ± 2.1 years, respectively. Serum chitotriosidase levels were 68.05 ± 72.61 nmol/hour/mL in smear-negative, culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases (Group A) and 29.73 ± 20.55 nmol/hour/mL in smear-negative, culture-negative sequel pulmonary tuberculosis cases (Group B). Serum chitotriosidase levels from patients in Group A were significantly higher than in Group B and Group C. There was no statistically significant difference in serum chitotriosidase levels between cases with sequel pulmonary tuberculosis (Group B, smear-negative, culture-negative) and healthy controls (Group C).
In patients with active tuberculosis and a negative sputum smear for acid-fast bacillus, plasma chitotriosidase activity seems to be a strong marker for diagnosis of active disease which can be used while awaiting culture results.
pulmonary tuberculosis; serum chitotriosidase; diagnosis; antituberculous treatment; disease activity
Elephantiasis as a result of chronic lymphedema is characterized by gross enlargement of the arms, legs or genitalia, and occurs due to a variety of obstructive diseases of the lymphatic system. Genital elephantiasis usually follows common filariasis and lymphogranuloma venereum. It may follow granuloma inguinale, carcinomas, lymph node dissection or irradiation and tuberculosis but this happens rarely. Vulval elephantiasis as a consequence of extensive lymph node destruction by tuberculosis is very rare. We present two very unusual cases of vulval elephantiasis due to tuberculous destruction of the inguinal lymph nodes.
Two Indian women - one aged 40 years and the other aged 27 years, with progressively increasing vulval swellings over a period of five and four years respectively - presented to our hospital. In both cases, there was a significant history on presentation. Both women had previously taken a complete course of anti-tubercular treatment for generalized lymphadenopathy. The vulval swellings were extremely large: in the first case report, measuring 35 × 25 cm on the right side and 45 × 30 cm on the left side, weighing 20 lb and 16 lb respectively. Both cases were managed by surgical excision with reconstruction and the outcome was positive. Satisfactory results have been maintained during a follow-up period of six years in both cases.
Elephantiasis of the female genitalia is unusual and it has rarely been reported following tuberculosis. We report two cases of vulval elephantiasis as a consequence of extensive lymph node destruction by tuberculosis, in order to highlight this very rare clinical scenario.
Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications.
Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (ENV) is a rare clinical condition associated with chronic non-filarial lymphedema caused by bacterial or non-infectious lymphatic obstruction. A variety of etiologies, including infection, tumor obstruction, trauma, radiation, chronic venous stasis, congestive heart failure, and obesity, can lead to chronic lymphatic obstruction and edema. Mossy papules, plaques, and cobblestone-like nodules are clinically impressive features of ENV, but biopsy reveals only moderately abnormal findings such as pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, dilated lymphatic spaces, fibrous tissue hyperplasia, and chronic inflammation. We present a case of ENV in a 67-year-old man with a 10-year history of multiple nodules and verrucous plaques on both feet. Microbiology ruled out a filarial infection. Nodule biopsy revealed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, marked dermal fibrosis, and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate. No evidence of carcinoma was identified. Both venous stasis and recurrent cellulitis could contribute to the dermal fibrotic changes of the lesions. However, before the recurrent cellulitis, he did not have any nodular lesions on his feet despite a 10-year history of venous disease. Therefore, this case suggests that venous stasis alone cannot produce the fibrotic nodular lesions of ENV.
Cellulitis; Elephantiasis; Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa; Venous stasis
Over the decades, causes of genital elephantiasis have changed only to become elusive to etiological diagnosis. This is a case of 20 year old male who presented with genital elephantiasis occurring due to lymphatic obstruction caused by chromoblastomycosis and super added erysipelas. The diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was clenched by biopsy. We describe this case for the rarity of its occurrence.
Genital elephantiasis; biopsy; chromoblastomycosis
Tuberculosis cutis orificialis (TCO) is a rare manifestation of cutaneous tuberculosis that is caused by auto-inoculation of mycobacteria in patients with advanced internal tuberculosis. TCO occurs in oral, perianal, or genital mucosa and adjacent skin. The tongue is the most frequently affected site, but the perianal area can also be affected. A 39-year-old male presented with a 4-month history of painful ulcers on the perianal area. The histopathologic findings revealed granulomatous infiltrates composed of epithelioid cells and Langhans-type giant cells in the dermis, and a few acid-fast bacilli noted on Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the chest X-ray showed findings consistent with active pulmonary tuberculosis in both upper lung zones. The skin lesion showed complete resolution 2 months after the start of treatment with antituberculosis agents. We report a case of TCO with perianal involvement in a patient with underlying active pulmonary tuberculosis.
Perianal tuberculosis; Tuberculosis cutis orificialis
The age incidence of focal tuberculous lesions of the lungs demonstrates that they have their origin in most instances in childhood. Focal lesions which heal have been found at all ages after the 2nd year of life, but in more than half of all individuals these lesions are acquired between the ages of 10 and 18 years. In the period between 18 and 30 years at least 85 per cent of all individuals have 'acquired focal tuberculous lesions. The occurrence of tuberculous infection in the lungs, in regional lymphatic nodes, or in some other organs of the body such as the gastrointestinal tract and its lymphatic system, is nearly universal but doubtless a few individuals escape. That focal tuberculous lesions of the lung are occasionally acquired during adult life is shown by the slight increase in the proportion of those with these lesions as age increases from 18 years to old age. Apical lesions of the lung make their appearance in later childhood and occur with increasing frequency from adolescence to old age (50 per cent). After the 2nd year of life focal tuberculous lesions occurring in situations other than the apices of the lungs tend to heal and after the 10th year focal lesions are almost invariably encapsulated and latent or healed. Fatal tuberculosis after the 10th year is with few exceptions apical in origin. The apices are not only more susceptible to infection in later life but once infected afford less resistance to the extension of the lesion. The present series of cases has furnished opportunity to observe the character of the apical lesion in lungs of individuals previously infected with tuberculosis. With one exception the apical lesion (in eight instances) has pursued a chronic course and, encapsulated by fibrous tissue, has remained limited to the extreme apex of the lung. In one instance in a woman with advanced malignant disease chronic pulmonary tuberculosis has been progressive. Tuberculosis of the apices in those who have previously acquired a focal tuberculous lesion has pursued a chronic course and in most instances has remained latent or has completely healed. A very small group of instances of fatal pulmonary tuberculosis suggests that apical lesions in those who have not undergone previous infection may assume an unusually severe character. One instance of apical tuberculosis unaccompanied by focal lesions and followed by tuberculosis of the thoracic duct and disseminated miliary tuberculosis has been especially significant. Apical tuberculosis unaccompanied by evidence of preexisting tuberculosis may be accompanied by tuberculosis of the regional lymphatic nodes, whereas apical tuberculosis in an individual with a preexistent focal tuberculous lesion is not followed by tuberculosis of adjacent lymphatic nodes. It is well known that tuberculosis in previously uninfected animals is followed by tuberculosis of adjacent lymphatic nodes, whereas a second infection fails to implicate the regional lymphatic nodes. This relation has been well illustrated by the lungs of a monkey which acquired in confinement acute tuberculous pneumonia limited to the left lung; the lymphatic nodes on this side were greatly enlarged and caseous. The following observations indicate that apical tuberculosis of adults is not the result of infantile tuberculosis but is caused by subsequent infection: (a) Apical tuberculosis does not have its highest incidence, in accordance with common belief, in early adult life when focal infections acquired in childhood are relatively fresh and active but is more common in later life when the focal lesions of childhood have in most instances completely healed. It is noteworthy that most of these apical lesions of later life pursue a chronic course and are discovered at autopsy in individuals who have died from other causes. (b) The well characterized lesions of tuberculosis acquired in childhood and found in adults with apical lesions are almost invariably calcified and healed. The apical lesion is in most instances relatively fresh and caseous whereas the focal pulmonary lesion and associated lesions of regional lymphatic nodes exhibit no evidence of activity. (c) In a large proportion of instances of associated focal and apical tuberculosis the focal lesion is in one lung, whereas the apical lesion is limited to the opposite apex. This relation affords no support to the view that tuberculous lesions may be transmitted to the apex by way of the lymphatics.
Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a geochemical disease in individuals exposed to red-clay soil. Despite the prevalence and public health importance of podoconiosis, there is as yet no accepted clinical staging system.
We aimed to develop and test a robust clinical staging system for podoconiosis.
We adapted the Dreyer system for staging filarial lymphoedema and tested it in four re-iterative field tests conducted in an area of high podoconiosis prevalence in Southern Ethiopia. The system finally arrived at has five stages according to proximal spread of disease and presence of dermal nodules, ridges and bands. We measured the one-week repeatability and the inter-observer agreement of the final staging system.
We have developed a five-stage system that is readily understood by community workers with little health training. Kappa for one-week repeatability was 0.88 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.96), Kappa for agreement between health professionals was 0.71 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.82), while that between health professionals and community podoconiosis agents without formal health training averaged 0.64 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.78).
A simple staging system with good inter-observer agreement and repeatability has been developed to assist in the management and further study of podoconiosis.
podoconiosis; non-filarial elephantiasis; agreement; repeatability; community worker; staging system
The aim of the current study is to report on the minimal surgical treatment of elephantiasis of the feet to facilitate the use of compression mechanisms. The cases of two patients with congenital lymphedema that evolved to elephantiasis involving the feet are reported. Intensive treatment of the lymphedema was performed with a significant reduction in size thus allowing a better identification of the limits of tissue masses for the surgical approach. This reduction enabled primary suturing of the lesions to be carried out and fast healing of the wounds. The surgery greatly improved large deformities of the toes and feet and facilitated further treatment of the lymphedema using bandaging. Thus, the skin was preserved, there was a reduction in the size of the feet, and the patients were able to start wearing shoes.
elephantiasis; surgical treatment; feet; lymphedema
Delays seeking care worsen the burden of tuberculosis and cost of care for patients, families and the public health system. This study investigates costs of tuberculosis diagnosis incurred by patients, escorts and the public health system in 10 districts of Ethiopia.
New pulmonary tuberculosis patients ≥ 15 years old were interviewed regarding their health care seeking behaviour at the time of diagnosis. Using a structured questionnaire patients were interviewed about the duration of delay at alternative care providers and the public health system prior to diagnosis. Costs incurred by patients, escorts and the public health system were quantified through patient interview and review of medical records.
Interviews were held with 537 (58%) smear positive patients and 387 (42%) smear negative pulmonary patients. Of these, 413 (45%) were female; 451 (49%) were rural residents; and the median age was 34 years. The mean (median) days elapsed for consultation at alternative care providers and public health facilities prior to tuberculosis diagnosis was 5 days (0 days) and 3 (3 days) respectively. The total median cost incurred from first consultation to diagnosis was $27 per patient (mean = $59). The median costs per patient incurred by patient, escort and the public health system were $16 (mean = $29), $3 (mean = $23) and $3 (mean = $7) respectively. The total cost per patient diagnosed was higher for women, rural residents; those who received government food for work support, patients with smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and patients who were not screened for TB in at least one district diagnostic centers.
The costs of tuberculosis diagnosis incurred by patients and escorts represent a significant portion of their monthly income. The costs arising from time lost in seeking care comprised a major portion of the total cost of diagnosis, and may worsen the economic position of patients and their families. Getting treatment from alternative sources and low index of suspicion public health providers were key problems contributing to increased cost of tuberculosis diagnosis. Thus, the institution of effective systems of referral, ensuring screening of suspects across the district public health system and the involvement of alternative care providers in district tuberculosis control can reduce delays and the financial burden to patients and escorts.
Introduction. Elephantiasis is a chronic manifestation of filariasis; it commonly affects limbs, scrotum, and trunk. Females have lower incidence of filarial infection. Vulval elephantiasis due to filariasis is still rarer. It is difficult to make the diagnosis on histopathology alone, more so in view of the fact that the parasite is usually not identified in tissue sections. Identification of microfilariae in night samples of peripheral blood or seropositivity for filarial antigen is requisite for the correct diagnosis. Case Presentation. A young female presented with progressively increasing vulval swelling over a period of two years. The swelling was soft and measured 5 × 6 cm. Other possible differential diagnoses were excluded, and ancillary tests were performed to reach a conclusive diagnosis of vulval elephantiasis on histopathology. Conclusion. Vulval elephantiasis due to filariasis is rare. Its diagnosis on histopathology is more often by exclusion. High index of suspicion on microscopic findings and corelation with relevant diagnostic tests are required to reach the correct diagnosis.
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis constitutes about 10% of all cases of tuberculosis, and cutaneous tuberculosis makes up only a small proportion of these cases. Despite prevention programs, tuberculosis is still progressing endemically in developing countries. Commonest clinical variant of cutaneous tuberculosis in our study was lupus vulgaris seen in 55% patients followed by scrufuloderma seen in 25% patients followed by orificial tuberculosis, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, papulonecrotic tuberculid, and erythema induratum seen in 5% each. The commonest site of involvement was limbs seen in 50% patients followed by neck seen in 25% patients, face in 15%, and trunk in 10% patients. Maximum percentage of patients (55%) had duration of cutaneous tuberculosis between 6–12 months followed by 35% between 13–24 months, 5% had duration of cutaneous tuberculosis less than 6 months, and the rest 5% had duration more than 24 months. The commonest histopathological feature in our study was tuberculoid granuloma with epitheloid cell and Langhans giant cells seen in 70% patients, hyperkeratosis was seen in 15% patients and AFB bacilli were seen in 5% patients.
Chancre; cutaneous; gumma; lupus vulgaris; scufuloderma; tuberculids; tuberculosis
OBJECTIVE--To study efficacy of treatment of filarial lymphoedema and elephantiasis with 5,6-benzo-alpha-pyrone. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study with matching for grade and duration of disease, age, and sex. Treatment was given for 367 days, and subjects were followed up for another year. SETTING--A town in Shandong Province, China. SUBJECTS--104 men and women with chronic unilateral filarial lymphoedema or elephantiasis of the leg: 64 were randomised to benzopyrone and 40 to placebo. By the end of the study 19 patients had dropped out of the treatment group and two out of the placebo group. INTERVENTIONS--Two 200 mg tablets of 5,6-benzo-alpha-pyrone or two placebo tablets given daily. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Volumes of the affected and normal legs estimated every three months, and daily listing of any side effects. RESULTS--Benzopyrone reduced oedema for all grades of lymphoedema during the year of treatment (pW0.001) and the follow up year (p = 0.026). During treatment the mean monthly reductions in leg volume were 0.62% (95% confidence intervals 0.4% to 0.85%), 1.1% (0.71% to 1.6%), and 1.6% (0.89% to 2.3%) of the volume of the normal leg for grades 1, 2, and 3-5 (elephantiasis) of lymphoedema respectively. During follow up the mean monthly reductions were 0.18% (0.01% to 0.35%), 0.54% (0.27% to 0.82%), and 0.87% (0.51% to 1.2%). At the end of the trial the total reduction in oedema was 100%, 95%, and 45% for grades 1, 2, and 3-5. Symptoms and complications were considerably reduced, including attacks of secondary acute inflammation, while side effects were minor and disappeared after one month. In the placebo group there were no changes in the severity of lymphoedema. CONCLUSIONS--5,6-benzo-alpha-pyrone reduces the oedema and many symptoms of filarial lymphoedema and elephantiasis. It has few side effects, and its relatively slow action makes it ideal for use without compression garments.
Scrotal lymphedema is rare outside endemic filariasis regions in Africa and Asia. It is of variable origin in the western world.
We present a case of a 40-year-old European man with massive elephantiasis of the scrotum attributed to chronic inflammation of the lower urinary tract caused by urinary outlet obstruction and diabetes mellitus. The patient underwent subtotal scrotectomy saving penis, testes and spermatic cords and followed by scrotal reconstruction with adequate cosmetic and functional outcome.
In this report we discuss a rare case of scrotal elephantiasis in an European patient, reflect on the etiology and the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Surgery can be successful even in giant scrotal elephantiasis.
A 35 year old man developed paraplegia due to an epidural mass 15 months after completion of a full chemotherapy course for pulmonary and lymph node Mycobacterium bovis infection. His cellular immune function was normal after treatment. It is suggested that the lesion was a granulomatous healing response rather than bacteriological recurrence.
In a survey of all notifications of tuberculosis in England and Wales for the first six months of 1983 56% of the 3002 newly notified patients who had not been treated before were of white and 37% were of Indian subcontinent (Indian, Pakistani, or Bangladeshi) ethnic origin, findings similar to those of a survey in 1978-9. In the four and a quarter years between the surveys the number of patients notified had declined by 26%, the decline being 28% among those of white and 23% among those of Indian subcontinent ethnic origin. The white patients were on average older than the patients of Indian subcontinent ethnic origin, and a higher proportion of them had respiratory disease (82% compared with 66%). The pulmonary lesions were on average larger and more often bacteriologically positive in the white patients. There were considerable differences between the ethnic groups in the estimated yearly rates of notifications per 100 000 population in England in 1983. The highest rates occurred in the Indian (178) and the Pakistani and Bangladeshi (169) populations and were roughly 25 times the rate in the white population (6 X 9). In the Indian subcontinent ethnic groups the highest rates occurred among those who had arrived in the United Kingdom within the previous five years.
An 82-year-old woman presented with a four-month history of an ulcerative plaque overlying her left neck. This lesion had developed as a subcutaneous nodule, gradually increased in size, and evolved into ulcers. Before visiting our Dermatology clinic, the patient had been diagnosed as having a bacterial abscess, but treatments with antibiotics were unsuccessful. The presence of a purulent discharge and prominent ulceration caused further confusion as bacterial abscess, and radiologic evaluation on computed tomography also led to the possibilities of secondary lesions from an abscess or malignancy. However, the characteristic appearance of her lesion allowed us to discern cutaneous tuberculosis, especially scrofuloderma. Based on clinical examinations, staining for acid-fast bacilli, and positive findings of polymerase chain reaction, a quick diagnosis of scrofuloderma was made. After that, she was treated successfully with anti-tuberculosis therapy and the ulcer healed. Our case highlights the problem of delayed diagnosis of scrofuloderma presenting as a bacterial abscess. In conclusion, having a high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose cutaneous tuberculosis correctly.
Bacterial abscess; Scrofuloderma
Childhood tuberculosis (TB), although estimated to account for a major proportion of the global TB disease burden, has a lower public health priority. Reliable research and surveillance data on childhood TB is limited in most regions of the world. This study was conducted to assess the burden of childhood TB among the household contacts of new TB patients in Karachi, Pakistan.
A retrospective analysis of children (<15 years) who were household contacts of new adult TB patients presenting to Marie Adelaide Leprosy Center (MALC) clinics in Karachi during the period of 2008 to 2010 was conducted.
Of the household children contacts (n = 6613) screened, 317 were suspected and 121(1.8%) diagnosed with TB. These included 89 (73.6%) with pulmonary and 32 (26.4%) with extra-pulmonary disease. Smear positivity rate in pulmonary cases was 32.6%. Mean age of children diagnosed with TB was 11.7 (±2.8) years. Within the child-contacts screened, disease was found to be significantly higher among females (2.3%) in comparison to males (1.2%) (p-value <0.01). The commonest relationship of source cases to diagnosed children was the mother (n = 51, 42.1%). The source case was a female for 66.1% (n = 76) of the children.
A smear positivity rate of 32.6% amongst pulmonary cases suggests their potential to spread disease and emphasizes a need to review the contribution of children in transmission of TB within communities. Greater vulnerability of the female child and considerable role of mother in disease transmission highlights a need to increase focus on females in TB control programs in Pakistan.
We have studied the capacity of a selected fraction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis extracellular proteins (EP) released into broth culture by mid-logarithmic-growth-phase organisms to induce cell-mediated immune responses and protective immunity in a guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis by aerosol but not uninfected control guinea pigs exhibit strong cell-mediated immune responses to EP, manifest by dose-dependent cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and splenic lymphocyte proliferation. Guinea pigs immunized subcutaneously with EP but not sham-immunized control guinea pigs also develop strong cell-mediated immune responses to EP, manifest by dose-dependent cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and splenic lymphocyte proliferation. EP is nonlethal and nontoxic to guinea pigs upon subcutaneous immunization. Guinea pigs immunized with EP and then challenged with aerosolized M. tuberculosis exhibit protective immunity. In five independent experiments, EP-immunized guinea pigs were consistently protected against clinical illness, including weight loss. Compared with EP-immunized guinea pigs, sham-immunized control guinea pigs lost 12.9 +/- 2.0% (mean +/- SE) of their total weight. EP-immunized guinea pigs also had a 10-fold reduction in viable M. tuberculosis bacilli in their lungs and spleens (P = 0.004 and 0.001, respectively) compared with sham-immunized control animals. In the two experiments in which some guinea pigs died after aerosol challenge, EP-immunized animals were protected from death. Whereas all 12 (100%) EP-immunized guinea pigs survived challenge with aerosolized M. tuberculosis, only 6 of 12 (50%) sham-immunized control guinea pigs survived challenge (P = 0.007, Fisher exact test). This study demonstrates that actively growing M. tuberculosis cells release immunoprotective molecules extracellularly, that a subunit vaccine against tuberculosis is feasible, and that extracellular molecules of M. tuberculosis are potential candidates for a subunit vaccine.