The effects of essential oils isolated from Douglas fir needles on sheep and deer rumen microbial activity were tested by use of an anaerobic manometric technique. Rumen microorganisms were obtained from a sheep which had been fed mainly on alfalfa hay and dried range grass. One deer used in this study had access to Douglas fir trees the year around, whereas the other deer had no access to Douglas fir. All of the monoterpene hydrocarbons isolated from Douglas fir needles—α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, myrcene, camphene, Δ3-carene, and terpinolene—promoted only slightly or had no effect on deer rumen microbial activity, whereas all of them promoted activity in sheep rumen microbes, except Δ3-carene and terpinolene, which inhibited activity. Of the oxygenated monoterpenes, all monoterpene alcohols—α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, linalool, citronellol, and fenchyl alcohol—strongly inhibited the rumen microbial activity of both sheep and deer. Monoterpene esters (bornyl acetate) produced mild inhibition for both sheep and deer microbes, and citronellyl acetate inhibited rumen microbial activity in sheep, whereas it promoted activity in both deer. Monoterpene aldehyde (citronellal) inhibited the activity of rumen microbes from both sheep and deer having no access to Douglas fir from the Hopland Field Station, whereas they produced no effect upon the deer having access to Douglas fir from the Masonite forest. Rumen microbial activity for sheep and deer was promoted slightly with aliphatic ester (ethyl-n-caproate). There was a marked difference between sheep and deer rumen microbes as affected by addition of the various essential oils. The monoterpene hydrocarbons promoted activity more on sheep rumen microbes than on deer, and the monoterpene alcohols inhibited sheep rumen microbial activity more than that of deer. Furthermore, the deer rumen microbes from Hopland Field Station were affected more than the deer from Masonite forest.
The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral), geraniol (7%) and trans-β-caryophyllene (7%) for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%), limonene (33%) and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8%) for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene) showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds.
Lippia alba; essential oil; antigenotoxicity; bleomycin; SOS chromotest
The Douglas fir terpene α-pinene was shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria and a yeast. Other terpenes of the Douglas fir, including limonene, camphene, and isobornyl acetate, were also inhibitory to Bacillus thuringiensis. All terpenes were inhibitory at concentrations normally present in the fir needle diet of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae. The presence of such terpenes in the diet of these insects was found to strongly influence the infectivity of B. thuringiensis spores for the Douglas fir tussock moth larvae. The terpene α-pinene destroyed the cellular integrity and modified mitochondrial activity in certain microorganisms.
Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae) aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) for the first time.
Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+)-limonene (15.46%), caryophyllene oxide (7.62%), linalool (7.20%), α-pinene (6.43%), β-pinene (5.66%) and spathulenol (5.02%) followed by β-eudesmoll (4.64%) and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%). The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 μg/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L.
The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.
Saussurea nivea; Sitophilus zeamais; Contact toxicity; Fumigant; Essential oil composition
The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), β-pinene (0.63–31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.
The liquid/air partition coefficients of four common terpenes, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, and limonene, have been determined in vitro using head space technique. The liquids used were water, human blood, and olive oil. alpha-Pinene, beta-pinene, and 3-carene were practically insoluble in water and limonene was slightly soluble; all were readily dissolved in olive oil. The oil/air partition coefficients ranged from 2900 to 5700 in the order alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, and limonene. The blood/air partition coefficients ranged from 15 to 42 in the same order as for oil/air.
Climate forcing is the major abiotic driver for forest ecosystem functioning and thus significantly affects the role of forests within the global carbon cycle and related ecosystem services. Annual radial increments of trees are probably the most valuable source of information to link tree growth and climate at long-term time scales, and have been used in a wide variety of investigations worldwide. However, especially in mountainous areas, tree-ring studies have focused on extreme environments where the climate sensitivity is perhaps greatest but are necessarily a biased representation of the forests within a region. We used tree-ring analyses to study two of the most important tree species growing in the Alps: Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba). We developed tree-ring chronologies from 13 mesic mid-elevation sites (203 trees) and then compared them to monthly temperature and precipitation data for the period 1846–1995. Correlation functions, principal component analysis and fuzzy C-means clustering were applied to 1) assess the climate/growth relationships and their stationarity and consistency over time, and 2) extract common modes of variability in the species responses to mean and extreme climate variability. Our results highlight a clear, time-stable, and species-specific response to mean climate conditions. However, during the previous-year's growing season, which shows the strongest correlations, the primary difference between species is in their response to extreme events, not mean conditions. Mesic sites at mid-altitude are commonly underrepresented in tree-ring research; we showed that strong climatic controls of growth may exist even in those areas. Extreme climatic events may play a key role in defining the species-specific responses on climatic sensitivity and, with a global change perspective, specific divergent responses are likely to occur even where current conditions are less limited.
Water-distilled essential oil of Ferulago macrocarpa (Umbelliferae) fruits was analyzed using GC-MS for the first time. Forty-two components comprising 99.5% of the total oil were identified, of which bornyl acetate (40.8%), 2,3,6-trimethyl benzaldehyde (7.2%), δ-selinene (5.5%), 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (5.1%), germacrene D (3.5%), β-phellandrene (3.5%) and α-pinene (3.4%) were found to be the major components. The oil of F. macrocarpa fruits consisted of 15 monoterpene hydrocarbons (21.4%), 6 oxygenated monoterpenes (42.2%), 17 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (22.4%) and one oxygenated sesquiterpene (5.1%). Three benzenoid derivatives also comprised 8.4% of the oil. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes comprised 63.6% and 27.5% of the F. macrocarpa fruits essential oil respectively; however, bornyl acetate (40.8%) was identified as the most abundant component of the oil.
Ferulago macrocarpa; bornyl acetate; 2; essential oil composition; GC/MS; bornyl acetate; 2,3,6-trimethyl benzaldehyde
Background and Aims
Our knowledge about the influences of environmental factors on tree growth is principally based on the study of dominant trees. However, tree social status may influence intra-annual dynamics of growth, leading to differential responses to environmental conditions. The aim was to determine whether within-stand differences in stem diameters of trees belonging to different crown classes resulted from variations in the length of the growing period or in the rate of cell production.
Cambial activity was monitored weekly in 2006 for three crown classes in a 40-year-old silver-fir (Abies alba) plantation near Nancy (France). Timings, duration and rate of tracheid production were assessed from anatomical observations of the developing xylem.
Cambial activity started earlier, stopped later and lasted longer in dominant trees than in intermediate and suppressed ones. The onset of cambial activity was estimated to have taken 3 weeks to spread to 90 % of the trees in the stand, while the cessation needed 6 weeks. Cambial activity was more intense in dominant trees than in intermediate and suppressed ones. It was estimated that about 75 % of tree-ring width variability was attributable to the rate of cell production and only 25 % to its duration. Moreover, growth duration was correlated to tree height, while growth rate was better correlated to crown area.
These results show that, in a closed conifer forest, stem diameter variations resulted principally from differences in the rate of xylem cell production rather than in its duration. Tree size interacts with environmental factors to control the timings, duration and rate of cambial activity through functional processes involving source–sink relationships principally, but also hormonal controls.
Cambial activity; forest-stand structure; silver fir (Abies alba); tree-ring formation; tree-to-tree competition; social status; wood anatomy; xylem cell differentiation
Juniperus excelsa M.B subsp. Polycarpos (K.Koch), collected from south of Iran, was subjected to hydrodistillation using clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil. The essential was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and studied for antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activities. The results indicated α-pinene (67.71%) as the major compound and α-cedral (11.5%), δ3-carene (5.19%) and limonene (4.41%) in moderate amounts. Antimicrobial tests were carried out using disk diffusion method, followed by the measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were susceptible to essential oil. The oil showed radical scavenging and antioxidant effects.
Antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; essential oil; Juniperus excelsa; thin layer chromatography autographic assay
The aim of the present study was to investigate the various chemical components present in the volatile oil of the leaf of Cupressus torulosa and to find variation of essential oil components among the populations. Twenty-two, 17 and 20 compounds were identified with 95.45, 95.45 and 91.45% in Kalsi, Joshimath and Jeharikhal, respectively were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantify by gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The major compound identified was α-pinene in all the populations and it varied between 30.30 and 34.26%. Results of the study stated that α-pinene, δ- 3-carene, limonene and sabinene components were detected in high concentration, thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.
α-pinene gas chromatography; Cupressus torulosa; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; variation; volatile oil
Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare), previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.
fungitoxic activity; monoterpenes; plant essential oils; post-harvest diseases
Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, popularly known as “erva-cidreira,” is commonly found in northeastern Brazil. The leaves tea is used to treat digestive disturbances, nausea, cough, and bronchitis.
This work reports the chemical composition and erythromycin-modifying activity by gaseous contact against Staphylococcus aureus.
Materials and Methods:
The leaves of L. alba were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the essential oil extracted was evaluated for antibacterial and antibiotic-modifying activity by gaseous contact.
The overall yield of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was 0.52%. The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of the main components: geranial (31.4%) and neral (29.5%). It was verified that the essential oil interfered with erythromycin antibiotic activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 was enhanced (221.4%) in the presence of 12% essential oil. The 3% essential oil increased the effect against S. aureus ATCC 25923 (41.6%) and S. aureus ATCC 6538 (58.3%). Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.
The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.
Chemical composition; erythromycin; essential oil; Lippia alba; modulatory activity
Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related terpenes (α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpinene) on Jurkat, J774A.1 and HeLa cells lines. Regarding the cytotoxic activity based on MTT assay, the essential oils showed improved results than α-pinene and γ-terpinene, particularly for Jurkat and HeLa cell lines. Terpinen-4-ol revealed a cytotoxic effect against Jurkat cells similar to that observed for volatile oils. The results of LDH activity indicated that cytotoxic activity of samples against Jurkat cells probably involved cell death by apoptosis. The decrease of cell DNA content was demonstrated due to inhibition of Jurkat cells proliferation by samples as a result of cytotoxicity. In general, the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii presented cytotoxicity against the investigated tumor cell lines which confirms their antitumor potential.
Using botanical insecticides as an alternative biocontrol technique for vector control is considered by some scientists.
Materials and Methods
Chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). In addition, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil of Cupressus arizonica was investigated against fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared An. stephensi according to the method of the World Health Organization.
Of 46 constituents in the oil, limonene (14.44%), umbellulone (13.25%) and α-pinene (11%) were determined as the main constituents. Cupressus arizonica volatile oil showed significant larvicidal activity against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values 79.30 ppm and 238.89 ppm respectively. Clear dose-response relationships were established with the highest dose of 160 ppm essential oil with almost 100% mortality.
The results from this study revealed that C. arizonica essential oil could be considered as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. However, the field evaluation of the formulation is necessary.
Anopheles stephensi; botanical insecticide; Cupressus arizonica; essential oil; Iran; vector control
Background and Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis and Trachyspermum copticum essential oils against different kinds of microorganisms in vitro.
Material and Methods
The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by micro broth dilution assay and the chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by GC and GC/MS.
Thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene and carvacrol were the main components of S. hortensis oil while thymol, γ-terpinene, and o-cymene were the major components of T. copticum oil. Two essential oils exhibited strong antimicrobial activity but the antimicrobial activity of T. copticum oil was higher than that of S. hortensis oil.
Thymol as a main component of oils plays an important role in antimicrobial activity.
Antimicrobial activity; Thymol; Satureja hortensis; Trachyspermum copticum
Anaerobic degradation of natural monoterpenes by microorganisms was evaluated by using Pseudomonas citronellolis DSM 50332 and enrichment cultures containing nitrate as an electron acceptor. P. citronellolis grew anaerobically on 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol and citronellol but not on geraniol, nerol, and alicyclic monoterpenes. In contrast, several a-, mono-, and bicyclic monoterpenes supported microbial growth and denitrification in enrichment cultures. We found that consumption of linalool, menthol, menth-1-ene, alpha-phellandrene, limonene, 2-carene, alpha-pinene, and fenchone in enrichment cultures depended on the presence of living microorganisms and nitrate. In these experiments, the ratios of number of electrons derived from complete substrate oxidation to number of electrons derived from nitrate reduction ranged from 1.2:1 to 2.9:1. Microbial degradation was accompanied by the formation of small traces of monoterpenes, which were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The formation of geraniol and geranial from linalool suggested that a 3,1-hydroxyl-delta 1-delta 2-mutase reaction initiates linalool degradation. Seven strains of motile, oval to rod-shaped, facultatively denitrifying bacteria were isolated on agar bottle plates by using linalool, menthol, menth-1-ene, alpha-phellandrene, 2-carene, eucalyptol, and alpha-pinene as sole carbon and energy sources.
Cordia verbenacea is a Brazilian coastal shrub popularly known as “erva baleeira”. The essential oil from fresh leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by CG/MS. The main components were identified as β-caryophyllene (25.4%), bicyclogermacrene (11.3%), δ-cadinene (9.%) and α-pinene (9.5%). In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Cordia verbenacea was evaluated.
Materials and Methods:
The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was obtained using the broth microdilution assay (from 512 to 8 μg/ml).
The results showed that the essential oil presented fungistatic activity against Candida albicans and Candida krusei and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and against multiresistant Gram-negative (Escherichia coli 27), in all tests the MIC was 64 μg/ml. When the essential oil was associated to aminoglycosides (subinhibitory concentrations, MIC/8), a synergic and antagonic activity was verified. The synergic effect was observed to the amikacin association (MIC reduction from 256 mlto 64 μg/ml) in all strains tested.
The essential oil of Cordia verbenacea influences the activity of antibiotics and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.
Aminoglycosides; antimicrobial activity; Cordia verbenacea; essential oil
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) has been cultivated for a long time in different parts of Iran. The chemical profiles of different accessions were analyzed by means of GC-MS. The essential oil content of the dried seeds was varied from 0.1 to 0.36 %. Thirty-Four different compounds were identified in essential oil of all accessions. Linalool (40.9−79.9%), neryl acetate (2.3−14.2%), γ-terpinene (0.1−13.6%) and α-pinene (1.2−7.1%) were identified as main components in the oil of Coriander accessions. Almost all studied accessions contain more that 60% linalool showing high quality of Coriander seeds produced in Iran and suitability of the accessions for use as initial genetic materials for breeding of homogenous and talent Coriander cultivars.
Coriandrum sativum L. Essential oil; linalool; accession; diversity
The essential oils from the leaves of three different individuals of Cupressus lusitanica were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. A total of 49 compounds were identified in the leaf oils. The major components of C. lusitanica leaf oil were α-pinene (40%-82%), limonene (4%-18%), isobornyl acetate (up to 10%) and cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene (up to 7%). The essential oil was screened for antimicrobial activity, and it showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger.
cis-muurola-4(14); 5-diene; α-pinene; antimicrobial; composition; Cupressus lusitanica; essential oil; isobornyl acetate; limonene
Essential oils were isolated from eight plant species which were relatively unpalatable to sheep and deer. The inhibitory potency of these essential oils upon sheep and deer rumen microorganisms was compared, in terms of total gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, by use of an anaerobic manometric technique. Inhibitory effects of oils from the eight plant species may be placed in four groups: (i) essential oils from vinegar weed (Trichostema lanceoletum) and California bay (Umbellularia californica) inhibited rumen microbial activity most; (ii) lesser inhibition was exhibited by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana) oils, followed by (iii) blue-gum eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) oils; and (iv) oils from Douglas fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii) and Jerusalem oak (chenopodium botrys) resulted in the least inhibition, when 0.3 ml of each oil was used. A highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.98**) between total gas and VFA production indicated the validity of either method to measure the activity of rumen microorganisms. Our results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the selectivity and voluntary consumption of ruminants are related to the characteristic odor and antibacterial action of essential oils isolated from relatively unpalatable plant species.
The ability of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and its allies, such as Stegomyia, to transmit diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, makes them important in public health. This study aims to evaluate the use of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper in biological control of by assessing and quantifying the larvicidal effect against S. aegypti, the only available access to dengue control, and test its risk of genotoxicity with Salmonella typhimurium as an indicator of safety for its environmental use.
The density of the oil was 0.8622 g mL-1. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed six major constituents: δ-3-carene (55.43%), α-pinene (16.25%), sylvestrene (10.67%), germacrene D (2.17), β-myrcene (1.99%), and isoterpinolene (1.4%). The minimum inhibitory dose to larvae development was 862.20 μg mL-1. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the essential oil for larvae was between the concentrations of 172.44-344.88 μg mL-1. There was no mutagenic risk for the essential oil, since there were no biochemical or morphological changes in S. typhimurium after exposure to the essential oil.
The minimum inhibitory essential oil concentration and the median lethal dose pointed to the value of the use of water dispersions of Brazilian pepper essential oil as an environmental safe natural larvicidal for S. aegypti.
Thymus serpyllum L. grown in Kumaon region of Western Himalaya was investigated for essential oil content and composition in different seasons. The oils of fresh samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of essential oil (% v/w) during different seasons varied from 0.07 to 0.28% with the highest in summer season, at vegetative stage. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Major components of all the samples were thymol (19.4-60.1%), γ-terpinene (0.3-13.8%) and p-cymene (3.5-10.4%). The results clearly indicated that season has significant effect on quality and quantity of thyme oil.
Anemopsis californica (Saururaceae) commonly called yerba mansa, is an important medicinal plant in many deserts in the southwestern region of North America. Populations of A. californica, collected throughout New Mexico, were examined for chemical variability in roots and rhizomes for select monocyclic (cymene, limonene, piperitone and thymol) and bicyclic (α-pinene, 1,8-cineole and myrtenol) monoterpenoid and phenylpropanoid (methyleugenol, isoeugenol and elemicin) derived essential oil components. Three distinct chemotypes were detected using a hierarchical clustering analysis on the concentration of 10 different analytes in three individuals from each of 17 populations. One chemotype was characterized by high elemicin concentrations, a second chemotype by high methyleugenol concentrations and the third by high piperitone and thymol concentrations. Steam distilled oil was used to screen for anticancer bioactivity. A. californica root oils demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against AN3CA and HeLa cells in vitro but no activity against lung, breast, prostate or colon cancer cells. The IC50 values for the root oil were 0.056% and 0.052% (v/v) for the AN3CA and HeLa cells respectively.
Anemopsis californica; Sauraceae; yerba mansa; essential oil; chemotypes; supercritical fluid extraction; SFE; uterine cancer; cervical cancer
This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of essential oil and the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Teucrium montanum. The inhibitory effects of essential oil and methanol extracts of T. montanum were tested against 13 bacterial and three fungal species by using disc-diffusion method. GC/MS analyses revealed that essential oil contains mainly δ-cadinene (17.19%), β-selinene (8.16%) α-calacorene (4.97%), 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-naphthalene (4.91%), caryophyllene (4.35%), copaene (4.23%), torreyol (3.91%), 4-terpineol (3.90%), cadina-1,4-diene (3.39%), β-sesquiphellandrene (3.34%), τ-cadinol (3.12%) and γ-curcumene (3.18%). The essential oil has antibacterial as well as antifungal effect.
antimicrobial activity; essential oil; Teucrium montanum