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1.  GC and GC/MS Analysis of Essential Oil Composition of the Endemic Soqotraen Leucas virgata Balf.f. and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities 
Leucas virgata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae) was collected from the Island Soqotra (Yemen) and its essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast species by using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and antioxidant activity by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. The investigation led to the identification of 43 constituents, representing 93.9% of the total oil. The essential oil of L. virgata was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (50.8%). Camphor (20.5%) exo-fenchol (3.4%), fenchon (5.4%), and borneol (3.1%) were identified as the main components. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were found as the second major group of compounds (21.0%). β-Eudesmol (6.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.1%) were the major compounds among oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The results of the antimicrobial assay showed that the oil exhibited a great antibacterial activity against the tested S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli. No activity was found against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Moreover, the DPPH-radical scavenging assay exhibited only a moderate antioxidant activity (31%) for the oil at the highest concentration tested (1 mg/mL).
doi:10.3390/ijms141123129
PMCID: PMC3856109  PMID: 24284402
Leucas virgata; Soqotra; essential oil; antimicrobial; antioxidant
2.  In-vitro assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oil of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis 
Background
Owing to the complexity of the antioxidant materials and their mechanism of actions, it is obvious that no single testing method is capable of providing a comprehensive picture of the antioxidant profile. The essential oil of the Thymus specie may still possess other important activities in traditional medicine, it can be used in the treatment of fever and cough. This essential oil may also have an anticancer activity.
Methods
The essential oils aerial parts hydrodistilled from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were characterised by GC/MS analysis and the methanolic extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC method. The essence of thyme was evaluated for its antioxidant and antibacterial activity.
Result
The Terpinen-4-ol are the principal class of metabolites (33.34%) among which 1.8-cineole (19.96%) and camphor (19.20%) predominate. In this study, quantitative values of antioxidant activity of crude methanolic extracts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis were investigated. The essential oils was screened for their antibacterial activity against six common pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteridis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes) by well diffusion method and agar dilution method (MIC). All the essences were found to inhibit the growth of both gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria organisms tested. These activities were correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds in active fractions. HPLC confirmed presence of phenolic compounds in methanol extracts.
Conclusion
Methanol extracts and essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were examined for their potential as antioxidants. The technique for measuring antioxidant activity, which was developed using DPPH, ABTS and β-carotene bleaching, produced results as found in established literatures. The present results indicate clearly that methanol extracts and essential oils from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants, also their essential oil have an antibacterial effect.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-114
PMCID: PMC4115217  PMID: 25022197
Radical scavenging effect; Phenolic compounds; Essential oil; Antioxidant activity; Antibacterial activity
3.  Effect of Various Essential Oils Isolated from Douglas Fir Needles upon Sheep and Deer Rumen Microbial Activity 
Applied Microbiology  1967;15(4):777-784.
The effects of essential oils isolated from Douglas fir needles on sheep and deer rumen microbial activity were tested by use of an anaerobic manometric technique. Rumen microorganisms were obtained from a sheep which had been fed mainly on alfalfa hay and dried range grass. One deer used in this study had access to Douglas fir trees the year around, whereas the other deer had no access to Douglas fir. All of the monoterpene hydrocarbons isolated from Douglas fir needles—α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, myrcene, camphene, Δ3-carene, and terpinolene—promoted only slightly or had no effect on deer rumen microbial activity, whereas all of them promoted activity in sheep rumen microbes, except Δ3-carene and terpinolene, which inhibited activity. Of the oxygenated monoterpenes, all monoterpene alcohols—α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, linalool, citronellol, and fenchyl alcohol—strongly inhibited the rumen microbial activity of both sheep and deer. Monoterpene esters (bornyl acetate) produced mild inhibition for both sheep and deer microbes, and citronellyl acetate inhibited rumen microbial activity in sheep, whereas it promoted activity in both deer. Monoterpene aldehyde (citronellal) inhibited the activity of rumen microbes from both sheep and deer having no access to Douglas fir from the Hopland Field Station, whereas they produced no effect upon the deer having access to Douglas fir from the Masonite forest. Rumen microbial activity for sheep and deer was promoted slightly with aliphatic ester (ethyl-n-caproate). There was a marked difference between sheep and deer rumen microbes as affected by addition of the various essential oils. The monoterpene hydrocarbons promoted activity more on sheep rumen microbes than on deer, and the monoterpene alcohols inhibited sheep rumen microbial activity more than that of deer. Furthermore, the deer rumen microbes from Hopland Field Station were affected more than the deer from Masonite forest.
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PMCID: PMC547062  PMID: 6049303
4.  Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil 
Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and β-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.107071
PMCID: PMC3630732  PMID: 23626392
Antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; Cymbopogon olivieri; diphenylpicrylhydrazyl; piperitone
5.  Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of Anthemis palestina essential oil 
Background
Anthemis palestina (Asteraceae) extends across the Mediterranean region, southwest Asia and eastern Africa. Although traditionally used for several applications, in vitro investigation of biological functions associated with Anthemis palestina essential oil had never been reported.
Methods
The air-dried flowers of Anthemis palestina were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield the oil. The antioxidant activity of the hydrodistilled oil was characterized using various in vitro model systems such as DPPH, ferric-reducing antioxidant power and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Antibacterial activity was tested against six bacterial species, representing both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Antifungal activity was evaluated using three Candida species. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each examined microorganism was determined using the microdilution method. The oil’s antiproliferative effects against eight human cancer cell lines were also studied and the lethal doses that resulted in 50% reduction of cell viability (LD50) were determined.
Results
The results indicate that the essential oil of Anthemis palestina exhibited substantial antioxidant activities as demonstrated with DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In addition, a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of the oil was revealed with better susceptibility of Gram positive bacteria towards the oil. The MIC values ranged between 6–75 μg/ml. Besides, the oil demonstrated a moderate inhibitory effect on the three Candida species examined; with MIC values ranging between 48–95 μg/ml. Potent cytotoxic activities, especially against HeLa cell line; with LD50 of 32 μg/ml, BJAB cell line; with LD50 of 57 μg/ml, and Caco-2 cell line; with LD50 of 61 μg/ml, were observed.
Conclusion
The results obtained indicate high potential of Anthemis palestina essential oil as bioactive oil, for nutraceutical and medical applications, possessing antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-297
PMCID: PMC4133619  PMID: 25112895
Anthemis palestina; Essential (volatile) oil; Antioxidant; Antimicrobial; Antiproliferative
6.  Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS 
The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products.
doi:10.3390/ijms131114679
PMCID: PMC3509604  PMID: 23203088
Artemisia argyi; essential oil; tyrosinase; melanin; antioxidant
7.  Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and in vitro antibacterial activity of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch essential oil on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus spp. 
3 Biotech  2014;5(1):39-44.
The present study investigated the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from aerial parts (flowering stage) of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch by GC–MS. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the EO as well as its antimicrobial activity against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains was tested. Antioxidant activity was measured by the ability of the EO to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals while the antimicrobial activity was assessed by the disc-diffusion method. In total, 52 compounds were recognized, accounting for 97.33 % of the EO. The main compounds in the EO were carvacrol (22.49 %), dihydrocarvone (13.23 %), linalool (12 %), 1,8-cineol (11.42 %), camphene (8.31 %), thymol (5.28 %), camphor (3.71 %), pulegone (2.82 %) α-terpineol (2.11 %), bornyl acetate (1.14 %), and farganol (1.01 %). The EC50 value of the EO was 0.01 and 0.08 mg/mL for the antioxidant and DPPH-scavenging ability, respectively. A. wilhelmsii EO affected methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA, but the impact was more effective on MSSA.
doi:10.1007/s13205-014-0197-x
PMCID: PMC4327754
Achillea wilhelmsii; Antioxidant activity; Essential oil (EO); GC–MS; MRSA; MSSA; Staphylococcus aureus
8.  Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92122.
This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092122
PMCID: PMC3963878  PMID: 24662935
9.  Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil and its constituents furanodienone and curzerenone from Lindera pulcherrima (Nees.) Benth. ex hook. f. 
Pharmacognosy Research  2012;4(2):80-84.
Background:
Lindera pulcherrima (Nees.) Benth. ex Hook. f. (Family: Lauraceae), an evergreen shrub, is an important medicinal plant distributed in temperate Himalayan regions. The leaves and bark are used as spice in cold, fever, and cough.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, the terpenoid composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil and its major constituents are being analyzed.
Conclusion:
The in vitro antioxidant activity showed a potent free radical scavenging activity for the essential oil as evidenced by a low IC50 value for DPPH radical followed by furanodienone (0.087 ± 0.03 and 1.164 ± 0.58 mg/ml respectively) and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation for the oil and furanodienone also followed the same order (IC50 0.74 ± 0.13 and 2.12 ± 0.49 mg/ml, respectively). The oil and the constituents were also tested against three Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica enterica, and (Pasturella multocida) and one Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The essential oil was effective against S. aureus (IZ = 19.0 ± 0.34; MIC 3.90 μl/ml) while furanodienone showed potent activity against E. coli and S. enterica enterica (IZ = 18.0 ± 0.14 and 16.0 ± 0.10 respectively). On the other hand, curzerenone was found to be slightly effective against E. coli (IZ = 10.8 ± 0.52). The MIC value of the essential oil was least against S. aureus (MIC = 3.90 μl/ml) and that of furanodienone against E. coli (MIC = 3.90 μl/ml).
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.94721
PMCID: PMC3326761  PMID: 22518079
Antibacterial; antioxidant; curzerenone; furanodienone; lauraceae; lindera
10.  Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper 
The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe2+. α-Pinene, β-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α-glucosidase than α-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.
doi:10.1155/2013/926047
PMCID: PMC3856121  PMID: 24348547
11.  Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Thymus capitata Essential Oil with Its Preservative Effect against Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated in Minced Beef Meat 
The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the preservative effect of Thymus capitata essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat were evaluated. The essential oil extracted was chemically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen components were identified, of which carvacrol represented (88.89%) of the oil. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro by using both the DPPH and the ABTS assays. The findings showed that the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity, which was comparable to the reference standards (BHT and ascorbic acid) with IC50 values of 44.16 and 0.463 μg/mL determined by the free-radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Furthermore, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity using disc agar diffusion and microdilution methods. The results demonstrated that the zone of inhibition varied from moderate to strong (15–80 mm) and the minimum inhibition concentration values ranged from 0.32 to 20 mg/mL. In addition, essential oil evaluated in vivo against Listeria monocytogenes showed clear and strong inhibitory effect. The application of 0.25 or 1% (v/w) essential oil of T. capitata to minced beef significantly reduced the L. monocytogenes population when compared to those of control samples (P-value  <0.01).
doi:10.1155/2014/152487
PMCID: PMC3955612  PMID: 24719640
12.  Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) from the Pakistani Flora 
The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6 g/100 g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50 g/100 g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07 g/100 g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and β-caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching β-carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts.
doi:10.1155/2013/536490
PMCID: PMC3808703  PMID: 24224115
13.  Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of erythromycin by volatile compounds of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown against Staphylococcus aureus 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2011;7(28):334-337.
Background:
Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, popularly known as “erva-cidreira,” is commonly found in northeastern Brazil. The leaves tea is used to treat digestive disturbances, nausea, cough, and bronchitis.
Objective:
This work reports the chemical composition and erythromycin-modifying activity by gaseous contact against Staphylococcus aureus.
Materials and Methods:
The leaves of L. alba were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the essential oil extracted was evaluated for antibacterial and antibiotic-modifying activity by gaseous contact.
Results:
The overall yield of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was 0.52%. The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of the main components: geranial (31.4%) and neral (29.5%). It was verified that the essential oil interfered with erythromycin antibiotic activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 was enhanced (221.4%) in the presence of 12% essential oil. The 3% essential oil increased the effect against S. aureus ATCC 25923 (41.6%) and S. aureus ATCC 6538 (58.3%). Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.
Conclusion:
The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.90415
PMCID: PMC3261068  PMID: 22262937
Chemical composition; erythromycin; essential oil; Lippia alba; modulatory activity
14.  Assessment of Volatile Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl) Baill by HS-SPME-GC-MS Using Different Fibers 
The chemical composition of essential oil and volatile obtained from the roots of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl) Baill was performed in this work. The Clevenger extractor was utilized in hydrodistillation of oil and chemical composition determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS). The identification of compounds was confirmed by retention index (Kovats index) obtained from a series of straight chain alkanes (C7–C30) and by comparison with NIST and ADAMS library. A total of 61 compounds were identified in essential oil by GC-MS. The extraction of volatile was performed also by the use of the solid phase microextraction (SPME) with four different fibers. The essential oil extraction was extremely rapid (15 s) to avoid saturation of the fiber and the MS detector. The majority of the composition of essential oil is the terpenes: β-pinene (major compound 9.16%), β-vatirene (8.34%), α-gurjunene (6.98%), α-pinene (6.35%), camphene (4.34%), tricyclene (3.79%) and dehydro aromadendrene (3.52%) it and aldehydes and alcohols. Through the SPME it was possible to determine the nine volatile compounds not identified in oil 2,3,4-trimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, α-phellandrene, 3-carene, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, pinocamphone, D-verbenon, 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-(2-methyl-cyclopropyl)-cyclohexene, 2,4-diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene, and (6-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dimethylehenyl) methanol.
doi:10.1155/2013/352606
PMCID: PMC3859261  PMID: 24371539
15.  Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60269.
This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060269
PMCID: PMC3625181  PMID: 23593183
16.  The Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Cold-Pressed Oils 
In our study, we characterized the antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of cold-pressed macadamia, avocado, sesame, safflower, pumpkin, rose hip, Linola, flaxseed, walnut, hempseed, poppy, and milk thistle oils. The radical scavenging activity of the non-fractionated fresh oil, as well as the lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions of the oil was determined using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The fatty acid composition of the fresh and stored oils was analyzed by gas chromatography. The acid value, peroxide value, p-anisidine value and conjugated diene and triene contents in the fresh oils, as well as in those stored throughout the whole period of their shelf life, were measured by CEN ISO methods. The antioxidant activity of the oils expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ranged from 0.17 to 2.32 mM. The lipophilic fractions of the oils were characterized by much higher antioxidant activity than the hydrophilic ones. There were no significant changes in fatty acid composition and only slight changes in the oxidative stability parameters of the oils during their shelf life. Through the assessment of the relationship between antiradical activity and the oxidative stability of oils, it is proposed that a DPPH assay predicts the formation of oxidation products in cold-pressed oils—however, the correlations differ in fractionated and nonfractionated oils.
doi:10.1007/s11746-014-2479-1
PMCID: PMC4110403  PMID: 25076788
Oxidative stability; DPPH; Shelf life; Cold-pressed oils
17.  Comparative Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of the Essential Oils and Aromatic Water from Teucrium persicum Boiss 
The essential oils and aromatic water, known as Arak in traditional Iranian medicine, comes from the aerial part of Teucrium persicum Boiss., which is grown in Fars Province located in Iran. The samples were collected in summer and the oils and aromatic water were obtained through steam distillation. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using GC-MS. An analysis of the chemical profile of the isolated oils revealed the presence of more than 80 compounds, mainly oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The principal components of essential oil were α-cadinene (9.7%), 1,4-cadinadiene (9.2%) and α-terpinyl acetate (7.9%). The major constituents in the Arak were determined to be linalool (10.4%), α-cadinene (7.5%) and γ-terpineol (7.3%). Most of the compounds identified from different oils were similar, but their amounts differed. The oil revealed a higher content of total phenolics than the Arak (1.71 ± 0.12 mg GAE/g DW and 1.36 ± 0.11 mg GAE/g DW, respectively). The antioxidant activity of the oils was calculated by using a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), DPPH radical scavenging activity, and a reducing power assay (RP). The FRAP value points to a considerably higher reducing power of essential oil (220 ± 7.2 µmol Fe2+/g DW) compared to that of Arak (113 ± 5.4 µmol Fe2+/g DW). Essential oil exhibited higher radical scavenging potential (IC50 = 0.29 mg/mL) than Arak (IC50 = 4.19 mg/mL). The reducing power of essential oil (51.7 ± 4.3 µg BHA/g DW) was higher than that of Arak (34.1 ± 2.7 µg BHA/g DW). The studied essential oils showed good antioxidant activities, which were higher than those of Arak.
PMCID: PMC3832155  PMID: 24250481
Teucrium persicum Boiss; Antioxidant properties; Arraq; Essential oils; Aromatic water
18.  Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil and Extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum Grown in North-Western Himalaya 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:790580.
The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), β-fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), β-phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and α-pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as β-fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH•, reducing power and chelating ability on Fe2+ ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries.
doi:10.1155/2013/790580
PMCID: PMC3679694  PMID: 23781160
19.  The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae)  
The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC–MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 μg/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of β-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms.
PMCID: PMC3813214  PMID: 24250570
Achillea sieheana; Essential oil; Antimicrobial activity; Antioxidant activity; DPPH
20.  TLC-Bioautography and GC-MS Analyses for Detection and Identification of Antioxidant Constituents of Trachyspermum copticum Essential Oil 
The present work was designed to study the antioxidant activity and to identify the main active components of the essential oil of ajowan (Trachyspermum copticum) fruit. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil showed the presence of eight compounds. The main constituents of the oil were thymol (43.7%), p-cymene (26.8%), and γ-terpinene (24.9%). The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of ajowan oil was evaluated by using ABTS•+ and β-carotene bleaching assays. The oil exhibited a considerable dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity guided fractionation of the oil was carried out by TLC-bioautography method based on the DPPH• assay to screen and separate the main active constituents. The bioautography screening and fractionation resulted in the separation of the main antioxidant compound which was identified as thymol.
PMCID: PMC3985236  PMID: 24734063
Trachyspermum copticum; Essential oil; Antioxidant activity; Chemical composition
21.  Effect of Laurus nobilis L. Essential Oil and its Main Components on α-glucosidase and Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Activity 
The present study was designed to determine the effects of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) and its three main components on α-glucosidase and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity. The chemical composition of the essential oil from Laurus nobilis L. leaves was analyzed by GC/GC-MS and resulted in the identification of 29 compounds, representing 99.18% of the total oil. 1,8-cineole (68.82%), 1-(S)-α-pinene (6.94%), and R-(+)- limonene (3.04%) were determined to be the main components. The antioxidant features of the essential oil and its three main components were evaluated using inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals, inhibition of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation assays. The results show that the DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radical as well as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of the essential oil are greater than the positive controls and the three main components of the oil when tested independently. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the oil occurred less frequently than with 1,8-cineole and R-(+)- limonene alone, but the effects were more pronounced than those seen with 1-(S)-α-pinene and the positive controls. An α-glucosidase inhibition assay was applied to evaluate the in-vitro antidiabetic activity of the essential oil. IC50-values were obtained for laurel essential oil, 1, 8-cineole, 1-(S)-α-pinene, and R-(+)-limonene: 1.748 μL/mL, 1.118 μL/mL, 1.420 μL/mL and 1.300 μL/mL, respectively. We also found that laurel essential oil and 1, 8-cineole inhibited the α-glucosidase competitively while 1-(S)-α-pinene and R-(+)-limonene were uncompetitive inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC3813252  PMID: 24250611
α-glucosidase; 1; 8-cineole; 1-(S)-α-pinene; Essential oil; Laurus nobilis L.; R-(+)-limonene
22.  Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Heracleum transcaucasicum and Heracleum anisactis roots essential oil  
BioImpacts : BI  2014;4(2):69-74.
Introduction: In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity and volatile compositions of two Heracleum species (Apiaceae) including Heracleum transcaucasicum and Heracleum anisactis roots Essential Oil (EO) were investigated.
Methods: The volatile compositions of EOs were analyzed by GC/Mass spectroscopy. To detect the antioxidant activity of essential oils TLC-bioautography and DPPH radical scavenging assay by spectrophotometry was performed. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of two essential oils were studied and compared against four pathogenic bacteria by agar disc diffusion method and MIC values of the EOs were determined using the broth dilution method.
Results: Myristicin was the dominant component in both EOs. It was identified as 96.87% and 95.15% of the essential oil composition of H. transcaucasicum and H. anisactis roots, respectively. The TLC-bioautography showed antioxidant spots in both EOs and IC50 of H. anisactis and H. transcaucasicum EO was found to be 54 μg × ml (-1) and 77 μg × ml (-1), respectively. Regarding the antimicrobial assay, H. anisactis EO exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria and also Escherichia coli, whereas the essential oil from H. transcaucasicum was inactive.
Conclusion: Based on the results from this study, both tested EOs mainly consist of myristicin. Despite the presence of myristicin with known antibacterial property, the EO from H. transcacausicum showed no antibacterial activity. Thus it is supposed that the biological activity of plants is remarkably linked to the extracts’ chemical profile and intercomponents’ synergistic or antagonistic effect could play a crucial role in bioactivity of EOs and other plant extracts.
doi:10.5681/bi.2014.004
PMCID: PMC4097974  PMID: 25035849
TLC-bioautography; Heracleum transcaucasicum; Heracleum anisactis; GC/MS spectrometry; Myristicin; Eugenol
23.  The Dual Antimelanogenic and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li 
The antimelanogenic and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li have never been explored. The essential oil effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (EC50 = 1.57 mg/mL) and B16F10 tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 1.01 mg/mL), decreased the melanin content (EC50 = 1.04 mg/mL), and depleted the cellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) (EC50 = 1.87 mg/mL). The essential oil effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 = 0.121 mg/mL) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS+ radicals (EC50 = 0.122 mg/mL). It also exhibited an apparent reducing power (EC50 = 0.021 mg/mL) and metal-ion chelating activity (EC50 = 0.029 mg/mL). The chemical constituents of the essential oil are ethers (55.73%), ketones (19.57%), monoterpenes (7.82%), alcohols (3.85%), esters (3.77%), sesquiterpenes (3.72%), and aromatic compounds (2.85%). The results confirm that A. macrospadiceus essential oil is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of melanogenesis.
doi:10.1155/2012/781280
PMCID: PMC3523791  PMID: 23304214
24.  Chemical composition of essential oil from ripe fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and evaluation of its activity against wild strains of hospital origin 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2014;45(3):821-828.
The essential oil (EO) composition of ripe fruit of S. terebinthifolius Raddi was analyzed by GC-MS. The oil extraction yielded 6.54 ± 1.06% (w/w). Seventeen compounds were identified, accounting for 91.15% of the total oil, where monoterpenes constituted the main chemical class (85.81%), followed by sesquiterpenes (5.34%). The major monoterpene identified was δ-3-carene (30.37%), followed by limonene (17.44%), α-phellandrene (12.60%) and α-pinene (12.59%). Trans-caryophyllene (1.77%) was the major sesquiterpene identified. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against wild strains of hospital origin (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Corynebacterium sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Enterobacter agglomerans, Bacillus sp., Nocardia sp. and Streptococcus group D). The essential oil of the ripe fruit of S. terebinthifolius Raddi has shown to be active against all tested wild strains, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 3.55 μg/mL to 56.86 μg/mL. However, it has revealed some differences in susceptibility: the general, Gram-positive species showed greater sensitivity to the action of EO, which is probably due to the lower structural complexity of their cell walls.
PMCID: PMC4204964  PMID: 25477913
essential oil; Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi; GC-MS; antibacterial activity
25.  Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2014;45(3):759-767.
Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC4204956  PMID: 25477905
violacein; Chromobacterium violaceum; limonene; carvone; geranial; neral

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