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1.  Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread 
Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population's folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand's (FSANZ) custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND) was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.
PMCID: PMC3432557  PMID: 22957218
2.  Reduced expression of folate transporters in kidney of a rat model of folate oversupplementation 
Genes & Nutrition  2013;9(1):369.
Folic acid is the key one-carbon donor required for de novo nucleotide and methionine synthesis. Its deficiency is associated with megaloblastic anemia, cancer and various complications of pregnancy. However, its supplementation results in reduction of neural tube defects and prevention of several types of cancer. The intake of folic acid from fortified food together with the use of nutritional supplements creates a state of folate oversupplementation. Fortification of foods is occurring worldwide with little knowledge of the potential safety and physiologic consequences of intake of such high doses of folic acid. So, we planned to examine the effects of acute and chronic folate oversupplementation on the physiology of renal folate transport in rats. Male Wistar rats were procured and divided into two groups. Rats in group I were given semisynthetic diets containing 2 mg folic acid/kg diet (control) and those in group II were given folate-oversupplemented rat diet, i.e., 20 mg folic acid/kg diet (oversupplemented). Six animals from group I and group II received the treatment for 10 days (acute treatment) and remaining six for 60 days (chronic treatment). In acute folate-oversupplemented rats, 5-[14C]-methyltetrahydrofolate uptake was found to be significantly reduced, as compared to chronic folate-oversupplemented and control rats. This reduction in uptake was associated with a significant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of the folate transporters. Results of the present investigation showed that acute oversupplementation led to a specific and significant down-regulation of renal folate uptake process mediated via transcriptional and translational regulatory mechanism(s).
PMCID: PMC3896635  PMID: 24306960
Folate; Folate transport; FBP; PCFT; RFC; Folate oversupplementation
3.  How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study 
In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate.
The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 ± 4 yr) at 4-(n = 53) and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55).
Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively) and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L). Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and RBC (r = 0.36, P < 0.01) folate concentrations at 16-wk postpartum. Plasma and RBC folate values at 16-wk postpartum correctly identified the quartile of folate intake of only 26 of 55 (47%) and 18 of 55 (33%) of subjects, respectively. The mean RBC folate concentration of women consuming 151–410 μg/d of synthetic folate (2nd quartile of intake) did not differ from that of women consuming >410 μg/d (3rd and 4th quartile).
Folate intakes, estimated by food composition tables, and blood folate concentrations are not predictive of each other in Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate. Synthetic intakes > 151–410 μg/d in these women produced little additional benefit in terms of maximizing RBC content. More studies are needed to examine the relationship between blood folate concentration and NTD risk. Until data from such studies are available, women planning a pregnancy should continue to consume a daily folic acid supplement of 400 μg.
PMCID: PMC2231404  PMID: 17961229
4.  Folate during reproduction: the Canadian experience with folic acid fortification 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2007;1(3):163-174.
Folate has received international attention regarding its role in the risk-reduction of birth defects, specifically neural tube defects (NTDs). In 1998, health officials in Canada, like the United States, mandated the addition of folic acid to white flour and select grain products to increase the folate intake of reproductive-aged women. Subsequent to this initiative there has been an increase in blood folate concentrations in Canada and a 50% reduction in NTDs. Many countries, including Korea, have not mandated folic acid fortification of their food supply. Reasons vary but often include concern over the masking of vitamin B12 deficiency, a belief that folate intakes among womenare adequate, low priority relative to other domestic issues, and the philosophy that individuals have the right not to consume supplemental folic acid if they so choose. Prior to folic acid fortification of the food supply in Canada, the folate intakes of women were low, and their blood folate concentrations while not sufficiently low to produce overt signs of folate deficiency (eg. anemia) were inconsistent with a level known to reduce the risk of an NTD-affected pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of folate during the periconceptional period, pregnancy, and during lactation. The rationale for, and history of recommending folic acid-containing supplements during the periconceptional period and pregnancy is described as is folic acid fortification of the food supply. The impact of folic acid fortification in Canada is discussed, and unresolved issues associated with this policy described. While the incidence of NTDs in Canada pre-folic acid fortification were seemingly higherthan that of Korea today, blood folate levels of Korean women are strikingly similar. We will briefly explore these parallels in an attempt to understand whether folic acid fortification of the food supply in Korea might be worth consideration
PMCID: PMC2849017  PMID: 20368933
Folic acid; fortification; periconceptional period; pregnancy; lactation
5.  Clinical utility of folate-containing oral contraceptives 
Folate is a generic term for a water-soluble B-complex vitamin which plays an important role in protein synthesis and metabolism and other processes related to cell multiplication and tissue growth. Pregnant and lactating women are at increased risk of folic acid deficiency because generally their dietary folate is insufficient to meet their physiological requirements and the metabolic demands of the growing fetus. The evidence pertaining to the reduction of the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) due to folate is so compelling that supplementation with 400 μg of folic acid to all women trying to conceive until 12 weeks of pregnancy has been recommended by every relevant authority. A recent Cochrane review has also found protective effects of folate supplementation in occurrence and reoccurrence of NTDs. Despite food fortification and targeted public health campaigns promoting folic acid supplementation, 4,300,000 new cases occur each year worldwide resulting in an estimated 41,000 deaths and 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS). This article will review the burden and risk factors of NTDS, and the role of folate in preventing NTDs. It will also describe different modes of supplementing folate and the newer evidence of the effectiveness of adding folate in oral contraceptives for raising serum and red blood cell folate levels.
PMCID: PMC3346209  PMID: 22570577
folate; folate-containing oral contraceptives; oral contraceptives; contraceptives
6.  Folic acid and neural tube defects. Good news at last! 
Canadian Family Physician  1999;45:2605-2606.
QUESTION: I read last year that Canada has followed the United States in fortifying flour with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects. Do we know yet whether this strategy is working? ANSWER: In Canada, flour is fortified with folic acid to a level of 0.15 mg/100 g. Although a mandatory date was set for November 1, 1998, most if not all companies implemented the change on or before January 1, 1998. Recent figures from the United States, where the deadline for fortification was January 1998, show that by March 1999, mean folate levels in flour doubled, substantially decreasing the risk for neural tube defects.
PMCID: PMC2328671  PMID: 10587764
7.  Human Folate Bioavailability  
Nutrients  2011;3(4):475-490.
The vitamin folate is recognized as beneficial health-wise in the prevention of neural tube defects, anemia, cardiovascular diseases, poor cognitive performance, and some forms of cancer. However, suboptimal dietary folate intake has been reported in a number of countries. Several national health authorities have therefore introduced mandatory food fortification with synthetic folic acid, which is considered a convenient fortificant, being cost-efficient in production, more stable than natural food folate, and superior in terms of bioavailability and bioefficacy. Other countries have decided against fortification due to the ambiguous role of synthetic folic acid regarding promotion of subclinical cancers and other adverse health effects. This paper reviews recent studies on folate bioavailability after intervention with folate from food. Our conclusions were that limited folate bioavailability data are available for vegetables, fruits, cereal products, and fortified foods, and that it is difficult to evaluate the bioavailability of food folate or whether intervention with food folate improves folate status. We recommend revising the classical approach of using folic acid as a reference dose for estimating the plasma kinetics and relative bioavailability of food folate.
PMCID: PMC3257685  PMID: 22254106
folate; folic acid; human bioavailability; intervention trials; post-dose plasma kinetics
8.  Neural Tube Defects, Folate, and Immune Modulation 
Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid has led to a significant worldwide reduction in the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, despite increasing awareness of the benefits of folic acid supplementation and the implementation of food fortification programs in many countries, NTDs continue to be a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, there exists a significant subgroup of women who appear to be resistant to the protective effects of folic acid supplementation. The following review addresses emerging clinical and experimental evidence for a role of the immune system in the etiopathogenesis of NTDs, with the aim of developing novel preventative strategies to further reduce the incidence of NTD-affected pregnancies. In particular, recent studies demonstrating novel roles and interactions between innate immune factors such as the complement cascade, neurulation, and folate metabolism are explored.
PMCID: PMC4053177  PMID: 24078477
complement; C5a; neural tube defects; folate; neurulation
9.  Neural Tube Defects and Maternal Folate Intake Among Pregnancies Conceived After Folic Acid Fortification in the United States 
Rates of neural tube defects have decreased since folic acid fortification of the food supply in the United States. The authors’ objective was to evaluate the associations between neural tube defects and maternal folic acid intake among pregnancies conceived after fortification. This is a multicenter, case-control study that uses data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1998–2003. Logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds ratios between cases and controls assessing maternal periconceptional use of folic acid and intake of dietary folic acid. Among 180 anencephalic cases, 385 spina bifida cases, and 3, 963 controls, 21.1%, 25.2%, and 26.1%, respectively, reported periconceptional use of folic acid supplements. Periconceptional supplement use did not reduce the risk of having a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect. Maternal intake of dietary folate was not significantly associated with neural tube defects. In this study conducted among pregnancies conceived after mandatory folic acid fortification, the authors found little evidence of an association between neural tube defects and maternal folic acid intake. A possible explanation is that folic acid fortification reduced the occurrence of folic acid-sensitive neural tube defects. Further investigation is warranted to possibly identify women who remain at increased risk of preventable neural tube defects.
PMCID: PMC3139973  PMID: 18953063
folic acid; neural tube defects
10.  Folate Status of Reproductive Age Women and Neural Tube Defect Risk: The Effect of Long-Term Folic Acid Supplementation at Doses of 140 µg and 400 µg per Day 
Nutrients  2011;3(1):49-62.
Primary prevention of most folate-responsive neural tube defects (NTDs) may not require 400 μg folic acid/day but may be achieved by attaining a high maternal folate status. Using RBC folate ≥906 nmol/L as a marker for NTD risk reduction, the study aimed to determine the change in blood folate concentrations in reproductive age women in response to long-term folic acid supplementation at 400 µg/day and 140 µg/day (dose designed to mimic the average daily folic acid intake received from New Zealand’s proposed mandatory bread fortification program). Participants were randomly assigned to a daily folic acid supplement of 140 µg (n = 49), 400 µg (n = 48) or placebo (n = 47) for 40 weeks. RBC folate concentrations were measured at baseline, and after 6, 12, 29 and 40 weeks. At 40 weeks, the overall prevalence of having a RBC folate <906 nmol/L decreased to 18% and 35% in the 400 µg and 140 µg groups, respectively, while remaining relatively unchanged at 58% in the placebo group. After 40 weeks, there was no evidence of a difference in RBC folate between the two treatment groups (P = 0.340), nor was there evidence of a difference in the odds of a RBC folate <906 nmol/L (P = 0.078). In conclusion, the average daily intake of folic acid received from the proposed fortification program would increase RBC folate concentrations in reproductive age women to levels associated with a low risk of NTDs.
PMCID: PMC3257734  PMID: 22254076
neural tube defects; blood folate status; folic acid fortification; supplementation
11.  The use of folic acid for the prevention of birth defects in Puerto Rico 
Ethnicity & disease  2008;18(2 Suppl 2):S2-168-71.
The occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been shown to vary by race/ethnicity, with the highest rates among women of Hispanic ethnicity. Women of reproductive age are advised to use folic acid to prevent NTD and other birth defects. Since 1994, Puerto Rico has a campaign to promote the use of folic acid and since 1998 there is fortification of enriched grain products. After fortification, there has been a reduction in the incidence of NTD in the island. The objective of this study is to assess the use of folic acid by women of reproductive age in Puerto Rico and determine factors associated to its use.
A self-administered questionnaire was answered by 964 women around the island.
Folic acid consumption was reported by 30% of the participants, 21% reported to consume it at least 4 times per week, and only 14% consumed it the day before the survey. Knowledge about the recommendation for women to consume folic acid was reported by 97% of the participants. The use of folic acid was lower among women of lower education and lower social class. Women with higher education were 8.3 times more likely to consume folic acid.
The folic acid campaign has improved women’s knowledge about the recommendation for folic acid supplementation. Nevertheless, its use is lower than desired to continue reducing the incidence of birth defects in Puerto Rico. Education and social class continue to represent barriers to eliminate the disparities in the pre-conception health of our population.
PMCID: PMC2747812  PMID: 18646342
Folic acid; Birth defects; Neural tube defects
12.  Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Uptake of Folic Acid Supplementation in Nearly Half a Million Women 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89354.
Taking folic acid supplements before pregnancy to reduce the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD) is especially important in countries without universal folic acid fortification. The extent of folic acid supplementation among women who had antenatal screening for Down’s syndrome and NTDs at the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, London between 1999 and 2012 was assessed.
Methods and Findings
466,860 women screened provided details on folic acid supplementation. The proportion of women who took folic acid supplements before pregnancy was determined according to year and characteristics of the women. The proportion of women taking folic acid supplements before pregnancy declined from 35% (95% CI 34%–35%) in 1999–2001 to 31% (30%–31%) in 2011–2012. 6% (5%–6%) of women aged under 20 took folic acid supplements before pregnancy compared with 40% of women aged between 35 and 39. Non-Caucasian women were less likely to take folic acid supplements before pregnancy than Caucasian women; Afro-Caribbean 17% (16%–17%), Oriental 25% (24%–25%) and South Asian 20% (20%–21%) compared with 35% (35%–35%) for Caucasian women. 51% (48%–55%) of women who previously had an NTD pregnancy took folic acid supplements before the current pregnancy.
The policy of folic acid supplementation is failing and has led to health inequalities. This study demonstrates the need to fortify flour and other cereal grain with folic acid in all countries of the world.
PMCID: PMC3929694  PMID: 24586711
13.  A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects 
Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD). In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention.
This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I) Determination of rates of NTDs; II) Dietary assessment; III) Blood analysis; IV) Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements.
The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34). The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86%) after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35). The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%.
Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the current levels. Public education regarding folic acid supplement use by women of childbearing age should also continue.
PMCID: PMC524178  PMID: 15450123
14.  A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Folic Acid Fortification Policy in the United States 
Public health nutrition  2008;12(4):10.1017/S1368980008002565.
To quantify the health and economic outcomes associated with changes in folic acid consumption following fortification of enriched grain products in the United States.
Cost-effectiveness analysis.
Annual burden of disease, quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), and costs were projected for four steady-state strategies: no fortification or fortifying with 140, 350, or 700 micrograms (mcg) folic acid per 100 grams (g) enriched grain. The analysis considered four health outcomes: neural tube defects (NTDs); myocardial infarctions (MIs); colon cancers; and B-12 deficiency maskings.
U.S. adult population subgroups defined by age, gender, and race/ethnicity, with folate intake distributions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1992 and 1999-2000), and reference sources for disease incidence, utility, and economic estimates.
The greatest benefits from fortification were predicted in MI prevention, with 16,862 and 88,172 cases averted per year in steady state for the 140-mcg and 700-mcg fortification levels, respectively. These projections were 6,261 and 38,805 for colon cancer and 182 and 1,423 for NTDs, while 15 to 820 additional B-12 cases were predicted. Compared with no fortification, all post-fortification strategies provided QALY gains and cost savings for all subgroups, with predicted population benefits of 266,649 QALYs gained and $3.6 billion saved in the long run by changing the fortification level from 140-mcg/100-g enriched grain to 700-mcg/100-g.
This study indicates that the health and economic gains of folic acid fortification far outweigh the losses for the U.S. population, and that increasing the level of fortification deserves further consideration to maximize net gains.
PMCID: PMC3856722  PMID: 18590584
Cost-effectiveness analysis; folic acid fortification; prenatal and maternal nutrition; health policy
15.  Folic acid to reduce neonatal mortality from neural tube disorders 
International Journal of Epidemiology  2010;39(Suppl 1):i110-i121.
Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) remain an important, preventable cause of mortality and morbidity. High-income countries have reported large reductions in NTDs associated with folic acid supplementation or fortification. The burden of NTDs in low-income countries and the effectiveness of folic acid fortification/supplementation are unclear.
Objective To review the evidence for, and estimate the effect of, folic acid fortification/supplementation on neonatal mortality due to NTDs, especially in low-income countries.
Methods We conducted systematic reviews, abstracted data meeting inclusion criteria and evaluated evidence quality using adapted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were performed.
Results Meta-analysis of three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of folic acid supplementation for women with a previous pregnancy with NTD indicates a 70% [95% confidence interval (CI): 35–86] reduction in recurrence (secondary prevention). For NTD primary prevention through folic acid supplementation, combining one RCT with three cohort studies which adjusted for confounding, suggested a reduction of 62% (95% CI: 49–71). A meta-analysis of eight population-based observational studies examining folic acid food fortification gave an estimated reduction in NTD incidence of 46% (95% CI: 37–54). In low-income countries an estimated 29% of neonatal deaths related to visible congenital abnormalities are attributed to NTD. Assuming that fortification reduces the incidence of NTDs, but does not alter severity or case-fatality rates, we estimate that folic acid fortification could prevent 13% of neonatal deaths currently attributed to congenital abnormalities in low-income countries.
Discussion Scale-up of periconceptional supplementation programmes is challenging. Our final effect estimate was therefore based on folic acid fortification data. If folic acid food fortification achieved 100% population coverage the number of NTDs in low-income countries could be approximately halved.
Conclusion The evidence supports both folic acid supplementation and fortification as effective in reducing neonatal mortality from NTDs.
PMCID: PMC2845867  PMID: 20348114
Neonatal mortality; folic acid; neural tube defects; pregnancy; infant; newborn; Neural Tube Defects/mortality/prevention & control; dietary supplements
16.  Celiac disease during pregnancy. 
Canadian Family Physician  2004;50:1361-1363.
QUESTION: One of my patients was diagnosed with celiac disease and maintains a strict gluten-free diet. Is her fetus at risk of neural tube defects because she does not get folic acid from bread and other flour-based foods? ANSWER: A woman with celiac disease must supplement her diet with multivitamins, including folic acid. Most prenatal vitamins contain 0.8 to 0.9 mg of folic acid, double the amount recommended by Health Canada for prevention of neural tube defects. Without supplementation (eg, undiagnosed pregnancy), women with celiac disease might not take in enough folate to maintain protective levels.
PMCID: PMC2214515  PMID: 15526871
17.  Incidence of open neural tube defects in Nova Scotia after folic acid fortification 
With the goal of preventing open neural tube defects (NTDs), recommendations for folic acid supplementation before conception were introduced in Canada in 1994, and by November 1998 Canadian grain products were being fortified with folic acid. We wished to determine whether the annual incidence of open NTDs in Nova Scotia, including those in stillbirths and terminated pregnancies, changed after the introduction of either folic acid supplementation or fortification.
For the 10-year period from Jan. 1, 1991, to Dec. 31, 2000, we retrospectively extracted the total number of births in Nova Scotia and the number of live births and stillbirths with open NTDs from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database as well as the number of terminated pregnancies affected by NTDs from the Fetal Anomaly Database. We determined the total annual incidence of all open NTDs, and of the subgroups spina bifida and anencephaly, per 1000 births in the province during the periods before (1991–1994) and after (1995–1998) folic acid supplementation initiatives were begun but before folic acid fortification of grain products was implemented, and during the periods before (1991–1997) and after (1998–2000) fortification.
In the period after supplementation initiatives were begun but before fortification was implemented, the incidence of open NTDs did not change significantly: the mean annual rate was 2.55 per 1000 births during 1991–1994 and 2.61 per 1000 births during 1995–1997 (relative risk [RR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77–1.35). After the fortification was implemented the incidence of open NTDs decreased by more than 50%: the mean annual rate was 2.58 per 1000 births during 1991–1997 and 1.17 per 1000 births during 1998–2000 (relative risk 0.46, 95% CI 0.32–0.66).
The recommendations for folic acid supplementation alone did not appear to succeed in reducing the incidence of open NTDs in Nova Scotia, whereas the fortification of grain products with folic acid did result in a significant reduction in the incidence.
PMCID: PMC117468  PMID: 12186168
18.  Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse 
Brain  2013;136(9):2836-2841.
Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.
PMCID: PMC3754462  PMID: 23935126
neural tube defects; spina bifida; embryo; nucleotides; curly tail
19.  Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions 
Nutrients  2011;3(3):370-384.
Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman’s risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs.
PMCID: PMC3257747  PMID: 22254102
folic acid; flour fortification; neural tube defects; cancer; epigenetics
20.  Folic Acid Supplementation for Women of Childbearing Age versus Supplementation for the General Population: A Review of the Known Advantages and Risks 
This paper focuses on the current best-evidence-based clinical practices and controversies surrounding folic acid supplementation/fortification for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) during early pregnancy. The paper also discusses the controversies surrounding the effect of folic acid on the prevention as well as the promotion of cancer. Sufficient data is available to safely conclude that folic acid reduces the risk of NTDs during pregnancy; however, a safe dosage has not yet been calculated for the rest of the population. More research is necessary to study the complete role of folic acid in human growth and development.
PMCID: PMC3263835  PMID: 22295182
21.  Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study 
Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD).
The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628).
The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and socioeconomic, health and dietary variables.
Our findings do not support a protective effect of dietary folate intake or folic acid supplementation on spontaneous PTD. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation starting more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk of PTD. These results require further investigation before discussing an expansion of folic acid supplementation guidelines.
PMCID: PMC3751653  PMID: 23937678
Pregnancy; Preterm delivery; Preterm birth; Gestational length; Folate; Folic acid supplementation
22.  Folate and colorectal cancer prevention 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;100(2):233-239.
Anti-folate chemotherapy agents such as methotrexate and fluorouracil reduce proliferation of neoplastic cells by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Paradoxically epidemiological data suggests an inverse relationship between dietary folate intake and incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). On the basis of this and other putative health benefits around 35% of the North American population take folic acid supplements, in addition to natural food folates and fortified flour and cereal grains. Recently, randomised controlled trials investigating folic acid as a secondary preventative agent in colorectal neoplasia have shed further light on the relationship between folate and colorectal carcinogenesis, corroborating data from animal models indicating opposing effects dependent on the timing of exposure in relation to the development of neoplastic foci. A ‘dual-modulator' role for folate in colorectal carcinogenesis has been proposed in which moderate dietary increases initiated before the establishment of neoplastic foci have a protective influence, whereas excessive intake or increased intake once early lesions are established increases tumorigenesis. Functional polymorphic variants in genes encoding key enzymes in the folate metabolic pathway add a further layer of complexity to the relationship between folate and CRC risk. Here, we review the evidence concerning the efficacy and safety of folate as a potential CRC chemopreventive agent.
PMCID: PMC2634716  PMID: 19088716
folate; colorectal cancer; prevention
23.  Factors contributing to the success of folic acid public health campaigns 
Studies in the 1990s have found that periconceptional dietary folate, supplementation of folic acid or supplemental multivitamins containing folic acid, help prevent neural tube defect (NTDs) if taken at the right time. This literature review assesses the extant folic acid public health campaigns literature and identifies some common variables used in folic acid consumption campaign evaluations.
This review was part of a larger study that searched PUBMED, PsycINFO and Embase from 1976 to 2010 to identify articles related to the psychosocial and economic impact of NTDs (especially spina bifida) on patients and caregivers.
Awareness of folic acid levels prior to conception improved post-campaign from 6 to 41%. Knowledge about consumption and correct periconceptional use of folic acid also improved. However, in most studies more than 50% of women did not take folic acid as prescribed. Many factors were associated with or without taking folic acid post-campaign, including incomplete outreach, prior awareness and knowledge, closeness to pregnancy, demographics and other personal characteristics.
Sustained campaigning to maintain awareness about and promote periconceptional consumption of folic acid in order to reduce the incidence of NTDs is clearly needed. Additional initiatives could complement existing public health strategies.
PMCID: PMC3285116  PMID: 21727078
awareness; campaigns; consumption; folic acid; knowledge
24.  Identifying women who might benefit from higher doses of folic acid in pregnancy 
Canadian Family Physician  2012;58(4):394-397.
Question One of my epileptic patients who takes carbamazepine is planning to become pregnant. She told me that Motherisk advised her to take 5 mg of folic acid daily until the end of the first trimester. Are there other women who need more than the regular dose of folic acid included in prenatal vitamins?
Answer Women who are at high risk of having babies with neural tube defects and who would benefit from higher doses of folic acid include those with certain folate-enzyme genotypes, previous pregnancies with neural tube defects, diabetes, malabsorption disorders, or obesity, or those who take antifolate medications or smoke. Such women should take 5 mg/d of folic acid for the 2 months before conception and during the first trimester.
PMCID: PMC3325450  PMID: 22499814
25.  Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies 
Lancet neurology  2013;12(8):799-810.
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders.
PMCID: PMC4023229  PMID: 23790957

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