The Child Perceptions Questionnaires (CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14) are indicators of child oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the self-applied CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 in Brazilian children, after translations and cultural adaptations in the Brazilian Portuguese language.
Schoolchildren were recruited from general populations for pre-testing (n = 80), validity (n = 210), and test-retest reliability (n = 50) studies. They were also examined for dental caries, gingivitis, fluorosis, and malocclusion.
Children with greater dental caries experience in primary dentition had higher impacts on CPQ domains. Girls had higher scores for CPQ8–10 domains than boys. Mean CPQ11–14 scores were highest for 11-year-old children and lowest for 14-year-old children. Construct validity was supported by significant associations between the CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 scores and the global rating of oral health (r = 0.38, r = 0.43) and overall well-being (r = 0.39, r = 0.60), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.95 for both questionnaires. The test-retest reliabilities of the overall CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 scores were both excellent (ICC = 0.96, ICC = 0.92).
The Brazilian Portuguese version of CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 was valuable and reliable for use in the Brazilian child population, although discriminant validity was sporadic due to the fact that impacts are mediated by others factors, such personal, social, and environmental variables.
The Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) is the most commonly used indicator of child oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and its validity and reliability have been studied both in English and in other linguistic contexts. The aim of this study was to develop a CPQ11-14 for use in Italy and to test its validity in a random sample of fourteen year-old Italian adolescents.
Once the CPQ11-14was translated into Italian and adapted for an Italian public, five hundred sixty-one adolescents were recruited for testing. Parents rated their social status; the children/adolescents were administered the questionnaire and underwent a dental examination during which their dental status was taken and recorded. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the questionnaire’s internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess construct validity between the total and subscale scores and the respondents’ global ratings on oral health and well-being. Discriminant validity was analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis or Mann–Whitney tests in groups defined by gender, social position, caries experience and previous or no orthodontic treatment.
The mean score on the CPQ11-14 was 15.4 (SD=11.9), and the scores on all the domains were found to be highly skewed. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.85 to 0.90. The global ratings on oral health and well-being were correlated to the total score and to the sub-scores except for those regarding the functional limitations. There were significant differences in the two genders, in the groups that had already or had not yet undergone orthodontic treatment, and in the social classification groups, while the difference between those who had and those who did not have caries experience did not reach statistical significance.
The Italian version of the CPQ11-14 appears to be a reliable, valid instrument for Italian children/adolescents.
Oral health; Quality of life; CPQ; Validity; Caries; Social position
Paediatric oral disorders are numerous and it can be assumed that those have negative effect on the life quality in children. From 2002 to 2006 were developed the life quality measures for children aged 8-10 and 11-14 years, Child Perceptions Questionnaires, CPQs. Those are the components of the Child Oral Health Quality of Life Questionnaire (COHQOL).
The aim of this study was to translate the CPQ for children 8 to 10 years into the one of the languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina, to cross-culturaly adapt the instrument, and to evaluate its comprehensibility among Bosnian language speaking children.
Instrument was translated from English into the Bosnian language according to the recommended translation procedure. After the cultural adaptation, questionnaire was tested among 8–10 years old children (N=18).
During the cultural adaptation of the instrument, changes were made on three questions. One question had to be changed due to understanding difficulties.
CPQ8-10 was translated and culturaly adapted. Testing among children showed that the Bosnia-Herzegovina version of the CPQ8–10 is comprehensive and it can be used for measuring oral health-related quality of life in children this age.
CPQ8-10; translation; validation.
In dentistry, measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) provide essential information for assessing treatment needs, making clinical decisions and evaluating interventions, services and programmes. The two most common measures used to examine child OHRQoL today are the Child Perceptions Questionnaire at two ages, 8–10 and 11–14 (CPQ8-10, CPQ11-14). The reliability and validity of these two versions have been demonstrated together with that (more recently) of the short-form 16-item impact version of the CPQ11-14. This study set out to examine the reliability and validity of the Child Oral Health Quality of Life Questionnaires (COHQOL) instruments the CPQ8-10 and impact short-form CPQ11-14 in 5-to-8-year-old New Zealand children, and to determine whether a single measure for children aged 5–14 is feasible.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 5-to-8-year-old children attending for dental treatment in community clinics in 2011. Children were examined for dental caries, with OHRQoL measured using the CPQ8-10 and short-form CPQ11-14. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing mean scale scores across ordinal categories of caries experience; correlational construct validity was assessed by comparing mean CPQ scores across children’s global ratings of oral health and well-being.
The 183 children (49.7% female) aged 5 to 8 years who took part in the study represent a 98.4% participation rate. The overall mean dmft was 6.0 (SD, 2.0 range 1 to 13). Both questionnaire versions detected differences in the impact of dental caries on quality of life, with the greatest scores in the expected direction. Both versions showed higher scores among those with poorer oral health. There was a very strong and positive correlation between CPQ11-14 scores and CPQ8-10 scores (Pearsons’s r = 0.98; P < 0.01).
The performance of both versions of the COHQOL measures (CPQ8-10 and short-form CPQ11-14) appears to be acceptable in this younger age group, and this work represents the first stage in validating this questionnaire in a younger age group. It also further confirms that younger children are capable of providing their own perceptions of oral health impacts. The acceptability of the short-from CPQ11-14 in this younger age group lends support to its use in children between ages 5 and 14.
Children; Indexes; Health status indicators; Validity
Objectives: Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments, such as the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14), are broadly used in oral health surveys around the world. However, there is a lack of these instruments in Spanish language limiting the comparison of OHRQoL outcomes among countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt the CPQ11-14 to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity.
Material and Methods: To test the translation and cross-cultural adaptation, 60 children aged 11-to-14-years answered the CPQ11-14 in two pilot tests. After that, the questionnaire was tested on 200 children of the same age, who were clinically examined for dental caries. The internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the CPQ11-14 on the same 200 children facilitated the test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the CPQ11-14 with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups respectively.
Results: The mean (standard deviation) CPQ11-14 score was 20.18(13.07). Internal consistency was confirmed by a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.81. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC= 0.92). Construct validity was confirmed demonstrating statistically significant associations between total CPQ11-14 score and global ratings of oral health (p=0.035) and overall well-being (p<0.001). The measure was also able to discriminate between children with dental caries experience and those without (mean scores: 26.32 and 12.96 respectively; p<0.001).
Conclusions: The Spanish CPQ11-14 has satisfactory psychometric properties and is applicable to children in Peru.
Key words:Oral health, quality of life, children, adolescent, validity, reliability.
Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments are being used with increasing frequency in oral health surveys. However, these instruments are not available in all countries or all languages. The availability of cross-culturally valid, multi-lingual versions of instruments is important for epidemiological research. The Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11–14 (CPQ11–14) is an OHRQoL instrument that assesses the impact of oral conditions on the quality of life of children and adolescents. The objective of the current study was to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of CPQ11–14 for the Brazilian Portuguese language.
After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the CPQ 11–14 was tested on 160 11-to-14-year-old children who were clinically and radiographically examined for the presence or absence of dental caries. The children were receiving dental care at the Pediatric Dental and Orthodontic clinics of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To test the quality of the translation, 17 children answered the questionnaire. The internal consistency of the instrument was assessed by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient and the test-retest reliability by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
The mean CPQ11–14 score were 24.5 [standard deviation (SD) 18.27] in the group with caries and 12.89 [SD 10.95] in the group without caries. Median scores were 20 and 10 in the groups with and without caries, respectively (p < 0.001). Significant associations were identified between caries status and all CPQ domains (p < 0.05). Internal reliability was confirmed by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.86. Test-retest reliability revealed satisfactory reproducibility (ICC = 0.85). The questionnaire proved to be a valid instrument. Construct validity was satisfactory, demonstrating highly significant correlations with global indicators for the total scale and subscales. The CPQ11–14 score was able to discriminate between different oral conditions (groups without and with untreated caries).
The present study demonstrated that the CPQ11–14 is applicable to children in Brazil. It has satisfactory psychometric properties, but further research is required to evaluate these properties in a population study.
The need to evaluate the impact of oral health has led to the development of instruments for measuring oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL). One such instrument is the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11–14), developed specifically for 11-to-14-year-old children. As this questionnaire was considered long (37 items), shorter forms were developed with 8 (Impact Short Form: 8 – ISF:8) and 16 items (Impact Short Form: 16 – ISF:16) to facilitate use in the clinical setting and population-based health surveys. The aim of the present study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt these CPQ11–14 short forms for Brazilian Portuguese and evaluate the measurement properties of these versions for use on Brazilian children.
Following translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the ISF:8 and ISF:16 were tested on 136 children from 11 to 14 years of age in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The instrument was administered by a trained researcher who also performed clinical examinations. The measurement properties (i.e. criterion validity, construct validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability) were determined. Discriminant validity was tested between groups, which were divided into children with no cavities and no malocclusion; children with cavities and without malocclusion; and children with malocclusion and without cavities.
The mean total score was 6.8 [standard deviation (SD) 4.2] for the ISF:8 and 11.9 (SD 7.6) for the ISF:16 (p < 0.001). Statistically significant associations were found between oral abnormalities and the subscales of the ISF:8 and ISF:16 (p < 0.05). Both test-retest stability and internal consistency, as measured by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) (ISF:8 = 0.98 and ISF:16 = 0.97) and Cronbach's alpha (ISF:8 = 0.70 and ISF:16 = 0.84) proved to be adequate. Construct validity was confirmed from the correlation between the short form scores and oral health and overall well-being ratings. The score on the short forms of the CPQ11–14 was able to discriminate between different oral conditions. Criterion validity was satisfactory (p < 0.05).
The Brazilian versions of CPQ11–14 ISF:8 and ISF:16 have satisfactory psychometric properties, similar to those of the original instrument.
The Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) is a self-report instrument developed to measure oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in 11-14-year-olds. Earlier reports confirm that the 16-item short-form version performs adequately, but there is a need to determine the measure's validity and properties in larger and more diverse samples and settings.
The objective of this study was to examine the performance of the 16-item short-form impact version of the CPQ11-14 in different communities and cultures with diverse caries experience.
Cross-sectional epidemiological surveys of child oral health were conducted in two regions of New Zealand, one region in Brunei, and one in Brazil. Children were examined for dental caries (following WHO guidelines), and OHRQoL was measured using the 16-item short-form item-impact version of the CPQ11-14, along with two global questions on OHRQoL. Children in the 20% with the greatest caries experience (DMF score) were categorised as the highest caries quintile. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing the mean scale scores across the categories of caries experience; correlational construct validity was assessed by comparing mean scores and children's global ratings of oral health and well-being.
There were substantial variations in caries experience among the different communities (from 1.8 in Otago to 4.9 in Northland) and in mean CPQ11-14 scores (from 11.5 in Northland to 16.8 in Brunei). In all samples, those in the most severe caries experience quintile had higher mean CPQ11-14 scores than those who were caries-free (P < 0.05). There were also greater CPQ scores in those with worse self-rated oral health, with the Otago sample presenting the most marked gradient across the response categories for self-rated oral health, from 'Excellent' to 'Fair/Poor' (9.6 to 19.7 respectively).
The findings suggest that the 16-item short-form item impact version of the CPQ11-14 performs well across diverse cultures and levels of caries experience. Reasons for the differences in mean CPQ scores among the communities are unclear and may reflect subtle socio-cultural differences in subjective oral health among these populations, but elucidating these requires further exploration of the face and content validity of the measure in different populations.
Adolescents; caries experience; quality of life; validity; short-form CPQ11-14
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children and adolescents with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) has not yet been measured. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of OHRQoL measure for use in children and preadolescents with signs and symptoms of TMD.
Five hundred and forty-seven students aged 8-14 years were recruited from public schools in Piracicaba, Brazil. Self-perceptions of QoL were measured using the Brazilian Portuguese versions of Child Perceptions Questionnaires (CPQ)8-10 (n = 247) and CPQ11-14 (n = 300). A single examiner, trained and calibrated for diagnosis according to the Axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), examined the participants. A self-report questionnaire assessed subjective symptoms of TMD. Intraexaminer reliability was assessed for the RDC/TMD clinical examinations using Cohen's Kappa (κ) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Criterion validity was calculated using the Spearman's correlation, construct validity using the Spearman's correlation and the Mann-Whitney test, and the magnitude of the difference between groups using effect size (ES). Reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha, alpha if the item was deleted and corrected item-total correlation.
Intraexaminer reliability values ranged from regular (κ = 0.30) to excellent (κ = 0.96) for the categorical variables and from moderate (ICC = 0.49) to substantial (ICC = 0.74) for the continuous variables. Criterion validity was supported by significant associations between both CPQ scores and pain-related questions for the TMD groups. Mean CPQ8-10 scores were slightly higher for TMD children than control children (ES = 0.43). Preadolescents with TMD had moderately higher scores than the control ones (ES = 0.62; p < 0.0001). Significant correlation between the CPQ scores and global oral health, as well as overall well-being ratings (p < 0.001) occurred, supporting the construct validity. The Cronbach's alphas were 0.93 for CPQ8-10 and 0.94 for CPQ11-14. For the overall CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14 scales, the corrected item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.39-0.76 and from 0.28-0.73, respectively. The alpha coefficients did not increase when any of the items were deleted in either CPQ samples.
The questionnaires are valid and reliable for use in children and preadolescents with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder.
The Child Perceptions Questionnaire for children aged 11 to 14 years (CPQ11–14) is a 37-item measure of oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) encompassing four domains: oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional and social well-being. To facilitate its use in clinical settings and population-based health surveys, it was shortened to 16 and 8 items. Item impact and stepwise regression methods were used to produce each version. This paper describes the developmental process, compares the discriminative properties of the resulting four short-forms and evaluates their precision relative to the original CPQ11–14.
The item impact method used data from the CPQ11–14 item reduction study to select the questions with the highest impact scores in each domain. The regression method, where the dependent variable was the overall CPQ11–14 score and the independent variables its individual questions, was applied to the data collected in the validity study for the CPQ11–14. The measurement properties (i.e. criterion validity, construct validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability) of all 4 short-forms were evaluated using the data from the validity and reliability studies for the CPQ11–14.
All short forms detected substantial variability in children's OHRQoL. The mean scores on the two 16-item questionnaires were almost identical, while on the two 8-item questionnaires they differed by only one score point. The mean scores standardized to 0–100 were higher on the short forms than the original CPQ11–14 (p < 0.001). There were strong significant correlations between all short-form scores and CPQ11–14 scores (0.87–0.98; p < 0.001). Hypotheses concerning construct validity were confirmed: the short-forms' scores were highest in the oro-facial, lower in the orthodontic and lowest in the paediatric dentistry group; all short-form questionnaires were positively correlated with the ratings of oral health and overall well-being, with the correlation coefficient being higher for the latter. The relative validity coefficients were 0.85 to 1.18. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged 0.71–0.83 and 0.71–0.77, respectively.
All short forms demonstrated excellent criterion validity and good construct validity. The reliability coefficients exceeded standards for group-level comparisons. However, these are preliminary findings based on the convenience sampling and further testing in replicated studies involving clinical and general samples of children in various settings is necessary to establish measurement sensitivity and discriminative properties of these questionnaires.
Recent researches have pointed out the need to consider the functional and psychosocial dimensions of oral health, such as Oral Health-related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral health status, socioeconomic factors and home environment of children on the four health domains of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14).
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Brazil with a sample of 286 schoolchildren aged 12 years and their parents. The schoolchildren were clinically examined, and participants were asked to complete the CPQ11-14, as well as a questionnaire about home environment. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to each child’s parents asking them about family socioeconomic status. The chi-square test and Poisson’s regression analysis were performed.
After adjusting for potential confounders, variables sex, monthly family income, mothers’ education showed a statistically significant association with all health domains of the CPQ11-14. The family structure and presence of bleeding impacted on emotional (p = 0.0135), and social (p = 0.0010) well-being health domain scores. Orthodontic treatment need showed a strong negative effect on functional limitations domain score (p = 0.0021).
Clinical and socio-environmental factors had different impacts on domains of oral health-related quality of life, demonstrating the need to consider these conditions in planning strategies for the oral health of schoolchildren.
The objective of this study was to assess the perceived oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) of adolescents affected with one of the ectodermal dysplasias (EDs).
Data were collected from 2003 to 2007 in a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of individuals affected by ED (n=35) using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire(CPQ11–14)for children and the Parent-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) for their caregivers. The main findings of this study were that individuals who were affected with ED in the older age group (15–19 years old) perceived more functional problems than younger individuals (11–14 years old) (p=0.04). Females with ED (n= 13) perceived more emotional problems than males (n=22; p=0.01). Although caregivers tended to report slightly higher OHQoL scores (indicating worse OHQoL), no significant differences were observed between children’s and parents’ total OHQoL and individual domains’ median scores (p>0.05). Thus, the perceptions of oral health and well-being may vary by age and gender for children who have ED. Caution is warranted concerning using parents as proxies for their children when assessing the child’s OHQoL.
ectodermal dysplasias; oral health-related quality of life; children; teenagers; parents; perceptions
Traumatic dental injury (TDI) could have physical and psychosocial consequences for children. Thus, it is important to measure the impact of TDI on the quality of life of children (QoL). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between treated/untreated TDI and the impact on the quality of life of 11-to-14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren.
A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1612 male and female schoolchildren aged 11 to 14 years attending public and private elementary schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select the children. Three calibrated examiners used the Andreasen classification for the diagnosis of TDI. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) - Impact Short Form (ISF:16), composed of 16 items and self-administered by all children. Other oral conditions (dental caries and malocclusion) and the Social Vulnerability Index were determined and used as controlling variables.
Two hundred nineteen children were diagnosed with untreated TDI and 64 were diagnosed with treated TDI. There were no statistically significant associations between untreated or treated TDI and overall CPQ11-14 (Fisher = 0.368 and Fisher = 0.610, respectively). Children with an untreated TDI were 1.4-fold (95% CI = 1.1-2.1) more likely to report impact on the item "avoided smiling/laughing" than those without TDI, whereas children with a treated TDI were twofold (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) more likely to report impact on the item "other children asked questions" than those without TDI.
Neither treated nor untreated TDI was associated with oral symptoms, functional limitations or emotional wellbeing. However, children with a TDI in the anterior teeth experienced a negative impact on social wellbeing, mainly with regard to avoiding smiling or laughing and being concerned about what other people may think or say.
Children’s oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) evaluates the impacts of oral daily activities of children and family on quality of life. Oral health related quality of life as outcome can be used to evaluate the dental health services. This study aimed to assess the extent to which dental treatment under general anesthesia affects quality of life of children and their families.
One hundred parents of 3-10 year-old children who needed dental treatment under general anesthesia completed a parent-children perception questionnaire (P-CPQ) and family impact scale (FIS) before, and 4 weeks after dental treatment under general anesthesia. The questionnaire had statements related to oral health, functional limitation, emotional state and well being social well-being and family issues. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5.
The mean scores and standard deviations of oral health quality of life of the children before and after dental treatment were 43.3 ± 7.14 and 39.24 ± 5.47 respectively. The mean scores of FIS before and after dental treatment were 8.00 ± 3.21 and 3.66 ± 2.62, respectively. The effect size of mean differences in P-CPQ and FIS scores were 1.84 ± 1.64 and 1.35 ± 4.34, respectively.
Provision of dental treatment under general anesthesia for uncooperative, young children with extensive dental problems had significant effects on quality of life of both children and their families.
Anesthesia; dental care; oral health; quality of life; social impact
The severity of physical and mental impairments and oral problems, as well as socioeconomic factors, may have an impact on quality of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this research was to assess the impact of impairments and oral health conditions, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children with CP using their parents as proxies.
Sixty children, between 6-14 years of age were selected. Their parents answered a children’s OHRQoL instrument (5 domains) which combines the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). The severity of dental caries, type of CP, communication ability, gross motor function, seizures and socioeconomic conditions were assessed.
Considering the total score of the OHRQoL instrument, only the reduction of communication ability and dental caries severity had a negative impact on the OHRQoL (p < 0.05). Considering each domain of the instrument, the severity of the type of CP and its reduction of communication ability showed a negative impact on oral symptoms and functional limitations domains (p < 0.05). Seizures have a negative impact on oral symptoms domain (p = 0.006). The multivariate fitted model showed that the severity of dental caries, communication ability and low family income were negatively associated with the impact on OHRQoL (p = 0.001).
The severity of dental caries, communication ability, and family income are conditions strongly associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL of children with CP.
Cerebral palsy; Children; Oral health related quality of life
The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL).
A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index), dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding), dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI). The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership) and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances.
Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, variables were included in a Multivariate Poisson regression. It was found that the variables children's self perception of their oral health status, monthly family income, gender, orthodontic treatment need, mother's education, number of siblings, and household overcrowding showed a strong negative effect on oral health-related quality of life.
It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren, demonstrating the importance of health managers addressing all these factors when planning oral health promotion interventions for this population.
Cannabis use among young people is a significant problem, making particularly necessary validated screening instruments that permit secondary prevention. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the psychometric properties of the CAST and CPQ-A-S questionnaires, two screening instruments specifically addressing the youth population.
Information was obtained on sociodemographics, frequency of substance use, psychopathological symptoms and cannabis-use problems, and the CPQ-A-S and CAST were applied, as well as an infrequency scale for discarding responses made randomly. The sample was made up of 144 young people aged 16 to 20 that had used cannabis in the last month, of which 71.5% were boys. Mean age of the sample was 17.38 years (SD = 1.16).
The results show that from the psychometric point of view both the CAST and the CPQ-A-S are good screening instruments.
The CAST is shorter and presents slightly better internal consistency than the CPQ-A-S. Both instruments show high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of young people dependent on cannabis according to the DSM IV-TR criteria. The CPQ-A-S appears to show greater capacity for detecting psychopathological distress associated with use. Both questionnaires yield significant odds ratios as predictors of frequent cannabis use and of the DSM IV-TR abuse and dependence criteria. In general, the CPQ-A-S emerges as a better predictor than the CAST.
CAST; CPQ-A-S; Test; Psychometrics; Cannabis; Adolescents; Young people; Screening; Early detection
The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) has recently been developed to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of pre-school children in English speaking communities. This study aimed to translate the ECOHIS into Farsi and test its psychometric properties for use on 2- to 5-year-old children of Farsi speaking Iranian families.
EHOHIS questionnaire was translated into Farsi using a standardized forward-backward linguistic translation method. Its face and content validity was tested in two small pilot studies. In the main study, a convenience sample of 260 parents of 2- to 5-year-old children in Isfahan and Tehran were invited to complete the final Farsi version of the ECOHIS (F-ECOHIS) and answer two global self-rating questions about their children's dental appearance and oral health. Association between F-ECOHIS scores and answers to the two self-rating questions, and the correlation between child (9 items) and family (4 items) sections of the F-ECOHIS were used to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the questionnaire. Internal consistency reliability of the F-ECOHIS was tested using Cronbach's alpha coefficient test and item total and inter-item correlations. One third of participants were invited to complete the F-ECOHIS again after 2 weeks to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire.
Two hundred and forty six parents were included in the main study. The association between the F-ECOHIS scores and the two self-rating questions and the correlation between its child and family sections were significant (P < 0.001). Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the F-ECOHIS and its child and family sections were 0.93, 0.89, and 0.85 respectively. Coefficients did not increase by deleting any item. The corrected item total correlation coefficient ranged from 0.52 to 0.74. The inter-item correlation coefficient ranged between 0.30 and 0.73. Seventy three parents participated in the follow up study for re-testing the questionnaire. Comparison of their test and re-test scores had a weighted kappa of 0.81 and inter-class correlation (ICC) of 0.82.
The F-ECOHIS questionnaire was valid and reliable for assessing the OHRQoL of 2- to 5-year-old pre-school children of Farsi speaking parents.
Aim: Trust is an essential element in physician-patient interaction fostering in general adherence and improving patient- and physician-reported outcomes. Regarding severely injured patients, trust-building behaviour is important because of the severity of injuries and therefore potential associated physical and psychological consequences. The objective of this study was to identify significant and relevant determinants on trust of severely injured patients in their physicians in surgical intensive care units.
Methods: Ninety-one severely injured patients completed a self-administered questionnaire after being transferred from surgical intensive care unit to surgical unit. All patients were treated in four hospitals of maximal care in North Rhine-Westphalia between 2001 and 2005. To assess different aspects of trust the “trust in physician” scale of the Cologne Patient Questionnaire (CPQ) was used. “Psychosocial care by physicians” is measured through: support, devotion, information and shared-decision making provided by physicians. Patient- and trauma related control variables are also included in a logistic regression model.
Results: Stepwise logistic regression identified “psychosocial care provided by physicians” as a significant contributor to severely injured patients’ trust (Nagelkerke’s R2: 41%). “Trust in physicians” is correlated with all four dimensions of “psychosocial care by physicians”: support (0.546), devotion (0.443), information (0.396), and shared-decision making behaviour (0.342) provided by physicians in surgical intensive care units.
Conclusions: This finding confirms the importance of supportive communication style in physician-patient interaction concerning reported trust of severely injured patients on surgical intensive care units. Medical education should integrate sound knowledge about psychosocial aspects of interaction to provide effective emotional and informational support to build up and maintain patient trust.
physician-patient interaction; trust; psychosocial care by physicians; support by physicians; severely injured patients
The Oxford hip score (OHS) is a 12-item questionnaire designed
and developed to assess function and pain from the perspective of
patients who are undergoing total hip replacement (THR). The OHS
has been shown to be consistent, reliable, valid and sensitive to
clinical change following THR. It has been translated into different
languages, but no adequately translated, adapted and validated Danish
language version exists.
The OHS was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Danish
from the original English version, using methods based on best-practice
guidelines. The translation was tested for psychometric quality
in patients drawn from a cohort from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty
The Danish OHS had a response rate of 87.4%, no floor effect
and a 19.9% ceiling effect (as expected in post-operative patients).
Only 1.2% of patients had too many items missing to calculate a
sum score. Construct validity was adequate and 80% of our predefined
hypotheses regarding the correlation between scores on the Danish
OHS and the other questionnaires were confirmed. The intraclass
correlation (ICC) of the different items ranged from 0.80 to 0.95
and the average limits of agreement (LOA) ranged from -0.05 to 0.06.
The Danish OHS had a high internal consistency with a Cronbach’s
alpha of 0.99 and an average inter-item correlation of 0.88.
This Danish version of the OHS is a valid and reliable patient-reported
outcome measurement instrument (PROM) with similar qualities to
the original English language version.
Patient-reported outcome measurement instrument; PRO; PROMs; Oxford hip score; OHS; Validation; Total hip replacement; THR; Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry (DHR)
The purpose of the study is to test the cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of a Danish version of the Headache-Specific Locus of Control Scale (HSLC) and the Headache Management Self-Efficacy Scale (HMSE) in a tertiary headache centre. HSLC and HMSE are headache-specific measures of locus of control (LOC) and SE. The Danish versions of the HSLC and the HMSE were created according to the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The HSLC and HMSE were administered to 135 consecutively referred headache patients in a tertiary headache centre together with other self-report measures concerning general distress, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. Internal stability of the HSLC subscales and the HMSE were analysed using Chronbach’s α coefficient. The psychometric properties of the Danish version of the HSLC and the HMSE were analysed using Spearman’s rank correlation test. Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.71 to 0.88 and the corrected item-total correlations were acceptable. The mean corrected item-total correlations for the three subscales of HSLC (health-care LOC, internal LOC, and chance LOC) were 0.40, 0.59, and 0.40 respectively. The mean corrected item-total correlation for HMSE was 0.42. High HMSE scores were found to be associated with high scores on internal LOC and low scores on chance LOC. High scores on chance LOC were positively associated with low scores on social functioning independently of headache frequency. The results are consistent with the earlier findings of the original American versions of HMSE and HSLC. These scales seem to be valid and valuable tools for testing of psychological aspects related to level of functioning and quality of life for headache patients across different cultures of Western society. The HMSE and the HSLC proved valuable in clinical headache research. Since scores on HSLC and HMSE were associated with measures of physical and social functioning the HSLC and HMSE may be of particular interest for intervention studies aimed at enhancing level of functioning for headache patients.
Tension-type headache; Migraine; Locus of control; Self-efficacy; SF-36; Headache centre
Quality of life of stoma patients is increasingly being addressed in clinical trials. However, the instruments used in the majority of these studies have not been validated specifically for stoma patients. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a quality-of-life instrument, "Stoma-QOL", specifically for patients with colostomy or ileostomy.
Potential items were formulated in English on the basis of the results of a series of semi-structured interviews with 169 adult stoma patients. The process resulted in a preliminary 37-item version, which was translated into French, German, Spanish and Danish, and administered repeatedly to 182 patients with colostomy or ileostomy. A psychometric selection of items was performed through Rasch Analysis. The measurement properties of the final questionnaire version were subsequently tested.
The 20 items in the final questionnaire covered four domains – sleep, sexual activity, relations to family and close friends, and social relations to other than family and close friends. These items were found to define a unidimensional variable according to Rasch specifications (Infit MNSQ < 1.3). Internal consistency reliability calculated as Cronbach's alpha was 0.92, i.e., highly reliable. Spearman's correlation coefficients of scores across times of administration was >0.88 (p < 0.01), indicating a high test-retest reliability. Item calibrations by country calculated as ICC were 0.81 (0.67–0.91 95% CI), confirming cross-cultural comparability across the European countries included in the study.
Given the adequacy of the metric properties of the Stoma-QOL suggested by the psychometric analyses, this study confirms the suitability of the instrument in clinical practice and in clinical research.
Stoma; quality of life; development; validation; reliability; Rasch analysis
There is a need for studies evaluating oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children in developing countries.
to assess the psychometric properties, prevalence and perceived causes of the child version of oral impact on daily performance inventory (Child-OIDP) among school children in two socio-demographically different districts of Tanzania. Socio-behavioral and clinical correlates of children's OHRQoL were also investigated.
One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr, 60.5% girls) attending 16 (urban and rural) primary schools in Kinondoni and Temeke districts completed a survey instrument in face to face interviews and participated in a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child-OIDP frequency score, global oral health indicators and socio-demographic factors.
The Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP inventory preserved the overall concept of the original English version and revealed good reliability in terms of Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.77 (Kinondoni: 0.62, Temeke: 0.76). Weighted Kappa scores from a test-retest were 1.0 and 0.8 in Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. Validity was supported in that the OIDP scores varied systematically and in the expected direction with self-reported oral health measures and socio-behavioral indicators. Confirmatory factor analyses, CFA, confirmed three dimensions identified initially by Principle Component Analysis within the OIDP item pool. A total of 28.6% of the participants had at least one oral impact. The area specific rates for Kinondoni and Temeke were 18.5% and 45.5%. The most frequently reported impacts were problems eating and cleaning teeth, and the most frequently reported cause of impacts were toothache, ulcer in mouth and position of teeth.
This study showed that the Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP was applicable for use among schoolchildren in Tanzania.
The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life colorectal questionnaire module (QLQ-CR38) was developed in 1999, and an update, the QLQ CR29 was published recently. To date the Danish version of the questionnaire has not been validated. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of EORTC QLQ-CR38.
EORTC QLQ-CR38 was administered to 190 patients with colorectal cancer in two Danish hospitals, one month after their operation. A psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire’s structure, reliability, convergent, divergent and known-groups validity was performed.
Data from 164 (86.3%) patients were available for analysis. The Danish version of EORTC QLQ-CR38 showed satisfactory psychometric properties for the scales: body image, sexual functioning, male sexual problems and defecations problems. Suboptimal psychometric performances were found for the scales: micturition problems, symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract and weight loss. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the scale chemotherapy side effects was limited by the low number of patients receiving chemotherapy. It was not possible to assess the psychometric properties of the scale female sexual problems and the single item sexual enjoyment due to a high number of missing values. The homogeneity of the study population made the evaluation of known-group validity difficult.
The results of this study suggest that the validity of the Danish version of EORTC QLQ-CR38 is acceptable. Furthermore, the results support the appropriateness of the updated version, the EORTC QLQ-CR29.
Health-related quality of life; EORTC QLQ-CR38; Colorectal cancer; Psychometric validation
The need for appraisal of oral health-related quality of life has been increasingly recognized over the last decades. The aims of this study were to develop a Spanish version (OHIP-Sp) of the Oral Health Impact Profile and to evaluate its convergent and discriminative validity, and its internal consistency.
The original 49-items OHIP was translated to Spanish, revised for understanding and semantics by two independent dentists, and then translated back to English by an independent bilingual dentist. The data originated in a cross sectional study conducted among high school students from the Province of Santiago, Chile. The study group was sampled using a multistage random cluster procedure yielding 9,203 students aged 12–21 years. All selected students were invited to participate and all filled a questionnaire with information on socio-demographic factors; oral health related behaviors; and self-reported oral health status (good, fair or poor). From this group, 9,163 students also accepted to fill a detailed questionnaire on socio-economic indicators and to receive a clinical examination comprising direct recordings of clinical attachment levels (CAL) in molars and incisors, tooth loss, and the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingival lesions.
The participation rate and the questionnaire completeness were high with OHIP-Sp total scores being computed for 9,133 subjects. Self-perceived oral health status was associated with the total OHIP-Sp score and all its domains (Spearman rank correlation). The OHIP-Sp total score was also directly associated with the 4 dental outcomes investigated (Mann-Whitney test) and the largest impact was found for the outcomes, 'tooth loss' with a mean OHIP-Sp score = 13.5 and 'CAL >= 3 mm' with a mean OHIP-Sp score = 13.0.
The OHIP-Sp revealed suitable convergent and discriminative validity and appropriate internal consistency (Cronbach's α). Further studies on OHIP-Sp warrant the inclusion of populations with a higher disease burden; and the use of test-retest reliability exercises to evaluate the stability of the test.