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1.  Evaluating oral health-related quality of life measure for children and preadolescents with temporomandibular disorder 
Background
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children and adolescents with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) has not yet been measured. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of OHRQoL measure for use in children and preadolescents with signs and symptoms of TMD.
Methods
Five hundred and forty-seven students aged 8-14 years were recruited from public schools in Piracicaba, Brazil. Self-perceptions of QoL were measured using the Brazilian Portuguese versions of Child Perceptions Questionnaires (CPQ)8-10 (n = 247) and CPQ11-14 (n = 300). A single examiner, trained and calibrated for diagnosis according to the Axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), examined the participants. A self-report questionnaire assessed subjective symptoms of TMD. Intraexaminer reliability was assessed for the RDC/TMD clinical examinations using Cohen's Kappa (κ) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Criterion validity was calculated using the Spearman's correlation, construct validity using the Spearman's correlation and the Mann-Whitney test, and the magnitude of the difference between groups using effect size (ES). Reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha, alpha if the item was deleted and corrected item-total correlation.
Results
Intraexaminer reliability values ranged from regular (κ = 0.30) to excellent (κ = 0.96) for the categorical variables and from moderate (ICC = 0.49) to substantial (ICC = 0.74) for the continuous variables. Criterion validity was supported by significant associations between both CPQ scores and pain-related questions for the TMD groups. Mean CPQ8-10 scores were slightly higher for TMD children than control children (ES = 0.43). Preadolescents with TMD had moderately higher scores than the control ones (ES = 0.62; p < 0.0001). Significant correlation between the CPQ scores and global oral health, as well as overall well-being ratings (p < 0.001) occurred, supporting the construct validity. The Cronbach's alphas were 0.93 for CPQ8-10 and 0.94 for CPQ11-14. For the overall CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14 scales, the corrected item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.39-0.76 and from 0.28-0.73, respectively. The alpha coefficients did not increase when any of the items were deleted in either CPQ samples.
Conclusions
The questionnaires are valid and reliable for use in children and preadolescents with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-32
PMCID: PMC3115836  PMID: 21569403
2.  Do we need more than one Child Perceptions Questionnaire for children and adolescents? 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:26.
Background
In dentistry, measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) provide essential information for assessing treatment needs, making clinical decisions and evaluating interventions, services and programmes. The two most common measures used to examine child OHRQoL today are the Child Perceptions Questionnaire at two ages, 8–10 and 11–14 (CPQ8-10, CPQ11-14). The reliability and validity of these two versions have been demonstrated together with that (more recently) of the short-form 16-item impact version of the CPQ11-14. This study set out to examine the reliability and validity of the Child Oral Health Quality of Life Questionnaires (COHQOL) instruments the CPQ8-10 and impact short-form CPQ11-14 in 5-to-8-year-old New Zealand children, and to determine whether a single measure for children aged 5–14 is feasible.
Method
A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 5-to-8-year-old children attending for dental treatment in community clinics in 2011. Children were examined for dental caries, with OHRQoL measured using the CPQ8-10 and short-form CPQ11-14. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing mean scale scores across ordinal categories of caries experience; correlational construct validity was assessed by comparing mean CPQ scores across children’s global ratings of oral health and well-being.
Results
The 183 children (49.7% female) aged 5 to 8 years who took part in the study represent a 98.4% participation rate. The overall mean dmft was 6.0 (SD, 2.0 range 1 to 13). Both questionnaire versions detected differences in the impact of dental caries on quality of life, with the greatest scores in the expected direction. Both versions showed higher scores among those with poorer oral health. There was a very strong and positive correlation between CPQ11-14 scores and CPQ8-10 scores (Pearsons’s r = 0.98; P < 0.01).
Conclusion
The performance of both versions of the COHQOL measures (CPQ8-10 and short-form CPQ11-14) appears to be acceptable in this younger age group, and this work represents the first stage in validating this questionnaire in a younger age group. It also further confirms that younger children are capable of providing their own perceptions of oral health impacts. The acceptability of the short-from CPQ11-14 in this younger age group lends support to its use in children between ages 5 and 14.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-26
PMCID: PMC3686591  PMID: 23758709
Children; Indexes; Health status indicators; Validity
3.  Validity and reliability of the Child Perceptions Questionnaires applied in Brazilian children 
BMC Oral Health  2009;9:13.
Background
The Child Perceptions Questionnaires (CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14) are indicators of child oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the self-applied CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 in Brazilian children, after translations and cultural adaptations in the Brazilian Portuguese language.
Methods
Schoolchildren were recruited from general populations for pre-testing (n = 80), validity (n = 210), and test-retest reliability (n = 50) studies. They were also examined for dental caries, gingivitis, fluorosis, and malocclusion.
Results
Children with greater dental caries experience in primary dentition had higher impacts on CPQ domains. Girls had higher scores for CPQ8–10 domains than boys. Mean CPQ11–14 scores were highest for 11-year-old children and lowest for 14-year-old children. Construct validity was supported by significant associations between the CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 scores and the global rating of oral health (r = 0.38, r = 0.43) and overall well-being (r = 0.39, r = 0.60), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.95 for both questionnaires. The test-retest reliabilities of the overall CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 scores were both excellent (ICC = 0.96, ICC = 0.92).
Conclusion
The Brazilian Portuguese version of CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14 was valuable and reliable for use in the Brazilian child population, although discriminant validity was sporadic due to the fact that impacts are mediated by others factors, such personal, social, and environmental variables.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-9-13
PMCID: PMC2696414  PMID: 19450254
4.  Short forms of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for 11–14-year-old children (CPQ11–14): Development and initial evaluation 
Background
The Child Perceptions Questionnaire for children aged 11 to 14 years (CPQ11–14) is a 37-item measure of oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) encompassing four domains: oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional and social well-being. To facilitate its use in clinical settings and population-based health surveys, it was shortened to 16 and 8 items. Item impact and stepwise regression methods were used to produce each version. This paper describes the developmental process, compares the discriminative properties of the resulting four short-forms and evaluates their precision relative to the original CPQ11–14.
Methods
The item impact method used data from the CPQ11–14 item reduction study to select the questions with the highest impact scores in each domain. The regression method, where the dependent variable was the overall CPQ11–14 score and the independent variables its individual questions, was applied to the data collected in the validity study for the CPQ11–14. The measurement properties (i.e. criterion validity, construct validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability) of all 4 short-forms were evaluated using the data from the validity and reliability studies for the CPQ11–14.
Results
All short forms detected substantial variability in children's OHRQoL. The mean scores on the two 16-item questionnaires were almost identical, while on the two 8-item questionnaires they differed by only one score point. The mean scores standardized to 0–100 were higher on the short forms than the original CPQ11–14 (p < 0.001). There were strong significant correlations between all short-form scores and CPQ11–14 scores (0.87–0.98; p < 0.001). Hypotheses concerning construct validity were confirmed: the short-forms' scores were highest in the oro-facial, lower in the orthodontic and lowest in the paediatric dentistry group; all short-form questionnaires were positively correlated with the ratings of oral health and overall well-being, with the correlation coefficient being higher for the latter. The relative validity coefficients were 0.85 to 1.18. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged 0.71–0.83 and 0.71–0.77, respectively.
Conclusion
All short forms demonstrated excellent criterion validity and good construct validity. The reliability coefficients exceeded standards for group-level comparisons. However, these are preliminary findings based on the convenience sampling and further testing in replicated studies involving clinical and general samples of children in various settings is necessary to establish measurement sensitivity and discriminative properties of these questionnaires.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-4-4
PMCID: PMC1368964  PMID: 16423298
5.  Cross-cultural adaptation of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11–14 (CPQ11–14) for the Brazilian Portuguese language 
Background
Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments are being used with increasing frequency in oral health surveys. However, these instruments are not available in all countries or all languages. The availability of cross-culturally valid, multi-lingual versions of instruments is important for epidemiological research. The Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11–14 (CPQ11–14) is an OHRQoL instrument that assesses the impact of oral conditions on the quality of life of children and adolescents. The objective of the current study was to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of CPQ11–14 for the Brazilian Portuguese language.
Methods
After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the CPQ 11–14 was tested on 160 11-to-14-year-old children who were clinically and radiographically examined for the presence or absence of dental caries. The children were receiving dental care at the Pediatric Dental and Orthodontic clinics of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To test the quality of the translation, 17 children answered the questionnaire. The internal consistency of the instrument was assessed by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient and the test-retest reliability by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
Results
The mean CPQ11–14 score were 24.5 [standard deviation (SD) 18.27] in the group with caries and 12.89 [SD 10.95] in the group without caries. Median scores were 20 and 10 in the groups with and without caries, respectively (p < 0.001). Significant associations were identified between caries status and all CPQ domains (p < 0.05). Internal reliability was confirmed by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.86. Test-retest reliability revealed satisfactory reproducibility (ICC = 0.85). The questionnaire proved to be a valid instrument. Construct validity was satisfactory, demonstrating highly significant correlations with global indicators for the total scale and subscales. The CPQ11–14 score was able to discriminate between different oral conditions (groups without and with untreated caries).
Conclusion
The present study demonstrated that the CPQ11–14 is applicable to children in Brazil. It has satisfactory psychometric properties, but further research is required to evaluate these properties in a population study.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-6-2
PMCID: PMC2246108  PMID: 18194552
6.  Parental-caregiver perceptions of child oral health-related quality of life (P-CPQ): Psychometric properties for the peruvian spanish language 
Objectives: The aim of the study was to cross-culturally adapt the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. Study Design: To translate and cross-cultural adapt the instrument, 60 parents answered the P-CPQ in two pilot tests. The final version of the P-CPQ was evaluated in 200 parents of children aged 11 to 14 years, who were clinically examined for dental caries. The internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the P-CPQ on the same 200 children facilitated the test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the P-CPQ with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups, respectively. Results: The mean (standard deviation) P-CPQ score was 15.64 (11.89). Internal consistency was confirmed by a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC= 0.94). Construct validity was satisfactory, demonstrating significant correlations between global ratings (oral health and overall well-being) and the total scale and for subscale. Discriminant validity was significant (p<0.001), supporting its ability to discriminate between clinical groups. Conclusions: The Peruvian Spanish P-CPQ has satisfactory psychometric properties to assess parental-caregivers perceptions on their children’s oral health-related quality of life.
Key words:Quality of life, oral health, children, validity, reliability.
doi:10.4317/medoral.19195
PMCID: PMC4048108  PMID: 24121913
7.  Performance and cross-cultural comparison of the short-form version of the CPQ11-14 in New Zealand, Brunei and Brazil 
Background
The Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) is a self-report instrument developed to measure oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in 11-14-year-olds. Earlier reports confirm that the 16-item short-form version performs adequately, but there is a need to determine the measure's validity and properties in larger and more diverse samples and settings.
Aim
The objective of this study was to examine the performance of the 16-item short-form impact version of the CPQ11-14 in different communities and cultures with diverse caries experience.
Method
Cross-sectional epidemiological surveys of child oral health were conducted in two regions of New Zealand, one region in Brunei, and one in Brazil. Children were examined for dental caries (following WHO guidelines), and OHRQoL was measured using the 16-item short-form item-impact version of the CPQ11-14, along with two global questions on OHRQoL. Children in the 20% with the greatest caries experience (DMF score) were categorised as the highest caries quintile. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing the mean scale scores across the categories of caries experience; correlational construct validity was assessed by comparing mean scores and children's global ratings of oral health and well-being.
Results
There were substantial variations in caries experience among the different communities (from 1.8 in Otago to 4.9 in Northland) and in mean CPQ11-14 scores (from 11.5 in Northland to 16.8 in Brunei). In all samples, those in the most severe caries experience quintile had higher mean CPQ11-14 scores than those who were caries-free (P < 0.05). There were also greater CPQ scores in those with worse self-rated oral health, with the Otago sample presenting the most marked gradient across the response categories for self-rated oral health, from 'Excellent' to 'Fair/Poor' (9.6 to 19.7 respectively).
Conclusion
The findings suggest that the 16-item short-form item impact version of the CPQ11-14 performs well across diverse cultures and levels of caries experience. Reasons for the differences in mean CPQ scores among the communities are unclear and may reflect subtle socio-cultural differences in subjective oral health among these populations, but elucidating these requires further exploration of the face and content validity of the measure in different populations.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-40
PMCID: PMC3130632  PMID: 21649928
Adolescents; caries experience; quality of life; validity; short-form CPQ11-14
8.  Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the child perceptions questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14) for the peruvian spanish language 
Objectives: Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments, such as the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14), are broadly used in oral health surveys around the world. However, there is a lack of these instruments in Spanish language limiting the comparison of OHRQoL outcomes among countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt the CPQ11-14 to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. Material and Methods: To test the translation and cross-cultural adaptation, 60 children aged 11-to-14-years answered the CPQ11-14 in two pilot tests. After that, the questionnaire was tested on 200 children of the same age, who were clinically examined for dental caries. The internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the CPQ11-14 on the same 200 children facilitated the test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the CPQ11-14 with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups respectively. Results: The mean (standard deviation) CPQ11-14 score was 20.18(13.07). Internal consistency was confirmed by a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.81. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC= 0.92). Construct validity was confirmed demonstrating statistically significant associations between total CPQ11-14 score and global ratings of oral health (p=0.035) and overall well-being (p<0.001). The measure was also able to discriminate between children with dental caries experience and those without (mean scores: 26.32 and 12.96 respectively; p<0.001). Conclusions: The Spanish CPQ11-14 has satisfactory psychometric properties and is applicable to children in Peru.
Key words:Oral health, quality of life, children, adolescent, validity, reliability.
doi:10.4317/medoral.18975
PMCID: PMC3854073  PMID: 23722140
9.  Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11–14) – short forms 
Background
The need to evaluate the impact of oral health has led to the development of instruments for measuring oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL). One such instrument is the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11–14), developed specifically for 11-to-14-year-old children. As this questionnaire was considered long (37 items), shorter forms were developed with 8 (Impact Short Form: 8 – ISF:8) and 16 items (Impact Short Form: 16 – ISF:16) to facilitate use in the clinical setting and population-based health surveys. The aim of the present study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt these CPQ11–14 short forms for Brazilian Portuguese and evaluate the measurement properties of these versions for use on Brazilian children.
Methods
Following translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the ISF:8 and ISF:16 were tested on 136 children from 11 to 14 years of age in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The instrument was administered by a trained researcher who also performed clinical examinations. The measurement properties (i.e. criterion validity, construct validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability) were determined. Discriminant validity was tested between groups, which were divided into children with no cavities and no malocclusion; children with cavities and without malocclusion; and children with malocclusion and without cavities.
Results
The mean total score was 6.8 [standard deviation (SD) 4.2] for the ISF:8 and 11.9 (SD 7.6) for the ISF:16 (p < 0.001). Statistically significant associations were found between oral abnormalities and the subscales of the ISF:8 and ISF:16 (p < 0.05). Both test-retest stability and internal consistency, as measured by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) (ISF:8 = 0.98 and ISF:16 = 0.97) and Cronbach's alpha (ISF:8 = 0.70 and ISF:16 = 0.84) proved to be adequate. Construct validity was confirmed from the correlation between the short form scores and oral health and overall well-being ratings. The score on the short forms of the CPQ11–14 was able to discriminate between different oral conditions. Criterion validity was satisfactory (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
The Brazilian versions of CPQ11–14 ISF:8 and ISF:16 have satisfactory psychometric properties, similar to those of the original instrument.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-7-43
PMCID: PMC2689176  PMID: 19445725
10.  Validity of Italian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:55.
Background
The Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) is the most commonly used indicator of child oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and its validity and reliability have been studied both in English and in other linguistic contexts. The aim of this study was to develop a CPQ11-14 for use in Italy and to test its validity in a random sample of fourteen year-old Italian adolescents.
Methods
Once the CPQ11-14was translated into Italian and adapted for an Italian public, five hundred sixty-one adolescents were recruited for testing. Parents rated their social status; the children/adolescents were administered the questionnaire and underwent a dental examination during which their dental status was taken and recorded. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the questionnaire’s internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess construct validity between the total and subscale scores and the respondents’ global ratings on oral health and well-being. Discriminant validity was analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis or Mann–Whitney tests in groups defined by gender, social position, caries experience and previous or no orthodontic treatment.
Results
The mean score on the CPQ11-14 was 15.4 (SD=11.9), and the scores on all the domains were found to be highly skewed. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.85 to 0.90. The global ratings on oral health and well-being were correlated to the total score and to the sub-scores except for those regarding the functional limitations. There were significant differences in the two genders, in the groups that had already or had not yet undergone orthodontic treatment, and in the social classification groups, while the difference between those who had and those who did not have caries experience did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions
The Italian version of the CPQ11-14 appears to be a reliable, valid instrument for Italian children/adolescents.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-55
PMCID: PMC3856540  PMID: 24131892
Oral health; Quality of life; CPQ; Validity; Caries; Social position
11.  The influence of normative and subjective oral health status on schoolchildren’s happiness 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:15.
Background
Traditional methods to measure oral health based on clinical standards are limited because they do not consider psychosocial and functional aspects of oral health. It has been recommended that these measures need to be supplemented by data obtained from patients regarding their individual perceptions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Happiness is a multidimensional construct comprising both emotional and cognitive domains, and has been defined as “the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his or her life as a whole favorably”. It has been associated with several health outcomes, including oral health. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and socioeconomic factors on the subjective happiness of Brazilian adolescents.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The data were collected through dental examinations and structured interviews. The participants underwent an evaluation aimed at detecting dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion, and gingival bleeding. They also completed the Brazilian versions of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire-short form (CPQ11–14 – ISF: 16) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), which was our outcome variable. Socioeconomic conditions were evaluated through a questionnaire that was completed by the participants’ parents. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the association between the explanatory variables and the outcome. Moreover, a correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the SHS scores and the overall and domain scores of the CPQ11–14 –ISF: 16.
Results
A total of 1,134 children were evaluated. Unadjusted analyses showed that happiness was associated with socioeconomic indicators, the use of dental services, clinical status, and scores on the OHRQoL measure. After adjustment, household overcrowding (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), dental caries (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99), malocclusion (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99), and the severity associated with the CPQ11-14 (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.97) still showed a significant association with lower levels of the mean SHS score.
Conclusions
Happiness is influenced by oral conditions, socioeconomic status, and OHRQoL.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-15
PMCID: PMC4320443  PMID: 25616978
Happiness; Child; Oral health; Quality of life
12.  The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale: feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version 
Background
Oral and orofacial problems may cause a profound impact on children’s oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) because of symptoms associated with these conditions that may influence the physical, psychological and social aspects of their daily life. The OHRQoL questionnaires found in the literature are very specific and are not able to measure the impact of oral health on general health domains. Consequently, the objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version for Brazilian translation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Oral Health Scale in combination with the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales.
Methods
The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale was forward-backward translated and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian Portuguese language. In order to assess the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the instrument, a study was carried out in Belo Horizonte with 208 children and adolescents between 2 and 18 years-of-age and their parents. Clinical evaluation of dental caries, socioeconomic information and the Brazilian versions of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales, Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and CPQ8-10) and Parental-Caregiver Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) were administered. Statistical analysis included feasibility (missing values), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency reliability, and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale.
Results
There were no missing data for both child self-report and parent proxy-report on the Brazilian version of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale. The CFA showed that the five items of child self-report and parent proxy-report loaded on a single construct. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for child/adolescent and parent oral health instruments were 0.65 and 0.59, respectively. The test-retest reliability (ICC) for child self-report and parent proxy-report were 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86-0.93] and 0.86 (95%CI = 0.81-0.90), respectively. The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale demonstrated acceptable construct validity, convergent validity and discriminant validity.
Conclusions
These results supported the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale for child self-report for ages 5–18 years-old and parent proxy-report for ages 2–18 years-old children.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-10-42
PMCID: PMC3425333  PMID: 22531004
Oral health; PedsQL; Quality of life; Validation; Child; Adolescent
13.  Comparison of the ECOHIS and short-form P-CPQ and FIS scales 
Background
The development of short-form versions of child oral–health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) scales has resulted in two closely related sets of measures. We set out to compare the properties and responsiveness of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS – both “child” and “family” versions) and short-form Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and the Family Impact Scale (FIS) measures among New Zealand children with early childhood caries who underwent treatment under general anaesthesia (GA).
Methods
Secondary analysis of data from pretest/post-test clinical studies of consecutive clinical convenience samples undertaken in Wellington in 2005 and Auckland in 2010/11, with cross-sectional analyses using the former, and longitudinal analyses using the latter.
Results
Cronbach’s α values for the ECOHIS-Child, P-CPQ-16 and P-CPQ-8 were 0.80, 0.88 and 0.80 respectively, and 0.83 and 0.68 (respectively) for the FIS-8 and the ECOHIS-Family. All scales showed acceptable cross-sectional construct validity, although that of the ECOHIS-Family was not as marked as that observed with the FIS-8. Responsiveness was acceptable, with the three child-focused measures showing similar effect sizes. The two family-focused measures were also similar.
Conclusions
The ECOHIS-Child and the P-CPQ scales are very similar in their properties, but the ECOHIS-Family falls short of the FIS-8 in some important ways. The ECOHIS scales may be better deployed in epidemiological survey work rather than in health services research, whereas the P-CPQ-8, P-CPQ-16 and the FIS-8 seem to be well suited for the latter (particularly with children suffering from severe caries), but their epidemiological utility remains to be demonstrated.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-12-36
PMCID: PMC3984713  PMID: 24618408
Oral-health-related quality of life; Children; Short-form scales; Measurement scales
14.  The potential of the Child Health Utility 9D Index as an outcome measure for child dental health 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14:90.
Background
The Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) is a relatively new generic child health-related quality of life measure (HRQoL)—designed to be completed by children—which enables the calculation of utility values.
The aim is to investigate the use of the CHU9D Index as an outcome measure for child dental health in New Zealand.
Method
A survey was conducted of children aged between 6 and 9 years attending for routine dental examinations in community clinics in Dunedin (New Zealand) in 2012. The CHU9D, a HRQoL, was used, along with the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), a validated oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measure. Socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity and household deprivation) were recorded. Dental therapists undertook routine clinical examinations, with charting recorded for each child for decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth (dmft) at the d3 level.
Results
One hundred and forty 6-to-9-year-olds (50.7% female) took part in the study (93.3% participation rate). The mean d3mft was 2.4 (SD = 2.6; range 0 to 9). Both CHU9D and CPQ detected differences in the impact of dental caries, with scores in the expected direction: children who presented with caries had higher scores (indicating poorer OHRQoL) than those who were free of apparent caries. Children with no apparent caries had a higher mean CHU9D score than those with caries (indicating better HRQoL). The difference for the CPQ was statistically significant, but for CHU9D the difference was not significant. When the two indices were compared, there was a significant difference in mean CHU9D scores by the prevalence of CPQ and subscale impacts with children experiencing no impacts having mean CHU9D scores closer to 1.0 (representing perfect health).
Conclusion
The CHU9D may be useful in dental research. Further exploration in samples with different caries experience is required. The use of the CHU9D in child oral health studies will enable the calculation of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for use in economic evaluation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-90
PMCID: PMC4118790  PMID: 25027722
Quality of life; Health utility; Dental caries; Children
15.  Effects of Dental Rehabilitation under General Anesthesia on Children's Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Using Proxy Short Versions of OHRQoL Instruments 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:308439.
Aim. To examine the impact of comprehensive dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children using short form versions of the Parental-Caregivers Perceptions questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). Design. A pretest/posttest study involved parents whose children (N = 67) were affected with severe childhood caries and completed comprehensive dental treatment under GA. All parents completed the short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS at baseline and 4–8 weeks following the dental treatment. To examine test-retest reliability, a convenience sample of 38 parents repeated the pretreatment questionnaires 1-2 weeks after they completed them at baseline. Statistical tests including the Kruskal-Wallis test, Cronbach's alpha, and paired t-test were used to examine cross-sectional construct validity, internal consistency, and responsiveness of the instruments, respectively. Results. Cross-sectional construct validity and internal consistency were acceptable. Test-retest reliability was excellent. Large decreases in posttreatment scores were observed along with moderate to large effect sizes. Conclusions. Dental treatment under GA is associated with considerable improvement in OHRQoL of children and their families, as demonstrated by short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS completed by the children's parents.
doi:10.1155/2014/308439
PMCID: PMC3922005  PMID: 24592163
16.  Association between treated/untreated traumatic dental injuries and impact on quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren 
Background
Traumatic dental injury (TDI) could have physical and psychosocial consequences for children. Thus, it is important to measure the impact of TDI on the quality of life of children (QoL). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between treated/untreated TDI and the impact on the quality of life of 11-to-14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1612 male and female schoolchildren aged 11 to 14 years attending public and private elementary schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select the children. Three calibrated examiners used the Andreasen classification for the diagnosis of TDI. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) - Impact Short Form (ISF:16), composed of 16 items and self-administered by all children. Other oral conditions (dental caries and malocclusion) and the Social Vulnerability Index were determined and used as controlling variables.
Results
Two hundred nineteen children were diagnosed with untreated TDI and 64 were diagnosed with treated TDI. There were no statistically significant associations between untreated or treated TDI and overall CPQ11-14 (Fisher = 0.368 and Fisher = 0.610, respectively). Children with an untreated TDI were 1.4-fold (95% CI = 1.1-2.1) more likely to report impact on the item "avoided smiling/laughing" than those without TDI, whereas children with a treated TDI were twofold (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) more likely to report impact on the item "other children asked questions" than those without TDI.
Conclusions
Neither treated nor untreated TDI was associated with oral symptoms, functional limitations or emotional wellbeing. However, children with a TDI in the anterior teeth experienced a negative impact on social wellbeing, mainly with regard to avoiding smiling or laughing and being concerned about what other people may think or say.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-8-114
PMCID: PMC2959098  PMID: 20920332
17.  Validation of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8-10 in Bosnia and Herzegovina 
Materia Socio-Medica  2012;24(3):157-161.
Background:
Paediatric oral disorders are numerous and it can be assumed that those have negative effect on the life quality in children. From 2002 to 2006 were developed the life quality measures for children aged 8-10 and 11-14 years, Child Perceptions Questionnaires, CPQs. Those are the components of the Child Oral Health Quality of Life Questionnaire (COHQOL).
Aim:
The aim of this study was to translate the CPQ for children 8 to 10 years into the one of the languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina, to cross-culturaly adapt the instrument, and to evaluate its comprehensibility among Bosnian language speaking children.
Methods:
Instrument was translated from English into the Bosnian language according to the recommended translation procedure. After the cultural adaptation, questionnaire was tested among 8–10 years old children (N=18).
Results:
During the cultural adaptation of the instrument, changes were made on three questions. One question had to be changed due to understanding difficulties.
Conclusion:
CPQ8-10 was translated and culturaly adapted. Testing among children showed that the Bosnia-Herzegovina version of the CPQ8–10 is comprehensive and it can be used for measuring oral health-related quality of life in children this age.
doi:10.5455/msm.2012.24.157-161
PMCID: PMC3732359  PMID: 23922523
CPQ8-10; translation; validation.
18.  The impact of socioenvironmental characteristics on domains of oral health-related quality of life in Brazilian schoolchildren 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:10.
Background
Recent researches have pointed out the need to consider the functional and psychosocial dimensions of oral health, such as Oral Health-related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral health status, socioeconomic factors and home environment of children on the four health domains of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14).
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Brazil with a sample of 286 schoolchildren aged 12 years and their parents. The schoolchildren were clinically examined, and participants were asked to complete the CPQ11-14, as well as a questionnaire about home environment. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to each child’s parents asking them about family socioeconomic status. The chi-square test and Poisson’s regression analysis were performed.
Results
After adjusting for potential confounders, variables sex, monthly family income, mothers’ education showed a statistically significant association with all health domains of the CPQ11-14. The family structure and presence of bleeding impacted on emotional (p = 0.0135), and social (p = 0.0010) well-being health domain scores. Orthodontic treatment need showed a strong negative effect on functional limitations domain score (p = 0.0021).
Conclusions
Clinical and socio-environmental factors had different impacts on domains of oral health-related quality of life, demonstrating the need to consider these conditions in planning strategies for the oral health of schoolchildren.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-10
PMCID: PMC3573924  PMID: 23356655
19.  Assessment of the quality of measures of child oral health-related quality of life 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14:40.
Background
Several measures of oral health-related quality of life have been developed for children. The most frequently used are the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (C-OIDP) and the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP). The aim of this study was to assess the methodological quality of the development and testing of these three measures.
Methods
A systematic search strategy was used to identify eligible studies published up to December 2012, using both MEDLINE and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts were read independently by two investigators and full papers retrieved where the inclusion criteria were met. Data were extracted by two teams of two investigators using a piloted protocol. The data were used to describe the development of the measures and their use against existing criteria. The methodological quality and measurement properties of the measures were assessed using standards proposed by the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) group.
Results
The search strategy yielded 653 papers, of which 417 were duplicates. Following analysis of the abstracts, 119 papers met the inclusion criteria. The majority of papers reported cross-sectional studies (n = 117) with three of longitudinal design. Fifteen studies which had used the original version of the measures in their original language were included in the COSMIN analysis. The most frequently used measure was the CPQ. Reliability and construct validity appear to be adequate for all three measures. Children were not fully involved in item generation which may compromise their content validity. Internal consistency was measured using classic test theory with no evidence of modern psychometric techniques being used to test unidimensionality of the measures included in the COSMIN analysis.
Conclusion
The three measures evaluated appear to be able to discriminate between groups. CPQ has been most widely tested and several versions are available. COHIP employed a rigorous development strategy but has been tested in fewer populations. C-OIDP is shorter and has been used successfully in epidemiological studies. Further testing using modern psychometric techniques such as item response theory is recommended. Future developments should also focus on the development of measures which can evaluate longitudinal change.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-40
PMCID: PMC4021173  PMID: 24758535
20.  Changes in Children’s Oral Health Related Quality of Life Following Dental Treatment under General Anesthesia 
Dental Research Journal  2009;6(1):13-16.
Background:
Children’s oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) evaluates the impacts of oral daily activities of children and family on quality of life. Oral health related quality of life as outcome can be used to evaluate the dental health services. This study aimed to assess the extent to which dental treatment under general anesthesia affects quality of life of children and their families.
Methods:
One hundred parents of 3-10 year-old children who needed dental treatment under general anesthesia completed a parent-children perception questionnaire (P-CPQ) and family impact scale (FIS) before, and 4 weeks after dental treatment under general anesthesia. The questionnaire had statements related to oral health, functional limitation, emotional state and well being social well-being and family issues. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5.
Results:
The mean scores and standard deviations of oral health quality of life of the children before and after dental treatment were 43.3 ± 7.14 and 39.24 ± 5.47 respectively. The mean scores of FIS before and after dental treatment were 8.00 ± 3.21 and 3.66 ± 2.62, respectively. The effect size of mean differences in P-CPQ and FIS scores were 1.84 ± 1.64 and 1.35 ± 4.34, respectively.
Conclusion:
Provision of dental treatment under general anesthesia for uncooperative, young children with extensive dental problems had significant effects on quality of life of both children and their families.
PMCID: PMC3075446  PMID: 21528024
Anesthesia; dental care; oral health; quality of life; social impact
21.  Comparison of perceptions of oral health-related quality of life in adolescents affected with ectodermal dysplasias relative to caregivers 
The objective of this study was to assess the perceived oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) of adolescents affected with one of the ectodermal dysplasias (EDs).
Data were collected from 2003 to 2007 in a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of individuals affected by ED (n=35) using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire(CPQ11–14)for children and the Parent-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) for their caregivers. The main findings of this study were that individuals who were affected with ED in the older age group (15–19 years old) perceived more functional problems than younger individuals (11–14 years old) (p=0.04). Females with ED (n= 13) perceived more emotional problems than males (n=22; p=0.01). Although caregivers tended to report slightly higher OHQoL scores (indicating worse OHQoL), no significant differences were observed between children’s and parents’ total OHQoL and individual domains’ median scores (p>0.05). Thus, the perceptions of oral health and well-being may vary by age and gender for children who have ED. Caution is warranted concerning using parents as proxies for their children when assessing the child’s OHQoL.
doi:10.1111/j.1754-4505.2011.00189.x
PMCID: PMC3105356  PMID: 21592162
ectodermal dysplasias; oral health-related quality of life; children; teenagers; parents; perceptions
22.  The influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and home environment factors on schoolchildren's self-perception of quality of life 
Background
The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL).
Methods
A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index), dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding), dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI). The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership) and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances.
Results
Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, variables were included in a Multivariate Poisson regression. It was found that the variables children's self perception of their oral health status, monthly family income, gender, orthodontic treatment need, mother's education, number of siblings, and household overcrowding showed a strong negative effect on oral health-related quality of life.
Conclusions
It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren, demonstrating the importance of health managers addressing all these factors when planning oral health promotion interventions for this population.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-10-6
PMCID: PMC3285522  PMID: 22244092
23.  Parental reports of the oral health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy 
BMC Oral Health  2012;12:15.
Background
The severity of physical and mental impairments and oral problems, as well as socioeconomic factors, may have an impact on quality of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this research was to assess the impact of impairments and oral health conditions, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children with CP using their parents as proxies.
Methods
Sixty children, between 6-14 years of age were selected. Their parents answered a children’s OHRQoL instrument (5 domains) which combines the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). The severity of dental caries, type of CP, communication ability, gross motor function, seizures and socioeconomic conditions were assessed.
Results
Considering the total score of the OHRQoL instrument, only the reduction of communication ability and dental caries severity had a negative impact on the OHRQoL (p < 0.05). Considering each domain of the instrument, the severity of the type of CP and its reduction of communication ability showed a negative impact on oral symptoms and functional limitations domains (p < 0.05). Seizures have a negative impact on oral symptoms domain (p = 0.006). The multivariate fitted model showed that the severity of dental caries, communication ability and low family income were negatively associated with the impact on OHRQoL (p = 0.001).
Conclusions
The severity of dental caries, communication ability, and family income are conditions strongly associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL of children with CP.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-12-15
PMCID: PMC3500272  PMID: 22708973
Cerebral palsy; Children; Oral health related quality of life
24.  Screening of cannabis-related problems among youth: the CPQ-A-S and CAST questionnaires 
Background
Cannabis use among young people is a significant problem, making particularly necessary validated screening instruments that permit secondary prevention. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the psychometric properties of the CAST and CPQ-A-S questionnaires, two screening instruments specifically addressing the youth population.
Methods
Information was obtained on sociodemographics, frequency of substance use, psychopathological symptoms and cannabis-use problems, and the CPQ-A-S and CAST were applied, as well as an infrequency scale for discarding responses made randomly. The sample was made up of 144 young people aged 16 to 20 that had used cannabis in the last month, of which 71.5% were boys. Mean age of the sample was 17.38 years (SD = 1.16).
Results
The results show that from the psychometric point of view both the CAST and the CPQ-A-S are good screening instruments.
Conclusions
The CAST is shorter and presents slightly better internal consistency than the CPQ-A-S. Both instruments show high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of young people dependent on cannabis according to the DSM IV-TR criteria. The CPQ-A-S appears to show greater capacity for detecting psychopathological distress associated with use. Both questionnaires yield significant odds ratios as predictors of frequent cannabis use and of the DSM IV-TR abuse and dependence criteria. In general, the CPQ-A-S emerges as a better predictor than the CAST.
doi:10.1186/1747-597X-7-13
PMCID: PMC3375190  PMID: 22471908
CAST; CPQ-A-S; Test; Psychometrics; Cannabis; Adolescents; Young people; Screening; Early detection
25.  Effect of an institutional development plan for user participation on professionals' knowledge, practice, and attitudes. A controlled study 
Background
Governments in several countries attempt to strengthen user participation through instructing health care organisations to plan and implement activities such as user representation in administrational boards, improved information to users, and more individual user participation in clinical work. The professionals are central in implementing initiatives to enhance user participation in organisations, but no controlled studies have been conducted on the effect on professionals from implementing institutional development plans. The objective was to investigate whether implementing a development plan intending to enhance user participation in a mental health hospital had any effect on the professionals' knowledge, practice, or attitudes towards user participation.
Methods
This was a non-randomized controlled study including professionals from three mental health hospitals in Central Norway. A development plan intended to enhance user participation was implemented in one of the hospitals as a part of a larger re-organizational process. The plan included i.e. establishing a patient education centre and a user office, purchasing of user expertise, appointing contact professionals for next of kin, and improving of the centre's information and the professional culture. The professionals at the intervention hospital thus constituted the intervention group, while the professionals at two other hospitals participated as control group. All professionals were invited to answer the Consumer Participation Questionnaire (CPQ) and additional questions, focusing on knowledge, practice, and attitudes towards user participation, two times with a 16 months interval.
Results
A total of 438 professionals participated (55% response rate). Comparing the changes in the intervention group with the changes in the control group revealed no statistically significant differences at a 0.05 level. The implementation of the development plan thus had no measurable effect on the professionals' knowledge, practice, or attitudes at the intervention hospital, compared to the control hospitals.
Conclusion
This is the first controlled study on the effect on professionals from implementing a development plan to enhance user participation in a mental health hospital. The plan had no effect on professionals' knowledge, practice, or attitudes. This can be due to the quality of the development plan, the implementation process, and/or the suitability of the outcome measures.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-296
PMCID: PMC3239385  PMID: 22047466

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