Metabolic dyslipidemia is characterized by high circulating triglyceride (TG) and low HDL cholesterol levels and is frequently accompanied by hepatic steatosis. Increased hepatic lipogenesis contributes to both of these problems. Because insulin fails to suppress gluconeogenesis but continues to stimulate lipogenesis in both obese and lipodystrophic insulin-resistant mice, it has been proposed that a selective postreceptor defect in hepatic insulin action is central to the pathogenesis of fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in these mice. Here we show that humans with generalized insulin resistance caused by either mutations in the insulin receptor gene or inhibitory antibodies specific for the insulin receptor uniformly exhibited low serum TG and normal HDL cholesterol levels. This was due at least in part to surprisingly low rates of de novo lipogenesis and was associated with low liver fat content and the production of TG-depleted VLDL cholesterol particles. In contrast, humans with a selective postreceptor defect in AKT2 manifest increased lipogenesis, elevated liver fat content, TG-enriched VLDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL cholesterol levels. People with lipodystrophy, a disorder characterized by particularly severe insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, demonstrated similar abnormalities. Collectively these data from humans with molecularly characterized forms of insulin resistance suggest that partial postreceptor hepatic insulin resistance is a key element in the development of metabolic dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis.
The serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (also known as PKB) signaling pathway has been associated with several human diseases, including schizophrenia. Studies in preclinical models have demonstrated that impaired AKT signaling affects neuronal connectivity and neuromodulation and have identified AKT as a key signaling intermediary downstream of dopamine (DA) receptor 2 (DRD2), the best-established target of antipsychotic drugs. A study by Tan et al. in this issue of the JCI strengthens links among AKT signaling, DA transmission, and cognition in healthy individuals and offers potential avenues to explore in an effort to find more effective pharmacotherapies for schizophrenia and related disorders (see the related article beginning on page 2200).
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is causally linked to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In a normal liver, insulin suppresses gluconeogenesis and promotes lipogenesis. In type 2 diabetes, the liver exhibits selective insulin resistance by failing to inhibit hepatic glucose production while maintaining triglyceride synthesis. Evidence suggests that the insulin pathway bifurcates downstream of Akt to regulate these two processes. Specifically, mTORC1 has been implicated in lipogenesis, but its role on hepatic steatosis has not been examined. Here, we generated mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Tsc1 to study the effects of constitutive mTORC1 activation in the liver. These mice developed normally but displayed mild hepatomegaly and insulin resistance without obesity. Unexpectedly, the Tsc1-null livers showed minimal signs of steatosis even under high-fat diet condition. This ‘resistant’ phenotype was reversed by rapamycin and could be overcome by the expression of Myr-Akt. Moreover, rapamycin failed to reduce hepatic triglyceride levels in models of steatosis secondary to Pten ablation in hepatocytes or high-fat diet in wild-type mice. These observations suggest that mTORC1 is neither necessary nor sufficient for steatosis. Instead, Akt and mTORC1 have opposing effects on hepatic lipid accumulation such that mTORC1 protects against diet-induced steatosis. Specifically, mTORC1 activity induces a metabolic shift towards fat utilization and glucose production in the liver. These findings provide novel insights into the role of mTORC1 in hepatic lipid metabolism.
Phenotypic characterization of Akt1 and Igf2 null mice has revealed roles for each in the regulation of placentation, and fetal and postnatal growth. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is encoded by the Igf2 gene and influences cellular function, at least in part, through activation of an intracellular serine/threonine kinase called AKT1. Akt1 and Igf2 null mice were originally characterized on inbred and mixed genetic backgrounds, prohibiting direct comparisons of their phenotypes. The impact of loss of AKT1 or IGF2 on placental, fetal, and postnatal function were examined following transfer of Akt1 and Igf2 null mutations to an outbred CD1 genetic background. Disruption of IGF2 did not affect AKT expression or activation. Both Akt1−/− and Igf2−/− mice exhibited decreased placental weight, fetal weight and viability. Deregulation of placental growth was similar in Akt1 and Igf2 nulls; however, disruption of Igf2 had a more severe impact on prenatal survival and postnatal growth. Placental structure, including organization of junctional and labyrinth zones and development of the interstitial, invasive, trophoblast lineage, were similar in mutant and wild-type mice. Akt1 and Igf2 null mutations affected postnatal growth. The relative impact of each gene differed during pre-weaning versus post-weaning growth phases. AKT1 had a more significant role during pre-weaning growth, whereas IGF2 was a bigger contributor to post-weaning growth. Akt1 and Igf2 null mutations impact placental, fetal and postnatal growth. Placental phenotypes are similar; however, fetal and postnatal growth patterns are unique to each mutation.
AKT1; IGF2; trophoblast; placentation
Transcription factor-7–like 2 (TCF7L2) is the most important type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene identified to date, with common intronic variants strongly associated with diabetes in all major racial groups. This ubiquitous transcription factor in the Wnt signaling pathway was not previously known to be involved in glucose homeostasis, so defining the underlying mechanism(s) will provide new insights into diabetes. In this issue of the JCI, Lyssenko and colleagues report on their human and isolated islet studies and suggest that the risk allele increases TCF7L2 expression in the pancreatic β cell, reducing insulin secretion and hence predisposing the individual to diabetes (see the related article beginning on page 2155).
Leprechaunism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with extreme insulin resistance with paradoxical hypo-glycaemia. It is characterised by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, reduced subcutaneous tissue, coarse features, acanthosis nigricans, enlarged genitalia, and death in the first year of life. Defects in both the insulin receptor and postreceptor steps of the insulin action pathway have been reported. At the molecular level, several mutations have been described. The patients reported here are from a Yemeni family with a syndrome of insulin resistance similar to leprechaunism in which the parents are second cousins and five of their eight children are affected. However, the phenotypes seem to be less severe than the classical leprechaunism previously described. All the children are alive (oldest 11 years), there is normal subcutaneous tissue, and a normal growth pattern in some of them. It may be that this is a milder type of leprechaunism with a better prognosis, perhaps caused by a different type of mutation from those previously described.
The C. elegans insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) cascade plays a central role in the regulation of lifespan, dauer diapause, metabolism and stress response. The major regulatory control of IIS is through phosphorylation of its components by serine/threonine-specific protein kinases. In a RNAi screen for serine/threonine protein phosphatases that counter-balance the effect of the kinases in the IIS pathway, we identified pptr-1, a B56 regulatory subunit of the PP2A holoenzyme. Modulation of pptr-1 affects phenotypes associated with the IIS pathway including lifespan, dauer, stress resistance and fat storage. We show that PPTR-1 functions by regulating worm AKT-1 phosphorylation at Thr 350. With striking conservation, mammalian B56β regulates Akt phosphorylation at Thr 308 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In C. elegans, this modulation ultimately leads to changes in subcellular localization and transcriptional activity of the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16. This study reveals a conserved role for the B56 regulatory subunit in modulating insulin signaling through AKT dephosphorylation and thereby has widespread implications in cancer and diabetes research.
Transcription of enzymes involved in FA and TAG synthesis is coordinately induced in lipogenic tissues by feeding and insulin treatment. The three major transcription factors involved are USF, SREBP-1c, and LXRα. New insights into the insulin-signaling pathway(s) that control(s) lipogenic gene transcription via these factors have recently been revealed. Dephosphorylation/activation of DNA-PK by PP1 causes phosphorylation of USF that in turn recruits P/CAF to be acetylated for transcriptional activation. SREBP-1c can be induced by mTORC1, bifurcating lipogenesis from AKT-activated gluconeogenesis. LXRα may serve as a glucose sensor and, along with ChREBP, may activate lipogenic genes in the fed state. Dysregulation of FA and TAG metabolism often contributes to metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in transcriptional activation of FA and TAG synthesis represent attractive targets for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.
Pathological fasting hypoglycemia in humans is usually explained by excessive circulating insulin or insulin-like molecules, or by inborn errors of metabolism impairing liver glucose production. We studied three unrelated children with unexplained, recurrent and severe fasting hypoglycemia and asymmetrical overgrowth. All were found to carry the same de novo mutation, p.Glu17Lys, in the serine/threonine kinase AKT2, in two cases as heterozygotes and, in one case, in mosaic form. In heterologous cells, the mutant AKT2 was constitutively recruited to the plasma membrane, leading to insulin-independent activation of downstream signaling. This represents a novel mechanism of systemic metabolic disease, characterised by constitutive, cell-autonomous activation of signaling pathways normally controlled by insulin.
Under conditions of obesity and insulin resistance, the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt/PKB is required for lipid accumulation in liver. Two forkhead transcription factors, FoxA2 and FoxO1 have been suggested to function downstream of and to be negatively regulated by Akt and proposed as key determinants of hepatic triglyceride content. In this study, we utilize genetic loss of function experiments to show that constitutive activation of neither FoxA2 nor FoxO1 can account for the protection from steatosis afforded by deletion of Akt2 in liver. Rather, another downstream target positively regulated by Akt, the mTORC1 complex, is required in vivo for de novo lipogenesis and Srebp1c expression. Nonetheless, activation of mTORC1 and SREBP1c are not sufficient to drive postprandial lipogenesis in the absence of Akt2. These data show that insulin signaling through Akt2 promotes anabolic lipid metabolism independent of Foxa2 or FoxO1 and through pathways additional to the mTORC1-dependent activation of SREBP1c.
Hepatic glucose production is normally activated at birth, but has been observed in response to experimental hypoglycemia in fetal sheep. The cellular basis for this process remains unknown. We determined the impact of 2 weeks of fetal hypoglycemia during late gestation on enzymes responsible for hepatic gluconeogenesis, focusing on the insulin signaling pathway, transcription factors, and coactivators which regulate gluconeogenesis. Hepatic PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA increased 12-fold and 7-fold respectively following chronic hypoglycemia with no change in hepatic glycogen. Chronic hypoglycemia decreased fetal plasma insulin with no change in glucagon, but increased plasma cortisol 3.5-fold. PGC1 mRNA and phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133 were both increased, with no change in Akt, FOXO1, HNF4α, or C/EBPβ. These results demonstrate that chronic fetal hypoglycemia triggers signals which can activate gluconeogenesis in the fetal liver.
glucose; gluconeogenesis; cortisol; CREB; PGC1
Since the first diabetic was treated with insulin in 1922, millions of patients have relied on frequent insulin injections and glucose monitoring to combat the disease and its complications. Improved immunosuppressive regimens in islet transplantation developed in the Edmonton protocol raised the hopes of diabetics worldwide for a complete cure and insulin independence. However, transplant success has proven to be short-lived and accompanied by significant side effects. Using a clever genetic model for conditional ablation of pancreatic β cells in vivo, Nir and colleagues show in this issue of the JCI that the immunosuppressant drugs clinically inhibit β cell proliferation in the diabetic setting (see the related article beginning on page 2553). They also demonstrate that β cells have a remarkable regenerative capacity and that normal β cell mass can recover even in the setting of hyperglycemia. Their new mouse model should aid in the development of improved immunoregulatory strategies and in the elucidation of the molecular pathways that govern β cell regeneration.
The insulin and IGF signaling pathways are critical for development and maintenance of pancreatic β cell mass and function. The serine-threonine kinase Akt is one of several mediators regulated by these pathways. We have studied the role of Akt in pancreatic β cell physiology by generating transgenic mice expressing a kinase-dead mutant of this enzyme in β cells. Reduction of Akt activity in transgenic animals resulted in impaired glucose tolerance due to defective insulin secretion. The mechanisms involved in dysregulation of secretion in these mice lie at the level of insulin exocytosis and are not the result of abnormalities in glucose signaling or function of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Therefore, transgenic mice showed increased susceptibility to developing glucose intolerance and diabetes following fat feeding. These observations suggest that Akt plays a novel and important role in the regulation of distal components of the secretory pathway and that this enzyme represents a therapeutic target for improvement of β cell function in diabetes.
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent serine/threonine kinase that interacts with β integrins. Here we show that endothelial cell (EC)-specific deletion of ILK in mice confers placental insufficiency with decreased labyrinthine vascularization, yielding no viable offspring. Deletion of ILK in zebra fish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides results in marked patterning abnormalities of the vasculature and is similarly lethal. To dissect potential mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes, we performed ex vivo deletion of ILK from purified EC of adult mice. We observed downregulation of the active-conformation of β1 integrins with a striking increase in EC apoptosis associated with activation of caspase 9. There was also reduced phosphorylation of the ILK kinase substrate, Akt. However, phenotypic rescue of ILK-deficient EC by wild-type ILK, but not by a constitutively active mutant of Akt, suggests regulation of EC survival by ILK in an Akt-independent manner. Thus, endothelial ILK plays a critical role in vascular development through integrin-matrix interactions and EC survival. These data have important implications for both physiological and pathological angiogenesis.
Coronary heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. The metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, confers substantial risk of coronary heart disease. Current pathogenetic models suggest that postprandial hyperlipidemia is one specific metabolic abnormality that is typically associated with increased morbidity. In this issue of the JCI, Stanhope and colleagues demonstrate that consumption of fructose-sweetened but not glucose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks increases de novo lipid synthesis, promotes dyslipidemia, impairs insulin sensitivity, and increases visceral adiposity in overweight or obese adults (see the related article beginning on page 1322).
Insulin-resistant, ‘type 2’ diabetes (T2D) results from a complex interplay between genes and environment. In particular, both caloric excess and obesity are strongly associated with T2D across many genetic backgrounds. To gain insights into how dietary excess affects insulin resistance, we studied the simple model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae reared on a high-sugar diet were hyperglycemic, insulin resistant and accumulated fat – hallmarks of T2D – compared with those reared on control diets. Excess dietary sugars, but not fats or proteins, elicited insulin-resistant phenotypes. Expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and β-oxidation was upregulated in high-sugar-fed larvae, as were FOXO targets, consistent with known mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans. These data establish a novel Drosophila model of diet-induced insulin resistance that bears strong similarity to the pathophysiology of T2D in humans.
VSMCs exhibit the remarkable plasticity required for development and adaptation of the cardiovascular system. The capacity of VSMCs to modulate their phenotype has evolved to facilitate angiogenesis and wound healing, but it has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, restenosis, posttransplant arteriopathy, and pulmonary hypertension. In this issue of the JCI, Boettger and colleagues report that the recently discovered Mir143/145 gene cluster promotes acquisition of the contractile phenotype of murine VSMCs (see the related article beginning on page 2634). These VSMC-restricted microRNAs, which target unique combinations of SMC genes, provide an efficient mechanism to fine-tune cardiovascular homeostasis and the response of the vessel wall to injury. This important discovery will open the door to new avenues of investigation and potentially future therapies for vascular diseases.
A wide variety of biological activities including the major metabolic actions of insulin is regulated by phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. However, the downstream effectors of the various signaling pathways that emanate from PI 3-kinase remain unclear. Akt (protein kinase B), a serine-threonine kinase with a pleckstrin homology domain, is thought to be one such downstream effector. A mutant Akt (Akt-AA) in which the phosphorylation sites (Thr308 and Ser473) targeted by growth factors are replaced by alanine has now been shown to lack protein kinase activity and, when overexpressed in CHO cells or 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the use of an adenovirus vector, to inhibit insulin-induced activation of endogenous Akt. Akt-AA thus acts in a dominant negative manner in intact cells. Insulin-stimulated protein synthesis, which is sensitive to wortmannin, a pharmacological inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, was abolished by overexpression of Akt-AA without an effect on amino acid transport into the cells, suggesting that Akt is required for insulin-stimulated protein synthesis. Insulin activation of p70 S6 kinase was inhibited by ∼75% in CHO cells and ∼30% in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas insulin-induced activation of endogenous Akt was inhibited by 80 to 95%, by expression of Akt-AA. Thus, Akt activity appears to be required, at least in part, for insulin stimulation of p70 S6 kinase. However, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both CHO cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes was not affected by overexpression of Akt-AA, suggesting that Akt is not required for this effect of insulin. These data indicate that Akt acts as a downstream effector in some, but not all, of the signaling pathways downstream of PI 3-kinase.
Serine is encoded by two divergent codon types, UCN and AGY, which are not interchangeable by a single nucleotide substitution. Switching between codon types therefore occurs via intermediates (threonine or cysteine) or via simultaneous tandem substitutions. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects 2 to 3% of the global population. The highly variable glycoproteins E1 and E2 decorate the surface of the viral envelope, facilitate cellular entry, and are targets for host immunity. Comparative sequence analysis of globally sampled E1E2 genes, coupled with phylogenetic analysis, reveals the signatures of multiple archaic codon-switching events at seven highly conserved serine residues. Limited detection of intermediate phenotypes indicates that associated fitness costs restrict their fixation in divergent HCV lineages. Mutational pathways underlying codon switching were probed via reverse genetics, assessing glycoprotein functionality using multiple in vitro systems. These data demonstrate selection against intermediate phenotypes can act at the structural/functional level, with some intermediates displaying impaired virion assembly and/or decreased capacity for target cell entry. These effects act in residue/isolate-specific manner. Selection against intermediates is also provided by humoral targeting, with some intermediates exhibiting increased epitope exposure and enhanced neutralization sensitivity, despite maintaining a capacity for target cell entry. Thus, purifying selection against intermediates limits their frequencies in globally sampled strains, with divergent functional constraints at the protein level restricting the fixation of deleterious mutations. Overall our study provides an experimental framework for identification of barriers limiting viral substitutional evolution and indicates that serine codon-switching represents a genomic “fossil record” of historical purifying selection against E1E2 intermediate phenotypes.
The Wnt pathway has been found to play a role in the development of many tissues and to spur growth and differentiation of adult osteoblasts, sparking interest in its potential clinical application for bone growth. However, when deregulated, this pathway can be oncogenic in some tissues. In this issue of the JCI, Kansara and colleagues reveal that Wnt inhibitory factor 1 is epigenetically silenced in human osteosarcomas and that its absence augments osteosarcoma formation in mice (see the related article beginning on page 837). These observations suggest the need for caution in stimulating the Wnt pathway for therapeutic bone growth.
Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The protein encoded by the sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) gene, which is a mouse homolog of yeast Sir2, is implicated in the regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, using mice with a liver-specific null mutation of Sirt1, we have identified a signaling pathway involving Sirt1, Rictor (a component of mTOR complex 2 [mTorc2]), Akt, and Foxo1 that regulates gluconeogenesis. We found that Sirt1 positively regulates transcription of the gene encoding Rictor, triggering a cascade of phosphorylation of Akt at S473 and Foxo1 at S253 and resulting in decreased transcription of the gluconeogenic genes glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck). Liver-specific Sirt1 deficiency caused hepatic glucose overproduction, chronic hyperglycemia, and increased ROS production. This oxidative stress disrupted mTorc2 and impaired mTorc2/Akt signaling in other insulin-sensitive organs, leading to insulin resistance that could be largely reversed with antioxidant treatment. These data delineate a pathway through which Sirt1 maintains insulin sensitivity and suggest that treatment with antioxidants might provide protection against progressive insulin resistance in older human populations.
AKT is a serine/threonine protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, which regulates cardiac growth, myocardial angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, and cell death in cardiac myocytes. AKT is activated by its phosphorylation at Thr 308 and ser 473 by PDK1 and mTORC2, respectively, in response to trophic stimuli such as insulin and insulin growth factor. c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNKs) phosphorylate AKT at Thr 450 and potentiate its interaction with its downstream effectors. The short-term activation of AKT promotes physiological hypertrophy and protection from myocardial injury; whereas, its long-term activation causes pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. In this review we will discuss the role of AKT in regulating signalling pathways in the heart with special emphasis on the role of AKT in modulating stress induced autophagic cell death in cardiomyocytes in vitro.
Protein kinase; AKT; Signaling pathways
Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 on tyrosine residues is a key event in IGF-1/insulin signaling and leads to activation of the PI 3-kinase and the Ras/MAPK pathway. Furthermore, phosphorylated serine/threonine residues on IRS-2 can induce 14-3-3 binding. In this study we searched IRS-2 for novel phosphorylation sites and investigated the interaction between IRS-2 and 14-3-3. Mass spectrometry identified a total of 24 serine/threonine residues on IRS-2 with 12 sites unique for IRS-2 while the other residues are conserved in IRS-1 and IRS-2. IGF-1 stimulation led to increased binding of 14-3-3 to IRS-2 in transfected HEK293 cells and this binding was prevented by inhibition of the PI 3-kinase pathway and an Akt/PKB inhibitor. Insulin-stimulated interaction between endogenous IRS-2 and 14-3-3 was observed in rat hepatoma cells and in mice liver after an acute insulin stimulus and refeeding. Using different IRS-2 fragments enabled localization of the IGF-1-dependent 14-3-3 binding region spanning amino acids 300–600. The 24 identified residues on IRS-2 included several 14-3-3 binding candidates in the region 300–600. Single alanine mutants of these candidates led to the identification of serine 573 as 14-3-3 binding site. A phospho-site specific antibody was generated to further characterize serine 573. IGF-1-dependent phosphorylation of serine 573 was reduced by inhibition of PI 3-kinase and Akt/PKB. A negative role of this phosphorylation site was implicated by the alanine mutant of serine 573 which led to enhanced phosphorylation of Akt/PKB in an IGF-1 time course experiment. To conclude, our data suggest a physiologically relevant role for IGF-1/insulin-dependent 14-3-3 binding to IRS-2 involving serine 573.
The protein serine/threonine kinase Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is arguably the most important signalling nexus in the cell. Akt integrates a plethora of extracellular signals to generate diverse outcomes, including proliferation, motility, growth, glucose homeostasis, survival, and cell death. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is the second most frequently mutated pathway in cancer, after p53, and mutations in components of this pathway are found in around 70% of breast cancers. Thus, understanding how Akt relays input signals to downstream effectors is critically important for the design of therapeutic strategies to combat breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss the various signals upstream of Akt that impact on its activity, how Akt integrates these signals and modulates the activity of downstream targets to control mammary gland development, and how mutations in components of the pathway result in breast cancer.
The amyloid β (Aβ) peptide is thought to be a major culprit in Alzheimer disease (AD), and its production and degradation have been intensely investigated. Nevertheless, it remains largely unknown how Aβ pathology is modulated by the autophagy pathway. The study by Pickford and colleagues in this issue of the JCI shows that beclin 1, a multifunctional protein that also plays an important role in the autophagy pathway, affects some aspects of Aβ pathology in aged but not young transgenic mice expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) (see the related article beginning on page 2190). These findings further support the notion that modulation of autophagy, in this case through beclin 1, may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for AD.