The pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme assembly (PDH) generates acetyl coenzyme A and reducing equivalents from pyruvate in a multiple-step process that is a nexus of central metabolism. We report crystal structures of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus PDH E1p subunit with ligands that mimic the prereaction complex and the postdecarboxylation product. The structures implicate residues that help to orient substrates, nurture intermediates, and organize surface loops so that they can engage a mobile lipoyl domain that receives the acetyl group and shuttles it to the next active site. The structural and enzymatic data suggest that H128β performs a dual role: first, as electrostatic catalyst of the reaction of pyruvate with the thiamine cofactor; and second, as a proton donor in the second reaction of acetyl group with the lipoate. We also identify I206α as a key residue in mediating the conformation of active-site loops. We propose that a simple conformational flip of the H271α side chain assists transfer of the acetyl group from thiamine cofactor to lipoyl domain in synchrony with reduction of the dithiolane ring.
We report the identification of novel inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei 6PGDH enzyme by virtual fragment screening.
The enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is a potential drug target for the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, the causative organism of human African trypanosomiasis. This enzyme has a polar active site to accommodate the phosphate, hydroxyl and carboxylate groups of the substrate, 6-phosphogluconate. A virtual fragment screen was undertaken of the enzyme to discover starting points for the development of inhibitors which are likely to have appropriate physicochemical properties for an orally bioavailable compound. A virtual screening library was developed, consisting of compounds with functional groups that could mimic the phosphate group of the substrate, but which have a higher pKa. Following docking, hits were clustered and appropriate compounds purchased and assayed against the enzyme. Three fragments were identified that had IC50 values in the low micromolar range and good ligand efficiencies. Based on these initial hits, analogues were procured and further active compounds were identified. Some of the fragments identified represent potential starting points for a medicinal chemistry programme to develop potent drug-like inhibitors of the enzyme.
Virtual fragment screening; Trypanosoma brucei; 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
RNAi and enzymatic studies have shown the importance of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH) in Trypanosoma brucei for the parasite survival and make it an attractive drug target for the development of new treatments against human African trypanosomiasis. 2,3-O-Isopropylidene-4-erythrono hydroxamate is a potent inhibitor of parasite Trypanosoma brucei 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), the third enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. However, this compound does not have trypanocidal activity due to its poor membrane permeability. Consequently, we have previously reported a prodrug approach to improve the antiparasitic activity of this inhibitor by converting the phosphate group into a less charged phosphate prodrug. The activity of prodrugs appeared to be dependent on their stability in phosphate buffer. Here we have successfully further extended the development of the aryl phosphoramidate prodrugs of 2,3-O-isopropylidene-4-erythrono hydroxamate by synthesizing a small library of phosphoramidates and evaluating their biological activity and stability in a variety of assays. Some of the compounds showed high trypanocidal activity and good correlation of activity with their stability in fresh mouse blood.
The crystal structure of the prephenate dehydrogenase component of the bifunctional H. influenzae TyrA reveals unique structural differences between bifunctional and monofunctional TyrA enzymes.
Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase from Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate and the NAD(P)+-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of prephenate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in tyrosine biosynthesis. The crystal structure of the prephenate dehydrogenase component (HinfPDH) of the TyrA protein from H. influenzae Rd KW20 in complex with the inhibitor tyrosine and cofactor NAD+ has been determined to 2.0 Å resolution. HinfPDH is a dimeric enzyme, with each monomer consisting of an N-terminal α/β dinucleotide-binding domain and a C-terminal α-helical dimerization domain. The structure reveals key active-site residues at the domain interface, including His200, Arg297 and Ser179 that are involved in catalysis and/or ligand binding and are highly conserved in TyrA proteins from all three kingdoms of life. Tyrosine is bound directly at the catalytic site, suggesting that it is a competitive inhibitor of HinfPDH. Comparisons with its structural homologues reveal important differences around the active site, including the absence of an α–β motif in HinfPDH that is present in other TyrA proteins, such as Synechocystis sp. arogenate dehydrogenase. Residues from this motif are involved in discrimination between NADP+ and NAD+. The loop between β5 and β6 in the N-terminal domain is much shorter in HinfPDH and an extra helix is present at the C-terminus. Furthermore, HinfPDH adopts a more closed conformation compared with TyrA proteins that do not have tyrosine bound. This conformational change brings the substrate, cofactor and active-site residues into close proximity for catalysis. An ionic network consisting of Arg297 (a key residue for tyrosine binding), a water molecule, Asp206 (from the loop between β5 and β6) and Arg365′ (from the additional C-terminal helix of the adjacent monomer) is observed that might be involved in gating the active site.
tyrosine biosynthesis; prephenate; chorismate; Haemophilus influenzae; structural genomics
l-Lysine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of l-lysine in the presence of NAD, was found in the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus UTB 1103 and then purified about 3,040-fold from a crude extract of the organism by using four successive column chromatography steps. This is the first report showing the presence of a thermophilic NAD-dependent lysine dehydrogenase. The product of the enzyme catalytic activity was determined to be Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, indicating that the enzyme is l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (LysDH) (EC 184.108.40.206). The molecular mass of the purified protein was about 260 kDa, and the molecule was determined to be a homohexamer with subunit molecular mass of about 43 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the catalytic activity of the enzyme were about 10.1 and 70°C, respectively. No activity was lost at temperatures up to 65°C in the presence of 5 mM l-lysine. The enzyme was relatively selective for l-lysine as the electron donor, and either NAD or NADP could serve as the electron acceptor (NADP exhibited about 22% of the activity of NAD). The Km values for l-lysine, NAD, and NADP at 50°C and pH 10.0 were 0.73, 0.088, and 0.48 mM, respectively. When the gene encoding this LysDH was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, a crude extract of the recombinant cells had about 800-fold-higher enzyme activity than the extract of G. stearothermophilus. The nucleotide sequence of the LysDH gene encoded a peptide containing 385 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42,239 Da.
In trypanosomatids, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the first enzyme of the pentosephosphate pathway, is essential for the defense of the parasite against oxidative stress. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania mexicana G6PDHs have been characterized. The parasites' G6PDHs contain a unique 37 amino acid long N-terminal extension that in T. cruzi seems to regulate the enzyme activity in a redox-state-dependent manner. T. brucei and T. cruzi G6PDHs, but not their Leishmania spp. counterpart, are inhibited, in an uncompetitive way, by steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone and derivatives. The Trypanosoma enzymes are more susceptible to inhibition by these compounds than the human G6PDH. The steroids also effectively kill cultured trypanosomes but not Leishmania and are presently considered as promising leads for the development of new parasite-selective chemotherapeutic agents.
The nucleotide sequence of the entire Escherichia coli edd-eda region that encodes the enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway was determined. The edd structural gene begins 236 bases downstream of zwf. The eda structural gene begins 34 bases downstream of edd. The edd reading frame is 1,809 bases long and encodes the 602-amino-acid, 64,446-Da protein 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase. The deduced primary amino acid sequences of the E. coli and Zymomonas mobilis dehydratase enzymes are highly conserved. The eda reading frame is 642 bases long and encodes the 213-amino-acid, 22,283-Da protein 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase. This enzyme had been previously purified and sequenced by others on the basis of its related enzyme activity, 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase. The data presented here provide proof that the two enzymes are identical. The primary amino acid sequences of the E. coli, Z. mobilis, and Pseudomonas putida aldolase enzymes are highly conserved. When E. coli is grown on gluconate, the edd and eda genes are cotranscribed. Four putative promoters within the edd-eda region were identified by transcript mapping and computer analysis. P1, located upstream of edd, appears to be the primary gluconate-responsive promoter of the edd-eda operon, responsible for induction of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, as mediated by the gntR product. High basal expression of eda is explained by constitutive transcription from P2, P3, and/or P4 but not P1.
N-Carbamoyl-l-amino acid amidohydrolases (l-carbamoylases) are important industrial enzymes used in kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures of N-carbamoyl-amino acids due to their strict enantiospecificity. In this work, we report the first l-carbamoylase structure belonging to Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT43 (BsLcar), at a resolution of 2.7 Å. Structural analysis of BsLcar and several members of the peptidase M20/M25/M40 family confirmed the expected conserved residues at the active site in this family, and site-directed mutagenesis revealed their relevance to substrate binding. We also found an unexpectedly conserved arginine residue (Arg234 in BsLcar), proven to be critical for dimerization of the enzyme. The mutation of this sole residue resulted in a total loss of activity and prevented the formation of the dimer in BsLcar. Comparative studies revealed that the dimerization domain of the peptidase M20/M25/M40 family is a “small-molecule binding domain,” allowing further evolutionary considerations for this enzyme family.
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B6 and is an important cofactor for several of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of amine-containing natural products such as amino acids and amino-sugars. The PLP synthase holoenzyme consists of two subunits: YaaD catalyzes the condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and ammonia and YaaE catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine. Here we describe the structure of the PLP synthase complex (YaaD-YaaE) from Thermotoga maritima at 2.9 Å resolution. This complex consists of a core of 12 YaaD monomers with 12 noninteracting YaaE monomers attached to the core. Compared to the previously published structure of PdxS (a YaaD ortholog in Geobacillus stearothermophilus), the N-terminus (1–18), which includes helix α0, the β2-α2 loop(46–56), which includes new helix α2a, and the C-terminus (270–280) of YaaD, are ordered in the complex but disordered in PdxS. A ribulose 5-phosphate is bound to YaaD via an imine with Lys82. Previous studies have demonstrated a similar imine at Lys149 and not at Lys81 (equivalent to Lys150 and 82 in T. maritima) for the Bacillus subtilis enzyme suggesting the possibility that two separate sites on YaaD are involved in PLP formation. A phosphate from the crystallization solution is found bound to YaaD and also serves as a marker for a possible second active site. An ammonia channel that connects the active site of YaaE with the ribulose 5-phosphate binding site was identified. This channel is similar to one found in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase; however, when the β-barrels of the two complexes are superimposed, the glutaminase domains are rotated by about 180° with respect to each other.
In the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is detected as two differently migrating forms on native polyacrylamide gels. The pivotal metabolic role of G6PDH in K. lactis led us to investigate the mechanism controlling the two activities in respiratory and fermentative mutant strains. An extensive analysis of these mutants showed that the NAD+(H)/NADP+(H)-dependent cytosolic alcohol (ADH) and aldehyde (ALD) dehydrogenase balance affects the expression of the G6PDH activity pattern. Under fermentative/ethanol growth conditions, the concomitant activation of ADH and ALD activities led to cytosolic accumulation of NADPH, triggering an alteration in the oligomeric state of the G6PDH caused by displacement/release of the structural NADP+ bound to each subunit of the enzyme. The new oligomeric G6PDH form with faster-migrating properties increases as a consequence of intracellular redox unbalance/NADPH accumulation, which inhibits G6PDH activity in vivo. The appearance of a new G6PDH-specific activity band, following incubation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human cellular extracts with NADP+, also suggests that a regulatory mechanism of this activity through NADPH accumulation is highly conserved among eukaryotes.
Ntric oxide synthase (NOS) generates NO via a sequential two-step reaction, L-arginine (L-Arg) → N-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA) → L-citrulline + NO. Each step of the reaction follows a distinct mechanism defined by the chemical environment introduced by each substrate bound to the heme active site. The dioxygen complex of the NOS enzyme from a thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (gsNOS), is unusually stable; hence it provides a unique model for the studies of the mechanistic differences between the two steps of the NOS reaction. By using CO as a structural probe, it was found that gsNOS exhibits two conformations in the absence of substrate, as indicated by the presence of two sets of the νFe-CO/νC-O modes in the resonance Raman spectra. In the νFe-CO versus νC-O inverse correlation plot, one set of the data falls on the correlation line characterized by mammalian NOSs (mNOS), whereas the other set of the data lies on a new correlation line defined by a bacterial NOS from Bacillus subtilis (bsNOS), reflecting a difference in the proximal Fe-Cys bond strength in the two conformers of gsNOS. The addition of L-Arg stabilizes the conformer associated with the mNOS correlation line, whereas NOHA stabilizes the conformer associated with the bsNOS correlation line, although both substrates introduce a positive electrostatic potential to the distal heme pocket. To assess how substrate-binding affects the Fe-Cys bond strength, the frequency of the Fe-Cys stretching mode of gsNOS was monitored by resonance Raman spectroscopy with 363.8 nm excitation. In the substrate-free form, the Fe-Cys stretching mode was detected at 342.5 cm−1 similar to that of bsNOS. The binding of L-Arg and NOHA brings about a small decrease and increase in the Fe-Cys stretching frequency, respectively. The implication of these unique structural features on the oxygen chemistry of NOS is discussed.
Nitric Oxide; Raman Scattering; Biophysics; Carbon Monoxide
In this study, we cloned the Pseudomonas aeruginosa zwf gene, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), an enzyme that catalyzes the NAD+- or NADP+-dependent conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate. The predicted zwf gene product is 490 residues, which could form a tetramer with a molecular mass of ∼220 kDa. G6PDH activity and zwf transcription were maximal in early logarithmic phase when inducing substrates such as glycerol, glucose, or gluconate were abundant. In contrast, both G6PDH activity and zwf transcription plummeted dramatically when bacteria approached stationary phase, when inducing substrate was limiting, or when the organisms were grown in a citrate-, succinate-, or acetate-containing basal salts medium. G6PDH was purified to homogeneity, and its molecular mass was estimated to be ∼220 kDa by size exclusion chromatography. Estimated Km values of purified G6PDH acting on glucose-6-phosphate, NADP+, and NAD+ were 530, 57, and 333 μM, respectively. The specific activities with NAD+ and NADP+ were calculated to be 176 and 69 μmol/min/mg. An isogenic zwf mutant was unable to grow on minimal medium supplemented with mannitol. The mutant also demonstrated increased sensitivity to the redox-active superoxide-generating agent methyl viologen (paraquat). Since one by-product of G6PDH activity is NADPH, the latter data suggest that this cofactor is essential for the activity of enzymes critical in defense against paraquat toxicity.
Two Bacillus stearothermophilus wild-type strains were investigated regarding a common recognition and binding mechanism between the S-layer protein and the underlying cell envelope layer. The S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p6 has a molecular weight of 130,000 and assembles into a hexagonally ordered lattice. The S-layer from B. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 shows oblique lattice symmetry and is composed of subunits with a molecular weight of 122,000. Immunoblotting, peptide mapping, N-terminal sequencing of the whole S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and of proteolytic cleavage fragments, and comparison with the S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p6 revealed that the two S-layer proteins have identical N-terminal regions but no other extended structurally homologous domains. In contrast to the heterogeneity observed for the S-layer proteins, the secondary cell wall polymer isolated from peptidoglycan-containing sacculi of the different strains showed identical chemical compositions and comparable molecular weights. The S-layer proteins could bind and recrystallize into the appropriate lattice type on native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi from both organisms but not on those extracted with hydrofluoric acid, leading to peptidoglycan of the A1γ chemotype. Affinity studies showed that only proteolytic cleavage fragments possessing the complete N terminus of the mature S-layer proteins recognized native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi as binding sites or could associate with the isolated secondary cell wall polymer, while proteolytic cleavage fragments missing the N-terminal region remained unbound. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that S-layer proteins from B. stearothermophilus wild-type strains possess an identical N-terminal region which is responsible for anchoring the S-layer subunits to a secondary cell wall polymer of identical chemical composition.
The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex of the gram-negative bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was purified to homogeneity. From 250 g of cells, we isolated 1 mg of PDH complex with a specific activity of 12.6 U/mg of protein. Analysis of subunit composition revealed a PDH (E1) consisting of the two subunits E1α (38 kDa) and E1β (56 kDa), a dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) of 48 kDa, and a lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) of 50 kDa. The E2 core of the complex is arranged to form a pentagonal dodecahedron, as shown by electron microscopic images, resembling the quaternary structures of PDH complexes from gram-positive bacteria and eukaryotes. The PDH complex-encoding genes were identified by hybridization experiments and sequence analysis in two separate gene regions in the genome of Z. mobilis. The genes pdhAα (1,065 bp) and pdhAβ (1,389 bp), encoding the E1α and E1β subunits of the E1 component, were located downstream of the gene encoding enolase. The pdhB (1,323 bp) and lpd (1,401 bp) genes, encoding the E2 and E3 components, were identified in an unrelated gene region together with a 450-bp open reading frame (ORF) of unknown function in the order pdhB-ORF2-lpd. Highest similarities of the gene products of the pdhAα, pdhAβ, and pdhB genes were found with the corresponding enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes. Like the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferases of S. cerevisiae and numerous other organisms, the product of the pdhB gene contains a single lipoyl domain. The E1β subunit PDH was found to contain an amino-terminal lipoyl domain, a property which is unique among PDHs.
We have constructed stable virus-like particles displaying the HIV-1 Gag(p17) protein as an N-terminal fusion with an engineered protein domain from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E2. Mice immunized with the Gag(p17)-E2 60-mer scaffold particles mounted a strong and sustained antibody response. Antibodies directed to Gag(p17) were boosted significantly with additional immunizations, while anti-E2 responses reached a plateau. The isotype of the induced antibodies was biased towards IgG1, and the E2-primed CD4+ T cells did not secrete IFNγ. Using transgenic mouse model systems, we demonstrated that CD8+ T cells primed with E2 particles were able to exert lytic activity and produce IFNγ. These results show that the E2 scaffold represents a powerful vaccine delivery system for whole antigenic proteins or polyepitope engineered proteins, evoking antibody production and antigen specific CTL activity even in the absence of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells.
Virus-like particles; HIV; vaccine; E2 scaffold; Gag(p17)
This study reports surface complexation models (SCMs) for quantifying metal ion adsorption by thermophilic microorganisms. In initial cadmium ion toxicity tests, members of the genus Geobacillus displayed the highest tolerance to CdCl2 (as high as 400 to 3,200 μM). The thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G. thermocatenulatus were selected for further electrophoretic mobility, potentiometric titration, and Cd2+ adsorption experiments to characterize Cd2+ complexation by functional groups within and on the cell wall. Distinct one-site SCMs described the extent of cadmium ion adsorption by both studied Geobacillus sp. strains over a range of pH values and metal/bacteria concentration ratios. The results indicate that a functional group with a deprotonation constant pK value of approximately 3.8 accounts for 66% and 80% of all titratable sites for G. thermocatenulatus and G. stearothermophilus, respectively, and is dominant in Cd2+ adsorption reactions. The results suggest a different type of functional group may be involved in cadmium biosorption for both thermophilic strains investigated here, compared to previous reports for mesophilic bacteria.
Thermostable enzymes from thermophilic microorganisms are playing more and more important roles in molecular biology R&D and industrial applications. However, over-production of recombinant soluble proteins from thermophilic microorganisms in mesophilic hosts (e.g. E. coli) remains challenging sometimes.
An open reading frame TM0438 from a hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima putatively encoding 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified protein was confirmed to have 6PGDH activity with a molecular mass of 53 kDa. The kcat of this enzyme was 325 s-1 and the Km values for 6-phosphogluconate, NADP+, and NAD+ were 11, 10 and 380 μM, respectively, at 80°C. This enzyme had half-life times of 48 and 140 h at 90 and 80°C, respectively. Through numerous approaches including expression vectors, hosts, cultivation conditions, inducers, and codon-optimization of the 6pgdh gene, the soluble 6PGDH expression levels were enhanced to ~250 mg per liter of culture by more than 500-fold. The recombinant 6PGDH accounted for >30% of total E. coli cellular proteins when lactose was used as a low-cost inducer. In addition, this enzyme coupled with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase for the first time was demonstrated to generate two moles of NADPH per mole of glucose-6-phosphate.
We have achieved a more than 500-fold improvement in the expression of soluble T. maritima 6PGDH in E. coli, characterized its basic biochemical properties, and demonstrated its applicability for NADPH regeneration by a new enzyme cocktail. The methodology for over-expression and simple purification of this thermostable protein would be useful for the production of other thermostable proteins in E. coli.
NADPH regeneration appears to be essential in the mechanism of plant defence against oxidative stress. Plants contain several NADPH-generating dehydrogenases including isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), and malic enzyme (ME). In Arabidopsis seedlings grown under salinity conditions (100 mM NaCl) the analysis of physiological parameters, antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) and content of superoxide radical (O2 ∙−), nitric oxide (NO), and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) indicates a process of nitro-oxidative stress induced by NaCl. Among the analysed NADPH-generating dehydrogenases under salinity conditions, the NADP-ICDH showed the maximum activity mainly attributable to the root NADP-ICDH. Thus, these data provide new insights on the relevance of the NADP-ICDH which could be considered as a second barrier in the mechanism of response against the nitro-oxidative stress generated by salinity.
Glucose may be converted to 6-phosphogluconate by alternate pathways in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate, which is oxidized to 6-phosphogluconate during anaerobic growth when nitrate is used as respiratory electron acceptor. Mutant cells lacking glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are unable to catabolize glucose under these conditions. The mutant cells utilize glucose as effectively as do wild-type cells in the presence of oxygen; under these conditions, glucose is utilized via direct oxidation to gluconate, which is converted to 6-phosphogluconate. The membrane-associated glucose dehydrogenase activity was not formed during anaerobic growth with glucose. Gluconate, the product of the enzyme, appeared to be the inducer of the gluconate transport system, gluconokinase, and membrane-associated gluconate dehydrogenase. 6-Phosphogluconate is probably the physiological inducer of glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and the dehydratase and aldolase of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Nitrate-linked respiration is required for the anaerobic uptake of glucose and gluconate by independently regulated transport systems in cells grown under denitrifying conditions.
d-Amino acid aminotransferases (d-AATs) from Geobacillus toebii SK1 and Geobacillus sp. strain KLS1 were cloned and characterized from a genetic, catalytic, and structural aspect. Although the enzymes were highly thermostable, their catalytic capability was approximately one-third of that of highly active Bacilli enzymes, with respective turnover rates of 47 and 55 s−1 at 50°C. The Geobacillus enzymes were unique and shared limited sequence identities of below 45% with d-AATs from mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus spp., except for a hypothetical protein with a 72% identity from the G. kaustophilus genome. Structural alignments showed that most key residues were conserved in the Geobacillus enzymes, although the conservative residues just before the catalytic lysine were distinctively changed: the 140-LRcD-143 sequence in Bacillus d-AATs was 144-EYcY-147 in the Geobacillus d-AATs. When the EYcY sequence from the SK1 enzyme was mutated into LRcD, a 68% increase in catalytic activity was observed, while the binding affinity toward α-ketoglutarate decreased by half. The mutant was very close to the wild-type in thermal stability, indicating that the mutations did not disturb the overall structure of the enzyme. Homology modeling also suggested that the two tyrosine residues in the EYcY sequence from the Geobacillus d-AATs had a π/π interaction that was replaceable with the salt bridge interaction between the arginine and aspartate residues in the LRcD sequence.
To obtain proof of concept for HIV vaccines, we generated recombinant multimeric particles displaying the HIV-1 Envelope (Env) third hypervariable region (V3) as an N-terminal fusion protein on the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The E2 scaffold self-assembles into a 60-mer core that is 24 nm in diameter, with a molecular weight of 1.5 MDa, similar to a virus like particle with up to 60 copies of a heterologous protein accessible on the surface. Env(V3)-E2 multimers were tested alone and in combination with Env(gp160) DNA in mice and rabbits. Following two or more co-immunizations with Env(V3)-E2 and Env gp160 DNA, all 18 rabbits developed potent autologous neutralizing antibodies specific for V3 in six weeks. These neutralizing antibodies were sustained for 16 weeks without boosting, and comparable responses were obtained when lipopolysaccharide, a contaminant from expression in E. coli, was removed. Co-immunizations of Env(V3)-E2 and DNA expressing gp160 elicited moderate CD8-specific responses and Env-specific antibodies in mice. Co-immunization with DNA and E2 was superior to individual or sequential vaccination with these components in eliciting both neutralizing antibodies in rabbits and CD8+ T cell responses in mice. Co-immunization with DNA and multimeric E2 scaffolds appears to offer a highly effective means of eliciting rapid, specific, and sustained immune responses that may be a useful approach for other vaccine targets.
As the third enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) is the main generator of cellular NADPH. Both thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase require NADPH as the electron donor to reduce oxidized thioredoxin or glutathione (GSSG). Since thioredoxin and GSH are important antioxidants, it is not surprising that 6PGDH plays a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore the activity of 6PGDH is associated with several human disorders including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The 3D structural investigation would be very valuable in designing small molecules that target this enzyme for potential therapeutic applications.
The crystal structure of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH/Gnd1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined at 2.37 Å resolution by molecular replacement. The overall structure of Gnd1 is a homodimer with three domains for each monomer, a Rossmann fold NADP+ binding domain, an all-α helical domain contributing the majority to hydrophobic interaction between the two subunits and a small C-terminal domain penetrating the other subunit. In addition, two citrate molecules occupied the 6PG binding pocket of each monomer. The intact Gnd1 had a Km of 50 ± 9 μM for 6-phosphogluconate and of 35 ± 6 μM for NADP+ at pH 7.5. But the truncated mutants without the C-terminal 35, 39 or 53 residues of Gnd1 completely lost their 6PGDH activity, despite remaining the homodimer in solution.
The overall tertiary structure of Gnd1 is similar to those of 6PGDH from other species. The substrate and coenzyme binding sites are well conserved, either from the primary sequence alignment, or from the 3D structural superposition. Enzymatic activity assays suggest a sequential mechanism of catalysis, which is in agreement with previous studies. The C-terminal domain of Gnd1 functions as a hook to further tighten the dimer, but it is not necessary for the dimerization. This domain also works as a lid on the substrate binding pocket to control the binding of substrate and the release of product, so it is indispensable for the 6PGDH activity. Moreover, the co-crystallized citrate molecules, which mimic the binding mode of the substrate 6-phosphogluconate, provided us a novel strategy to design the 6PDGH inhibitors.
Growth rate-dependent regulation of the level of Escherichia coli glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, encoded by zwf, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, encoded by gnd, is similar during steady-state growth and after nutritional upshifts. To determine whether the mechanism regulating zwf expression is like that of gnd, which involves a site of posttranscriptional control located within the structural gene, we prepared and analyzed a set of zwf-lacZ protein fusions in which the fusion joints are distributed across the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase coding sequence. Expression of beta-galactosidase from the protein fusions was as growth rate dependent as that of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase itself, indicating that regulation does not involve an internal regulatory region. The level of beta-galactosidase in zwf-lac operon fusion strains and the level of zwf mRNA from a wild-type strain increased with increasing growth rate, which suggests that growth rate control is exerted on the mRNA level. The half-life of the zwf mRNA mass was 3.0 min during growth on glucose and 3.4 min during growth on acetate. Thus, zwf transcription appears to be the target for growth rate control of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase level.
Ragland, T. E. (Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass.), T. Kawasaki, and J. M. Lowenstein. Comparative aspects of some bacterial dehydrogenases and transhydrogenases. J. Bacteriol. 91:236–244. 1966.—Twenty-eight diverse bacterial species were surveyed for the activities and coenzyme specificities of four enzymes: isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) transhydrogenase (TH). Most of the species that exhibited a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)-linked ICDH also showed significant TH activity, but there were several which did not. Only one of the organisms tested, Xanthomonas pruni, had an ICDH active with both NAD and NADP; it was devoid of TH activity. Acetobacter suboxydans, which lacks ICDH altogether, also had no TH. Some of the species examined had G-6-PDH or 6-PGDH (or both) of dual coenzyme specificity, but there was no apparent relation between these findings and the presence or absence of TH. The TH reaction was assayed by use of analogues of NAD as acceptors. The bacteria could be divided into two groups on the basis of TH specificity, one group reacting at a much faster rate with the 3-acetylpyridine analogue of NAD than with the thionicotinamide analogue, whereas the converse was true for the other group. A few organisms showed no marked specificity for either analogue. This division of specificity can be related to the currently accepted taxonomic classification of the organisms, although a few apparent anomalies were found.
We have previously reported the discovery of potent and selective inhibitors of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, the third enzyme of the phosphate pentose pathway, from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative organism of human African trypanosomiasis. These inhibitors were charged phosphate derivatives with restricted capacity to enter cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of five different classes of prodrugs: phosphoramidate; bis-S-acyl thioethyl esters (bis-SATE); bis-pivaloxymethyl (bis-POM); CycloSaligenyl; and phenyl, S-acyl thioethyl mixed phosphate esters (mix-SATE). Prodrugs were studied for stability and activity against the intact parasites. Most prodrugs caused inhibition of the growth of the parasites. The activity of the prodrugs against the parasites appeared to be related to their stability in aqueous buffer.
6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase; masked phosphate; prodrugs; Trypanosoma brucei