The small GTPase Rab7 controls late endocytic transport by the minus end–directed motor protein complex dynein–dynactin, but how it does this is unclear. Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) and oxysterol-binding protein–related protein 1L (ORP1L) are two effectors of Rab7. We show that GTP-bound Rab7 simultaneously binds RILP and ORP1L to form a RILP–Rab7–ORP1L complex. RILP interacts directly with the C-terminal 25-kD region of the dynactin projecting arm p150Glued, which is required for dynein motor recruitment to late endocytic compartments (LEs). Still, p150Glued recruitment by Rab7–RILP does not suffice to induce dynein-driven minus-end transport of LEs. ORP1L, as well as βIII spectrin, which is the general receptor for dynactin on vesicles, are essential for dynein motor activity. Our results illustrate that the assembly of microtubule motors on endosomes involves a cascade of linked events. First, Rab7 recruits two effectors, RILP and ORP1L, to form a tripartite complex. Next, RILP directly binds to the p150Glued dynactin subunit to recruit the dynein motor. Finally, the specific dynein motor receptor Rab7–RILP is transferred by ORP1L to βIII spectrin. Dynein will initiate translocation of late endosomes to microtubule minus ends only after interacting with βIII spectrin, which requires the activities of Rab7–RILP and ORP1L.
Late endosomes (LEs) have characteristic intracellular distributions determined by their interactions with various motor proteins. Motor proteins associated to the dynactin subunit p150Glued bind to LEs via the Rab7 effector Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) in association with the oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L. We found that cholesterol levels in LEs are sensed by ORP1L and are lower in peripheral vesicles. Under low cholesterol conditions, ORP1L conformation induces the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–LE membrane contact sites. At these sites, the ER protein VAP (VAMP [vesicle-associated membrane protein]-associated ER protein) can interact in trans with the Rab7–RILP complex to remove p150Glued and associated motors. LEs then move to the microtubule plus end. Under high cholesterol conditions, as in Niemann-Pick type C disease, this process is prevented, and LEs accumulate at the microtubule minus end as the result of dynein motor activity. These data explain how the ER and cholesterol control the association of LEs with motor proteins and their positioning in cells.
The small guanosine triphosphatase Rab7 regulates late endocytic trafficking. Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) and oxysterol-binding protein–related protein 1L (ORP1L) are guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–Rab7 effectors that instigate minus end–directed microtubule transport. We demonstrate that RILP and ORP1L both interact with the group C adenovirus protein known as receptor internalization and degradation α (RIDα), which was previously shown to clear the cell surface of several membrane proteins, including the epidermal growth factor receptor and Fas (Carlin, C.R., A.E. Tollefson, H.A. Brady, B.L. Hoffman, and W.S. Wold. 1989. Cell. 57:135–144; Shisler, J., C. Yang, B. Walter, C.F. Ware, and L.R. Gooding. 1997. J. Virol. 71:8299–8306). RIDα localizes to endocytic vesicles but is not homologous to Rab7 and is not catalytically active. We show that RIDα compensates for reduced Rab7 or dominant-negative (DN) Rab7(T22N) expression. In vitro, Cu2+ binding to RIDα residues His75 and His76 facilitates the RILP interaction. Site-directed mutagenesis of these His residues results in the loss of RIDα–RILP interaction and RIDα activity in cells. Additionally, expression of the RILP DN C-terminal region hinders RIDα activity during an acute adenovirus infection. We conclude that RIDα coordinates recruitment of these GTP-Rab7 effectors to compartments that would ordinarily be perceived as early endosomes, thereby promoting the degradation of selected cargo.
Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) homologs comprise a family of 12 proteins in humans (Jaworski et al., 2001; Lehto et al., 2001). Two variants of OSBP-related protein (ORP) 1 have been identified: a short one that consists of the carboxy-terminal ligand binding domain only (ORP1S, 437 aa) and a longer N-terminally extended form (ORP1L, 950 aa) encompassing three ankyrin repeats and a pleckstrin homology domain (PHD). We now report that the two mRNAs show marked differences in tissue expression. ORP1S predominates in skeletal muscle and heart, whereas ORP1L is the most abundant form in brain and lung. On differentiation of primary human monocytes into macrophages, both ORP1S and ORP1L mRNAs were induced, the up-regulation of ORP1L being >100-fold. The intracellular localization of the two ORP1 variants was found to be different. Whereas ORP1S is largely cytosolic, the ORP1L variant localizes to late endosomes. A significant amount of ORP1S but only little ORP1L was found in the nucleus. The ORP1L ankyrin repeat region (aa 1–237) was found to localize to late endosomes such as the full-length protein. This localization was even more pronounced for a fragment that additionally includes the PHD (aa 1–408). The amino-terminal region of ORP1L consisting of the ankyrin repeat and PHDs is therefore likely to be responsible for the targeting of ORP1L to late endosomes. Interestingly, overexpression of ORP1L was found to enhance the LXRα-mediated transactivation of a reporter gene, whereas ORP1S failed to influence this process. The results suggest that the two forms of ORP1 are functionally distinct and that ORP1L is involved in control of cellular lipid metabolism.
ORP5 works together with Niemann Pick C-1 to facilitate exit of cholesterol from endosomes and lysosomes.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and its related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large and evolutionarily conserved family of lipid-binding proteins that target organelle membranes to mediate sterol signaling and/or transport. Here we characterize ORP5, a tail-anchored ORP protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Knocking down ORP5 causes cholesterol accumulation in late endosomes and lysosomes, which is reminiscent of the cholesterol trafficking defect in Niemann Pick C (NPC) fibroblasts. Cholesterol appears to accumulate in the limiting membranes of endosomal compartments in ORP5-depleted cells, whereas depletion of NPC1 or both ORP5 and NPC1 results in luminal accumulation of cholesterol. Moreover, trans-Golgi resident proteins mislocalize to endosomal compartments upon ORP5 depletion, which depends on a functional NPC1. Our results establish the first link between NPC1 and a cytoplasmic sterol carrier, and suggest that ORP5 may cooperate with NPC1 to mediate the exit of cholesterol from endosomes/lysosomes.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) homologues, ORPs, are implicated in lipid homeostatic control, vesicle transport, and cell signaling. We analyzed here the quantity of ORP mRNAs in human subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral adipose depots, as well as in the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell model. All of the ORP mRNAs were present in the s.c and visceral adipose tissues, and the two depots shared an almost identical ORP mRNA expression pattern. SGBS adipocytes displayed a similar pattern, suggesting that the adipose tissue ORP expression pattern mainly derives from adipocytes. During SGBS cell adipogenic differentiation, ORP2, ORP3, ORP4, ORP7, and ORP8 mRNAs were down-regulated, while ORP11 was induced. To assess the impacts of ORPs on adipocyte differentiation, ORP3 and ORP8, proteins down-regulated during adipogenesis, were overexpressed in differentiating SGBS adipocytes, while ORP11, a protein induced during adipogenesis, was silenced. ORP8 overexpression resulted in reduced expression of the aP2 mRNA, while down-regulation of adiponectin and aP2 was observed in ORP11 silenced cells. Furthermore, ORP8 overexpression or silencing of ORP11 markedly decreased cellular triglyceride storage. These data identify the patterns of ORP expression in human adipose depots and SGBS adipocytes, and provide the first evidence for a functional impact of ORPs on the adipocyte phenotype.
In eukaryotes, different subcellular organelles have distinct cholesterol concentrations, which is thought to be critical for biological functions. Oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) have been assumed to mediate nonvesicular cholesterol trafficking in cells; however, their in vivo functions and therefore the biological significance of cholesterol in each organelle are not fully understood. Here, by generating deletion mutants of ORPs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that ORPs are required for the formation and function of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). In an RNAi enhancer screen using obr quadruple mutants (obr-1; -2; -3; -4), we found that MVB–related genes show strong genetic interactions with the obr genes. In obr quadruple mutants, late endosomes/lysosomes are enlarged and membrane protein degradation is retarded, although endocytosed soluble proteins are normally delivered to lysosomes and degraded. We also found that the cholesterol content of late endosomes/lysosomes is reduced in the mutants. In wild-type worms, cholesterol restriction induces the formation of enlarged late endosomes/lysosomes, as observed in obr quadruple mutants, and increases embryonic lethality upon knockdown of MVB–related genes. Finally, we show that knockdown of ORP1L, a mammalian ORP family member, induces the formation of enlarged MVBs in HeLa cells. Our in vivo findings suggest that the proper cholesterol level of late endosomes/lysosomes generated by ORPs is required for normal MVB formation and MVB–mediated membrane protein degradation.
The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway provides a mechanism for the lysosomal degradation of membrane proteins, such as growth factor receptors. The formation of MVBs is unique in that the curvature is directed toward the lumen of the compartment rather than the cytosol. During MVB formation, the curvature-inducing proteins, such as clathrins, could not be involved in the inward invagination of the endosomal membrane. Under these circumstances, lipids have been assumed to play a role in the membrane invagination step by creating local membrane environments; however, the lipids involved in this step have not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that cholesterol, an essential membrane component in animals, is critical for MVB formation and function. We found that disruption of OSBP–related proteins (ORPs), which have been proposed to function in cellular cholesterol distribution and metabolism, reduces the cholesterol content in late endosomes/lysosomes, leading to impaired MVB function. MVB sorting pathway is known to be involved in many processes, including growth factor receptor down-regulation, exosome secretion, antigen presentation, the budding of enveloped viruses, and cytokinesis. Our findings provide a novel link between cholesterol and these biologically important functions.
The oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and related proteins (ORPs) are sterol-binding proteins that may be involved in cellular sterol transportation, sterol metabolism and signal transduction pathways. Four ORP genes were cloned from Aedes aegypti. Based on amino acid sequence homology to human proteins, they are AeOSBP, AeORP1, AeORP8 and AeORP9. Splicing variants of AeOSBP and AeORP8 were identified. The temporal and spatial transcription patterns of members of the AeOSBP gene family through developmental stages and the gonotrophic cycle were profiled. AeORP1 transcription seemed to be head tissue-specific, whereas AeOSBP and AeORP9 expressions were induced by a blood meal. Furthermore, over-expression of AeORPs facilitated [3H]-cholesterol uptake in Aedes aegypti cultured Aag-2 cells.
Oxysterol-binding protein; cholesterol; gene expression; sterol transport
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) are lipid-binding proteins that are conserved from yeast to humans. They are implicated in many cellular processes including signaling, vesicular trafficking, lipid metabolism, and nonvesicular sterol transport. All ORPs contain an OSBP-related domain (ORD) that has a hydrophobic pocket that binds a single sterol. ORDs also contain additional membrane binding surfaces, some of which bind phosphoinositides and may regulate sterol binding. Studies in yeast suggest that ORPs function as sterol transporters, perhaps in regions where organelle membranes are closely apposed. Yeast ORPs also participate in vesicular trafficking, although their role is unclear. In mammalian cells, some ORPs function as sterol sensors that regulate the assembly of protein complexes in response to changes in cholesterol levels. This review will summarize recent advances in our understanding of how ORPs bind lipids and membranes and how they function in diverse cellular processes.
cholesterol; sterol; phosphoinositides; signaling; lipid transport; membranes; membrane contact sites; lipid transport proteins
We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis. We now investigated its action in hepatic cells in vivo and in vitro. Adenoviral overexpression of ORP8 in mouse liver induced a decrease of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides in serum (−34%, −26%, −37%, respectively) and liver tissue (−40%, −12%, −24%), coinciding with reduction of nuclear (n)SREBP-1 and -2 and mRNA levels of their target genes. Consistently, excess ORP8 reduced nSREBPs in HuH7 cells, and ORP8 overexpression or silencing by RNA interference moderately suppressed or induced the expression of SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 target genes, respectively. In accordance, cholesterol biosynthesis was reduced by ORP8 overexpression and enhanced by ORP8 silencing in [3H]acetate pulse-labeling experiments. ORP8, previously shown to bind 25-hydroxycholesterol, was now shown to bind also cholesterol in vitro. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed the nuclear pore component Nup62 as an interaction partner of ORP8. Co-localization of ORP8 and Nup62 at the nuclear envelope was demonstrated by BiFC and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the impact of overexpressed ORP8 on nSREBPs and their target mRNAs was inhibited in cells depleted of Nup62. Our results reveal that ORP8 has the capacity to modulate lipid homeostasis and SREBP activity, probably through an indirect mechanism, and provide clues of an entirely new mode of ORP action.
Salmonella typhimurium survives and replicates intracellular in a membrane-bound compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). In HeLa cells, the SCV matures through interactions with the endocytic pathway, but Salmonella avoids fusion with mature lysosomes. The exact mechanism of the inhibition of phagolysosomal fusion is not understood. Rab GTPases control several proteins involved in membrane fusion and vesicular transport. The small GTPase Rab7 regulates the transport of and fusion between late endosomes and lysosomes and associates with the SCV. We show that the Rab7 GTPase cycle is not affected on the SCV. We then manipulated a pathway downstream of the small GTPase Rab7 in HeLa cells infected with Salmonella. Expression of the Rab7 effector RILP induces recruitment of the dynein/dynactin motor complex to the SCV. Subsequently, SCV fuse with lysosomes. As a result, the intracellular replication of Salmonella is inhibited. Activation of dynein-mediated vesicle transport can thus control intracellular survival of Salmonella.
Nascent phagosomes must undergo a series of fusion and fission reactions to acquire the microbicidal properties required for the innate immune response. Here we demonstrate that this maturation process involves the GTPase Rab7. Rab7 recruitment to phagosomes was found to precede and to be essential for their fusion with late endosomes and/or lysosomes. Active Rab7 on the phagosomal membrane associates with the effector protein RILP (Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein), which in turn bridges phagosomes with dynein-dynactin, a microtubule-associated motor complex. The motors not only displace phagosomes in the centripetal direction but, strikingly, promote the extension of phagosomal tubules toward late endocytic compartments. Fusion of tubules with these organelles was documented by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Tubule extension and fusion with late endosomes and/or lysosomes were prevented by expression of a truncated form of RILP lacking the dynein-dynactin-recruiting domain. We conclude that full maturation of phagosomes requires the retrograde emission of tubular extensions, which are generated by activation of Rab7, recruitment of RILP, and consequent association of phagosomes with microtubule-associated motors.
Rab7, a member of the Rab family small G proteins, has been shown to regulate intracellular vesicle traffic to late endosome/lysosome and lysosome biogenesis, but the exact roles of Rab7 are still undetermined. Accumulating evidence suggests that each Rab protein has multiple target proteins that function in the exocytic/endocytic pathway. We have isolated a new Rab7 target protein, Rabring7 (Rab7-interacting RING finger protein), using a CytoTrap system. It contains an H2 type RING finger motif at the C termini. Rabring7 shows no homology with RILP, which has been reported as another Rab7 target protein. GST pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that Rabring7 specifically binds the GTP-bound form of Rab7 at the N-terminal portion. Rabring7 is found mainly in the cytosol and is recruited efficiently to late endosomes/lysosomes by the GTP-bound form of Rab7 in BHK cells. Overexpression of Rabring7 not only affects epidermal growth factor degradation but also causes the perinuclear aggregation of lysosomes, in which the accumulation of the acidotropic probe LysoTracker is remarkably enhanced. These results suggest that Rabring7 plays crucial roles as a Rab7 target protein in vesicle traffic to late endosome/lysosome and lysosome biogenesis.
Sterols are moved between cellular membranes by nonvesicular pathways whose functions are poorly understood. In yeast, one such pathway transfers sterols from the plasma membrane (PM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that this transport requires oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)–related proteins (ORPs), which are a large family of conserved lipid-binding proteins. We demonstrate that a representative member of this family, Osh4p/Kes1p, specifically facilitates the nonvesicular transfer of cholesterol and ergosterol between membranes in vitro. In addition, Osh4p transfers sterols more rapidly between membranes containing phosphoinositides (PIPs), suggesting that PIPs regulate sterol transport by ORPs. We confirmed this by showing that PM to ER sterol transport slows dramatically in mutants with conditional defects in PIP biosynthesis. Our findings argue that ORPs move sterols among cellular compartments and that sterol transport and intracellular distribution are regulated by PIPs.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large gene family that differentially localize to organellar membranes, reflecting a functional role in sterol signaling and/or transport. OSBP partitions between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus where it imparts sterol-dependent regulation of ceramide transport and sphingomyelin synthesis. ORP9L also is localized to the ER–Golgi, but its role in secretion and lipid transport is unknown. Here we demonstrate that ORP9L partitioning between the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN), and the ER is mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P)-specific PH domain and VAMP-associated protein (VAP), respectively. In vitro, both OSBP and ORP9L mediated PI-4P–dependent cholesterol transport between liposomes, suggesting their primary in vivo function is sterol transfer between the Golgi and ER. Depletion of ORP9L by RNAi caused Golgi fragmentation, inhibition of vesicular somatitus virus glycoprotein transport from the ER and accumulation of cholesterol in endosomes/lysosomes. Complete cessation of protein transport and cell growth inhibition was achieved by inducible overexpression of ORP9S, a dominant negative variant lacking the PH domain. We conclude that ORP9 maintains the integrity of the early secretory pathway by mediating transport of sterols between the ER and trans-Golgi/TGN.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication involves complex interactions among the 3’x RNA element within the HCV 3’ untranslated region, viral and host proteins. However, many of the host proteins remain unknown. In this study, we devised an RNA affinity chromatography /2D/MASS proteomics strategy and identified nine putative 3’ X-associated host proteins; among them is oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4), a cytoplasmic receptor for oxysterols. We determined the relationship between ORP4 expression and HCV replication. A very low level of constitutive ORP4 expression was detected in hepatocytes. Ectopically expressed ORP4 was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibited luciferase reporter gene expression in HCV subgenomic replicon cells and HCV core expression in JFH-1-infected cells. Expression of ORP4S, an ORP4 variant that lacked the N-terminal pleckstrin-homology domain but contained the C-terminal oxysterol-binding domain also inhibited HCV replication, pointing to an important role of the oxysterol-binding domain in ORP4-mediated inhibition of HCV replication. ORP4 was found to associate with HCV NS5B and its expression led to inhibition of the NS5B activity. ORP4 expression had little effect on intracellular lipid synthesis and secretion, but it induced lipid droplet formation in the context of HCV replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ORP4 is a negative regulator of HCV replication, likely via interaction with HCV NS5B in the replication complex and regulation of intracellular lipid homeostasis. This work supports the important role of lipids and their metabolism in HCV replication and pathogenesis.
Cephalostatin 1, OSW-1, ritterazine B and schweinfurthin A are natural products that potently, and in some cases selectively, inhibit the growth of cultured human cancer cell lines. The cellular targets of these small molecules have yet to be identified. We have discovered that these molecules target oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and its closest paralog, OSBP-related protein 4L (ORP4L)—proteins not known to be involved in cancer cell survival. OSBP and the ORPs constitute an evolutionarily conserved protein superfamily, members of which have been implicated in signal transduction, lipid transport and lipid metabolism. The functions of OSBP and the ORPs, however, remain largely enigmatic. Based on our findings, we have named the aforementioned natural products ORPphilins. Here we used ORPphilins to reveal new cellular activities of OSBP. The ORPphilins are powerful probes of OSBP and ORP4L that will be useful in uncovering their cellular functions and their roles in human diseases.
Rab14 binds in a GTP-dependent manner to RUFY1/Rabip4, which had been originally identified as a Rab4 effector. We suggest that Rab14 and Rab4 act sequentially; Rab14 is required for recruitment of RUFY1 onto endosomes and subsequent RUFY1 interaction with Rab4 may allow endosomal tethering and fusion.
The small GTPase Rab14 localizes to early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network, but its cellular functions on endosomes and its functional relationship with other endosomal Rab proteins are poorly understood. Here, we report that Rab14 binds in a GTP-dependent manner to RUFY1/Rabip4, which had been originally identified as a Rab4 effector. Rab14 colocalizes well with Rab4 on peripheral endosomes. Depletion of Rab14, but not Rab4, causes dissociation of RUFY1 from endosomal membranes. Coexpression of RUFY1 with either Rab14 or Rab4 induces clustering and enlargement of endosomes, whereas a RUFY1 mutant lacking the Rab4-binding region does not induce a significant morphological change in the endosomal structures even when coexpressed with Rab14 or Rab4. These findings suggest that Rab14 and Rab4 act sequentially, together with RUFY1; Rab14 is required for recruitment of RUFY1 onto endosomal membranes, and subsequent RUFY1 interaction with Rab4 may allow endosomal tethering and fusion. Depletion of Rab14 or RUFY1, as well as Rab4, inhibits efficient recycling of endocytosed transferrin, suggesting that Rab14 and Rab4 regulate endosomal functions through cooperative interactions with their dual effector, RUFY1.
The oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-related protein (ORP) family is essential to sterol transfer and sterol-dependent signal transduction in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of one ORP family member, yeast Osh4, is known in apo and sterol-bound states. In the bound state, a 29-residue N-terminal lid region covers the opening of the cholesterol binding tunnel, preventing cholesterol exchange. To characterize the mechanism of cholesterol exchange, equilibrium and steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Osh4 were carried out. While most of the structural core was stable during the simulations, the lid partially opened in the apo equilibrium MD simulation. Helix α7, which undergoes the largest conformational change in the crystallized bound and apo states, is conformationally coupled to the opening of the lid. The movement of α7 helps create a docking site for donor or acceptor membranes in the open state. In the steered MD simulations of cholesterol dissociation, we observed complete opening of the lid covering the cholesterol binding tunnel. Cholesterol was found to exit the binding pocket in a step-wise process involving i) the breaking of water-mediated hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts within the binding pocket, ii) opening of the lid covering the binding pocket, and iii) breakage of transient cholesterol contacts with the rim of the pocket and hydrophobic residues on the interior face of the lid.
cholesterol transfer protein; lipid transfer protein; molecular dynamics simulation; protein conformational change
The molecular machinery behind lysosome biogenesis and the maintenance of the perinuclear aggregate of late endocytic structures is not well understood. A likely candidate for being part of this machinery is the small GTPase Rab7, but it is unclear whether this protein is associated with lysosomes or plays any role in the regulation of the perinuclear lysosome compartment. Previously, Rab7 has mainly been implicated in transport from early to late endosomes. We have now used a new approach to analyze the role of Rab7: transient expression of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP)–tagged Rab7 wt and mutant proteins in HeLa cells. EGFP-Rab7 wt was associated with late endocytic structures, mainly lysosomes, which aggregated and fused in the perinuclear region. The size of the individual lysosomes as well as the degree of perinuclear aggregation increased with the expression levels of EGFP-Rab7 wt and, more dramatically, the active EGFP-Rab7Q67L mutant. In contrast, upon expression of the dominant-negative mutants EGFP-Rab7T22N and EGFP-Rab7N125I, which localized mainly to the cytosol, the perinuclear lysosome aggregate disappeared and lysosomes, identified by colocalization of cathepsin D and lysosome-associated membrane protein–1, became dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, they were inaccessible to endocytosed molecules such as low-density lipoprotein, and their acidity was strongly reduced, as determined by decreased accumulation of the acidotropic probe LysoTracker Red. In contrast, early endosomes associated with Rab5 and the transferrin receptor, late endosomes enriched in the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, and the trans-Golgi network, identified by its enrichment in TGN-38, were unchanged. These data demonstrate for the first time that Rab7, controlling aggregation and fusion of late endocytic structures/lysosomes, is essential for maintenance of the perinuclear lysosome compartment.
The ORP lipid-binding domain can contact two membranes simultaneously to facilitate sterol extraction or delivery at one membrane in response to the lipid composition of the other.
Sterols are transferred between cellular membranes by vesicular and poorly understood nonvesicular pathways. Oxysterol-binding protein–related proteins (ORPs) have been implicated in sterol sensing and nonvesicular transport. In this study, we show that yeast ORPs use a novel mechanism that allows regulated sterol transfer between closely apposed membranes, such as organelle contact sites. We find that the core lipid-binding domain found in all ORPs can simultaneously bind two membranes. Using Osh4p/Kes1p as a representative ORP, we show that ORPs have at least two membrane-binding surfaces; one near the mouth of the sterol-binding pocket and a distal site that can bind a second membrane. The distal site is required for the protein to function in cells and, remarkably, regulates the rate at which Osh4p extracts and delivers sterols in a phosphoinositide-dependent manner. Together, these findings suggest a new model of how ORPs could sense and regulate the lipid composition of adjacent membranes.
The oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) are conserved from yeast to man 1,2 and are implicated in regulation of sterol pathways 3,4 and in signal transduction 5. The structure of the full-length yeast ORP Osh4 was determined at 1.5–1.9 Å resolution in complexes with ergosterol, cholesterol, and 7-, 20-, and 25-hydroxycholesterol. A single sterol molecule binds in a hydrophobic tunnel in a manner consistent with a transport function for ORPs. The entrance is blocked by a flexible N-terminal lid and surrounded by functionally critical basic residues. The structure of the open state of a lid-truncated form of Osh4 was determined at 2.5 Å resolution. Structural analysis and limited proteolysis show that sterol binding closes the lid and stabilizes a conformation favoring transport across aqueous barriers and transmitting signals. The unliganded structure exposes potential phospholipid-binding sites that are positioned for membrane docking and sterol exchange. Based on these observations we propose a model in which sterol and membrane binding promote reciprocal conformational changes that facilitate a sterol transfer and signaling cycle.
Rab20 is a member of the Rab GTPase family, but its implication in macropinocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 in RAW264 macrophages by the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20. It was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with macropinosomal membranes. During the early stage of macropinosome formation, Rab20 was slightly localized on the circular ruffles (macropinocytic cups), the precursor forms of macropinosomes, and was increasingly recruited to the newly formed macropinosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 and Rab21 on macropinosomal membranes, the association of Rab20 with macropinosomes persisted even after the dissociations of Rab5 and Rab21 from macropinosomal membranes. Rab20 was then colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on macropinosomes for a while. Our data indicate that Rab20 is a novel component of macropinocytic pathway and functions at long-standing stages from early to late macropinosome maturation.
Rab20; macropinocytosis; macrophage; live-cell imaging; endocytosis
The Rab7 GTPase promotes membrane fusion reactions between late endosomes and lysosomes. In previous studies, we demonstrated that Rab7 inactivation blocks growth factor withdrawal-induced cell death. These results led us to hypothesize that growth factor withdrawal activates Rab7. Here, we show that growth factor deprivation increased both the fraction of Rab7 that was associated with cellular membranes and the percentage of Rab7 bound to guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Moreover, expressing a constitutively GTP-bound mutant of Rab7, Rab7-Q67L, was sufficient to trigger cell death even in the presence of growth factors. This activated Rab7 mutant was also able to reverse the growth factor-independent cell survival conferred by protein kinase C (PKC) δ inhibition. PKCδ is one of the most highly induced proteins after growth factor withdrawal and contributes to the induction of apoptosis. To evaluate whether PKCδ regulates Rab7, we first examined lysosomal morphology in cells with reduced PKCδ activity. Consistent with a potential role as a Rab7 activator, blocking PKCδ function caused profound lysosomal fragmentation comparable to that observed when Rab7 was directly inhibited. Interestingly, PKCδ inhibition fragmented the lysosome without decreasing Rab7-GTP levels. Taken together, these results suggest that Rab7 activation by growth factor withdrawal contributes to the induction of apoptosis and that Rab7-dependent fusion reactions may be targeted by signaling pathways that limit growth factor-independent cell survival.
Small GTPases of the rab family are crucial elements of the machinery
that controls membrane traffic. In the present study, we examined the
distribution and function of rab11. Rab11 was shown by confocal
immunofluorescence microscopy and EM to colocalize with internalized
transferrin in the pericentriolar recycling compartment of CHO and BHK
cells. Expression of rab11 mutants that are preferentially in the GTP- or
GDP-bound state caused opposite effects on the distribution of
transferrin-containing elements; rab11-GTP expression caused accumulation
of labeled elements in the perinuclear area of the cell, whereas rab11-GDP
caused a dispersion of the transferrin labeling. Functional studies showed
that the early steps of uptake and recycling for transferrin were not
affected by overexpression of rab11 proteins. However, recycling from the
later recycling endosome was inhibited in cells overexpressing the
rab11-GDP mutant. Rab5, which regulates early endocytic trafficking, acted
before rab11 in the transferrin-recycling pathway as expression of rab5-GTP
prevented transport to the rab11- positive recycling endosome. These
results suggest a novel role for rab11 in controlling traffic through the