ORP1L is a member of the human oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family. ORP1L localizes to late endosomes (LEs)/lysosomes, colocalizing with the GTPases Rab7 and Rab9 and lysosome-associated membrane protein-1. We demonstrate that ORP1L interacts physically with Rab7, preferentially with its GTP-bound form, and provide evidence that ORP1L stabilizes GTP-bound Rab7 on LEs/lysosomes. The Rab7-binding determinant is mapped to the ankyrin repeat (ANK) region of ORP1L. The pleckstrin homology domain (PHD) of ORP1L binds phosphoinositides with low affinity and specificity. ORP1L ANK- and ANK+PHD fragments induce perinuclear clustering of LE/lysosomes. This is dependent on an intact microtubule network and a functional dynein/dynactin motor complex. The dominant inhibitory Rab7 mutant T22N reverses the LE clustering, suggesting that the effect is dependent on active Rab7. Transport of fluorescent dextran to LEs is inhibited by overexpression of ORP1L. Overexpression of ORP1L, and in particular the N-terminal fragments of ORP1L, inhibits vacuolation of LE caused by Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA, a process also involving Rab7. The present study demonstrates that ORP1L binds to Rab7, modifies its functional cycle, and can interfere with LE/lysosome organization and endocytic membrane trafficking. This is the first report of a direct connection between the OSBP-related protein family and the Rab GTPases.
The oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and related proteins (ORPs) are sterol-binding proteins that may be involved in cellular sterol transportation, sterol metabolism and signal transduction pathways. Four ORP genes were cloned from Aedes aegypti. Based on amino acid sequence homology to human proteins, they are AeOSBP, AeORP1, AeORP8 and AeORP9. Splicing variants of AeOSBP and AeORP8 were identified. The temporal and spatial transcription patterns of members of the AeOSBP gene family through developmental stages and the gonotrophic cycle were profiled. AeORP1 transcription seemed to be head tissue-specific, whereas AeOSBP and AeORP9 expressions were induced by a blood meal. Furthermore, over-expression of AeORPs facilitated [3H]-cholesterol uptake in Aedes aegypti cultured Aag-2 cells.
Oxysterol-binding protein; cholesterol; gene expression; sterol transport
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) homologues, ORPs, are implicated in lipid homeostatic control, vesicle transport, and cell signaling. We analyzed here the quantity of ORP mRNAs in human subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral adipose depots, as well as in the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell model. All of the ORP mRNAs were present in the s.c and visceral adipose tissues, and the two depots shared an almost identical ORP mRNA expression pattern. SGBS adipocytes displayed a similar pattern, suggesting that the adipose tissue ORP expression pattern mainly derives from adipocytes. During SGBS cell adipogenic differentiation, ORP2, ORP3, ORP4, ORP7, and ORP8 mRNAs were down-regulated, while ORP11 was induced. To assess the impacts of ORPs on adipocyte differentiation, ORP3 and ORP8, proteins down-regulated during adipogenesis, were overexpressed in differentiating SGBS adipocytes, while ORP11, a protein induced during adipogenesis, was silenced. ORP8 overexpression resulted in reduced expression of the aP2 mRNA, while down-regulation of adiponectin and aP2 was observed in ORP11 silenced cells. Furthermore, ORP8 overexpression or silencing of ORP11 markedly decreased cellular triglyceride storage. These data identify the patterns of ORP expression in human adipose depots and SGBS adipocytes, and provide the first evidence for a functional impact of ORPs on the adipocyte phenotype.
We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis. We now investigated its action in hepatic cells in vivo and in vitro. Adenoviral overexpression of ORP8 in mouse liver induced a decrease of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides in serum (−34%, −26%, −37%, respectively) and liver tissue (−40%, −12%, −24%), coinciding with reduction of nuclear (n)SREBP-1 and -2 and mRNA levels of their target genes. Consistently, excess ORP8 reduced nSREBPs in HuH7 cells, and ORP8 overexpression or silencing by RNA interference moderately suppressed or induced the expression of SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 target genes, respectively. In accordance, cholesterol biosynthesis was reduced by ORP8 overexpression and enhanced by ORP8 silencing in [3H]acetate pulse-labeling experiments. ORP8, previously shown to bind 25-hydroxycholesterol, was now shown to bind also cholesterol in vitro. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed the nuclear pore component Nup62 as an interaction partner of ORP8. Co-localization of ORP8 and Nup62 at the nuclear envelope was demonstrated by BiFC and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the impact of overexpressed ORP8 on nSREBPs and their target mRNAs was inhibited in cells depleted of Nup62. Our results reveal that ORP8 has the capacity to modulate lipid homeostasis and SREBP activity, probably through an indirect mechanism, and provide clues of an entirely new mode of ORP action.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) are lipid-binding proteins that are conserved from yeast to humans. They are implicated in many cellular processes including signaling, vesicular trafficking, lipid metabolism, and nonvesicular sterol transport. All ORPs contain an OSBP-related domain (ORD) that has a hydrophobic pocket that binds a single sterol. ORDs also contain additional membrane binding surfaces, some of which bind phosphoinositides and may regulate sterol binding. Studies in yeast suggest that ORPs function as sterol transporters, perhaps in regions where organelle membranes are closely apposed. Yeast ORPs also participate in vesicular trafficking, although their role is unclear. In mammalian cells, some ORPs function as sterol sensors that regulate the assembly of protein complexes in response to changes in cholesterol levels. This review will summarize recent advances in our understanding of how ORPs bind lipids and membranes and how they function in diverse cellular processes.
cholesterol; sterol; phosphoinositides; signaling; lipid transport; membranes; membrane contact sites; lipid transport proteins
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large gene family that differentially localize to organellar membranes, reflecting a functional role in sterol signaling and/or transport. OSBP partitions between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus where it imparts sterol-dependent regulation of ceramide transport and sphingomyelin synthesis. ORP9L also is localized to the ER–Golgi, but its role in secretion and lipid transport is unknown. Here we demonstrate that ORP9L partitioning between the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN), and the ER is mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P)-specific PH domain and VAMP-associated protein (VAP), respectively. In vitro, both OSBP and ORP9L mediated PI-4P–dependent cholesterol transport between liposomes, suggesting their primary in vivo function is sterol transfer between the Golgi and ER. Depletion of ORP9L by RNAi caused Golgi fragmentation, inhibition of vesicular somatitus virus glycoprotein transport from the ER and accumulation of cholesterol in endosomes/lysosomes. Complete cessation of protein transport and cell growth inhibition was achieved by inducible overexpression of ORP9S, a dominant negative variant lacking the PH domain. We conclude that ORP9 maintains the integrity of the early secretory pathway by mediating transport of sterols between the ER and trans-Golgi/TGN.
ORP5 works together with Niemann Pick C-1 to facilitate exit of cholesterol from endosomes and lysosomes.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and its related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large and evolutionarily conserved family of lipid-binding proteins that target organelle membranes to mediate sterol signaling and/or transport. Here we characterize ORP5, a tail-anchored ORP protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Knocking down ORP5 causes cholesterol accumulation in late endosomes and lysosomes, which is reminiscent of the cholesterol trafficking defect in Niemann Pick C (NPC) fibroblasts. Cholesterol appears to accumulate in the limiting membranes of endosomal compartments in ORP5-depleted cells, whereas depletion of NPC1 or both ORP5 and NPC1 results in luminal accumulation of cholesterol. Moreover, trans-Golgi resident proteins mislocalize to endosomal compartments upon ORP5 depletion, which depends on a functional NPC1. Our results establish the first link between NPC1 and a cytoplasmic sterol carrier, and suggest that ORP5 may cooperate with NPC1 to mediate the exit of cholesterol from endosomes/lysosomes.
The ORP lipid-binding domain can contact two membranes simultaneously to facilitate sterol extraction or delivery at one membrane in response to the lipid composition of the other.
Sterols are transferred between cellular membranes by vesicular and poorly understood nonvesicular pathways. Oxysterol-binding protein–related proteins (ORPs) have been implicated in sterol sensing and nonvesicular transport. In this study, we show that yeast ORPs use a novel mechanism that allows regulated sterol transfer between closely apposed membranes, such as organelle contact sites. We find that the core lipid-binding domain found in all ORPs can simultaneously bind two membranes. Using Osh4p/Kes1p as a representative ORP, we show that ORPs have at least two membrane-binding surfaces; one near the mouth of the sterol-binding pocket and a distal site that can bind a second membrane. The distal site is required for the protein to function in cells and, remarkably, regulates the rate at which Osh4p extracts and delivers sterols in a phosphoinositide-dependent manner. Together, these findings suggest a new model of how ORPs could sense and regulate the lipid composition of adjacent membranes.
The oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) are conserved from yeast to man 1,2 and are implicated in regulation of sterol pathways 3,4 and in signal transduction 5. The structure of the full-length yeast ORP Osh4 was determined at 1.5–1.9 Å resolution in complexes with ergosterol, cholesterol, and 7-, 20-, and 25-hydroxycholesterol. A single sterol molecule binds in a hydrophobic tunnel in a manner consistent with a transport function for ORPs. The entrance is blocked by a flexible N-terminal lid and surrounded by functionally critical basic residues. The structure of the open state of a lid-truncated form of Osh4 was determined at 2.5 Å resolution. Structural analysis and limited proteolysis show that sterol binding closes the lid and stabilizes a conformation favoring transport across aqueous barriers and transmitting signals. The unliganded structure exposes potential phospholipid-binding sites that are positioned for membrane docking and sterol exchange. Based on these observations we propose a model in which sterol and membrane binding promote reciprocal conformational changes that facilitate a sterol transfer and signaling cycle.
Cephalostatin 1, OSW-1, ritterazine B and schweinfurthin A are natural products that potently, and in some cases selectively, inhibit the growth of cultured human cancer cell lines. The cellular targets of these small molecules have yet to be identified. We have discovered that these molecules target oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and its closest paralog, OSBP-related protein 4L (ORP4L)—proteins not known to be involved in cancer cell survival. OSBP and the ORPs constitute an evolutionarily conserved protein superfamily, members of which have been implicated in signal transduction, lipid transport and lipid metabolism. The functions of OSBP and the ORPs, however, remain largely enigmatic. Based on our findings, we have named the aforementioned natural products ORPphilins. Here we used ORPphilins to reveal new cellular activities of OSBP. The ORPphilins are powerful probes of OSBP and ORP4L that will be useful in uncovering their cellular functions and their roles in human diseases.
The small GTPase Rab7 controls late endocytic transport by the minus end–directed motor protein complex dynein–dynactin, but how it does this is unclear. Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) and oxysterol-binding protein–related protein 1L (ORP1L) are two effectors of Rab7. We show that GTP-bound Rab7 simultaneously binds RILP and ORP1L to form a RILP–Rab7–ORP1L complex. RILP interacts directly with the C-terminal 25-kD region of the dynactin projecting arm p150Glued, which is required for dynein motor recruitment to late endocytic compartments (LEs). Still, p150Glued recruitment by Rab7–RILP does not suffice to induce dynein-driven minus-end transport of LEs. ORP1L, as well as βIII spectrin, which is the general receptor for dynactin on vesicles, are essential for dynein motor activity. Our results illustrate that the assembly of microtubule motors on endosomes involves a cascade of linked events. First, Rab7 recruits two effectors, RILP and ORP1L, to form a tripartite complex. Next, RILP directly binds to the p150Glued dynactin subunit to recruit the dynein motor. Finally, the specific dynein motor receptor Rab7–RILP is transferred by ORP1L to βIII spectrin. Dynein will initiate translocation of late endosomes to microtubule minus ends only after interacting with βIII spectrin, which requires the activities of Rab7–RILP and ORP1L.
The oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-related protein (ORP) family is essential to sterol transfer and sterol-dependent signal transduction in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of one ORP family member, yeast Osh4, is known in apo and sterol-bound states. In the bound state, a 29-residue N-terminal lid region covers the opening of the cholesterol binding tunnel, preventing cholesterol exchange. To characterize the mechanism of cholesterol exchange, equilibrium and steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Osh4 were carried out. While most of the structural core was stable during the simulations, the lid partially opened in the apo equilibrium MD simulation. Helix α7, which undergoes the largest conformational change in the crystallized bound and apo states, is conformationally coupled to the opening of the lid. The movement of α7 helps create a docking site for donor or acceptor membranes in the open state. In the steered MD simulations of cholesterol dissociation, we observed complete opening of the lid covering the cholesterol binding tunnel. Cholesterol was found to exit the binding pocket in a step-wise process involving i) the breaking of water-mediated hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts within the binding pocket, ii) opening of the lid covering the binding pocket, and iii) breakage of transient cholesterol contacts with the rim of the pocket and hydrophobic residues on the interior face of the lid.
cholesterol transfer protein; lipid transfer protein; molecular dynamics simulation; protein conformational change
Sterols are moved between cellular membranes by nonvesicular pathways whose functions are poorly understood. In yeast, one such pathway transfers sterols from the plasma membrane (PM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that this transport requires oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)–related proteins (ORPs), which are a large family of conserved lipid-binding proteins. We demonstrate that a representative member of this family, Osh4p/Kes1p, specifically facilitates the nonvesicular transfer of cholesterol and ergosterol between membranes in vitro. In addition, Osh4p transfers sterols more rapidly between membranes containing phosphoinositides (PIPs), suggesting that PIPs regulate sterol transport by ORPs. We confirmed this by showing that PM to ER sterol transport slows dramatically in mutants with conditional defects in PIP biosynthesis. Our findings argue that ORPs move sterols among cellular compartments and that sterol transport and intracellular distribution are regulated by PIPs.
In eukaryotes, different subcellular organelles have distinct cholesterol concentrations, which is thought to be critical for biological functions. Oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) have been assumed to mediate nonvesicular cholesterol trafficking in cells; however, their in vivo functions and therefore the biological significance of cholesterol in each organelle are not fully understood. Here, by generating deletion mutants of ORPs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that ORPs are required for the formation and function of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). In an RNAi enhancer screen using obr quadruple mutants (obr-1; -2; -3; -4), we found that MVB–related genes show strong genetic interactions with the obr genes. In obr quadruple mutants, late endosomes/lysosomes are enlarged and membrane protein degradation is retarded, although endocytosed soluble proteins are normally delivered to lysosomes and degraded. We also found that the cholesterol content of late endosomes/lysosomes is reduced in the mutants. In wild-type worms, cholesterol restriction induces the formation of enlarged late endosomes/lysosomes, as observed in obr quadruple mutants, and increases embryonic lethality upon knockdown of MVB–related genes. Finally, we show that knockdown of ORP1L, a mammalian ORP family member, induces the formation of enlarged MVBs in HeLa cells. Our in vivo findings suggest that the proper cholesterol level of late endosomes/lysosomes generated by ORPs is required for normal MVB formation and MVB–mediated membrane protein degradation.
The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway provides a mechanism for the lysosomal degradation of membrane proteins, such as growth factor receptors. The formation of MVBs is unique in that the curvature is directed toward the lumen of the compartment rather than the cytosol. During MVB formation, the curvature-inducing proteins, such as clathrins, could not be involved in the inward invagination of the endosomal membrane. Under these circumstances, lipids have been assumed to play a role in the membrane invagination step by creating local membrane environments; however, the lipids involved in this step have not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that cholesterol, an essential membrane component in animals, is critical for MVB formation and function. We found that disruption of OSBP–related proteins (ORPs), which have been proposed to function in cellular cholesterol distribution and metabolism, reduces the cholesterol content in late endosomes/lysosomes, leading to impaired MVB function. MVB sorting pathway is known to be involved in many processes, including growth factor receptor down-regulation, exosome secretion, antigen presentation, the budding of enveloped viruses, and cytokinesis. Our findings provide a novel link between cholesterol and these biologically important functions.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication involves complex interactions among the 3’x RNA element within the HCV 3’ untranslated region, viral and host proteins. However, many of the host proteins remain unknown. In this study, we devised an RNA affinity chromatography /2D/MASS proteomics strategy and identified nine putative 3’ X-associated host proteins; among them is oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4), a cytoplasmic receptor for oxysterols. We determined the relationship between ORP4 expression and HCV replication. A very low level of constitutive ORP4 expression was detected in hepatocytes. Ectopically expressed ORP4 was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibited luciferase reporter gene expression in HCV subgenomic replicon cells and HCV core expression in JFH-1-infected cells. Expression of ORP4S, an ORP4 variant that lacked the N-terminal pleckstrin-homology domain but contained the C-terminal oxysterol-binding domain also inhibited HCV replication, pointing to an important role of the oxysterol-binding domain in ORP4-mediated inhibition of HCV replication. ORP4 was found to associate with HCV NS5B and its expression led to inhibition of the NS5B activity. ORP4 expression had little effect on intracellular lipid synthesis and secretion, but it induced lipid droplet formation in the context of HCV replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ORP4 is a negative regulator of HCV replication, likely via interaction with HCV NS5B in the replication complex and regulation of intracellular lipid homeostasis. This work supports the important role of lipids and their metabolism in HCV replication and pathogenesis.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome replicates within the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex in the modified membranous structures extended from endoplasmic reticulum. A proteomic analysis of HCV RNP complexes revealed the association of oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) as one of the components of these complexes. OSBP interacted with the N-terminal domain I of the HCV NS5A protein and colocalized to the Golgi compartment with NS5A. An OSBP-specific short hairpin RNA that partially downregulated OSBP expression resulted in a decrease of the HCV particle release in culture supernatant with little effect on viral RNA replication. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain located in the N-terminal region of OSBP targeted this protein to the Golgi apparatus. OSBP deletion mutation in the PH (ΔPH) domain failed to localize to the Golgi apparatus and inhibited the HCV particle release. These studies suggest a possible functional role of OSBP in the HCV maturation process.
Oas1b was previously identified as the product of the Flvr allele that confers flavivirus-specific resistance to virus-induced disease in mice by an uncharacterized, RNase L-independent mechanism. To gain insights about the mechanism by which Oas1b specifically reduces the efficiency of flavivirus replication, cellular protein interaction partners were identified and their involvement in the Oas1b-mediated flavivirus resistance mechanism was analyzed. Initial difficulties in getting the two-hybrid assay to work with full-length Oas1b led to the discovery that this Oas protein uniquely has a C-terminal transmembrane domain that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Two peptides matching to oxysterol binding protein-related protein 1L (ORP1L) and ATP binding cassette protein 3, subfamily F (ABCF3), were identified as Oas1b interaction partners in yeast two-hybrid assays, and both in vitro-transcribed/translated peptides and full-length proteins in mammalian cell lysates coimmunoprecipitated with Oas1b. Knockdown of a partner involved in Oas1b-mediated antiflavivirus activity would be expected to increase flavivirus replication but not that of other types of viruses. However, RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of ORP1L decreased the replication of the flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) as well as that of other types of RNA viruses. This virus-nonspecific effect may be due to the recently reported dysregulation of late endosome movement by ORP1L knockdown. Knockdown of ABCF3 protein levels increased the replication of WNV but not that of other types of RNA viruses, and this effect on WNV replication was observed only in Oas1b-expressing cells. The results suggest that Oas1b is part of a complex located in the ER and that ABCF3 is a component of the Flvr-mediated resistance mechanism.
Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) is the only protein known to bind
specifically to the group of oxysterols with potent effects on
cholesterol homeostasis. Although the function of OSBP is currently
unknown, an important role is implicated by the existence of multiple
homologues in all eukaryotes so far examined. OSBP and a subset of
homologues contain pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. Such domains are
responsible for the targeting of a wide range of proteins to the plasma
membrane. In contrast, OSBP is a peripheral protein of Golgi membranes,
and its PH domain targets to the trans-Golgi
network of mammalian cells. In this article, we have
characterized Osh1p, Osh2p, and Osh3p, the three homologues of OSBP in
Saccharomyces cerevisiae that contain PH domains.
Examination of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion to Osh1p
revealed a striking dual localization with the protein present on both
the late Golgi, and in the recently described nucleus-vacuole (NV)
junction. Deletion mapping revealed that the PH domain of Osh1p
specified targeting to the late Golgi, and an ankyrin repeat domain
targeting to the NV junction, the first such targeting domain
identified for this structure. GFP fusions to Osh2p and Osh3p showed
intracellular distributions distinct from that of Osh1p, and their PH
domains appear to contribute to their differing localizations.
Chronic hypoxia increases the expression of a set of stress proteins (oxygen regulated proteins or ORPs) which is implicated in the development of drug resistance and radiation sensitivity in tumour cells. Five major ORPs have been documented, and two, ORP 80 and ORP 100, are considered to be identical to the glucose regulated stress proteins GRP78 and GRP94, respectively. We report here that ORP 33 is a form of the heme catabolic enzyme, heme oxygenase, using evidence obtained from northern blotting, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western analysis. Heme oxygenase is believed to be an important component of the cellular response to oxidative stress. The significance of heme oxygenase as a hypoxia-induced stress protein is discussed.
Analysis of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the genomes encode more than 30% hypothetical and conserved hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Among proteins of unknown function that are conserved in anaerobes, some might be determinants of the anaerobic way of life. This study focuses on two divergent clusters specifically found in anaerobic microorganisms and mainly composed of genes encoding conserved hypothetical proteins. We show that the two gene clusters DVU2103-DVU2104-DVU2105 (orp2) and DVU2107-DVU2108-DVU2109 (orp1) form two divergent operons transcribed by the σ54-RNA polymerase. We further demonstrate that the σ54-dependent transcriptional regulator DVU2106, located between orp1 and orp2, collaborates with σ54-RNA polymerase to orchestrate the simultaneous expression of the divergent orp operons. DVU2106, whose structural gene is transcribed by the σ70-RNA polymerase, negatively retrocontrols its own expression. By using an endogenous pulldown strategy, we identify a physiological complex composed of DVU2103, DVU2104, DVU2105, DVU2108, and DVU2109. Interestingly, inactivation of DVU2106, which is required for orp operon transcription, induces morphological defects that are likely linked to the absence of the ORP complex. A putative role of the ORP proteins in positioning the septum during cell division is discussed.
Since little is known regarding osteocytes, cells embedded within the mineralized bone matrix, a proteomics approach was used to discover proteins more highly expressed in osteocytes than in osteoblasts to determine osteocyte specific function. Two proteomic profiles obtained by two different proteomic approaches using total cell lysates from the osteocyte cell line MLO-Y4 and the osteoblast cell line MC3T3 revealed unique differences. Three protein clusters, one related to glycolysis, (Phosphoglycerate kinase 1, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A, hypoxia up-regulated 1 [ORP150], triosephosphate isomerase), one to protein folding (Mitochondrial Stress-70 protein, ORP150, Endoplasmin), and one to actin cytoskeleton regulation (Macrophage-capping protein [CapG], destrin, forms of lamin A and vimentin) were identified. Higher protein expression of ORP-150, Cap G, and destrin in MLO-Y4 cells compared to MC3T3 cells was validated by gene expression, Western blotting, and in vivo expression. These proteins were shown to be selective in osteocytes in vivo using immuno-staining of mouse ulnae. Destrin was most highly expressed in embedding osteoid osteocytes, GapG in embedded osteocytes, and ORP150 in deeply embedded osteocytes. In summary, the proteomic approach has yielded important information regarding molecular mechanisms used by osteocytes for embedding in matrix, the formation of dendritic processes, and protection within a hypoxic environment.
The small guanosine triphosphatase Rab7 regulates late endocytic trafficking. Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) and oxysterol-binding protein–related protein 1L (ORP1L) are guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–Rab7 effectors that instigate minus end–directed microtubule transport. We demonstrate that RILP and ORP1L both interact with the group C adenovirus protein known as receptor internalization and degradation α (RIDα), which was previously shown to clear the cell surface of several membrane proteins, including the epidermal growth factor receptor and Fas (Carlin, C.R., A.E. Tollefson, H.A. Brady, B.L. Hoffman, and W.S. Wold. 1989. Cell. 57:135–144; Shisler, J., C. Yang, B. Walter, C.F. Ware, and L.R. Gooding. 1997. J. Virol. 71:8299–8306). RIDα localizes to endocytic vesicles but is not homologous to Rab7 and is not catalytically active. We show that RIDα compensates for reduced Rab7 or dominant-negative (DN) Rab7(T22N) expression. In vitro, Cu2+ binding to RIDα residues His75 and His76 facilitates the RILP interaction. Site-directed mutagenesis of these His residues results in the loss of RIDα–RILP interaction and RIDα activity in cells. Additionally, expression of the RILP DN C-terminal region hinders RIDα activity during an acute adenovirus infection. We conclude that RIDα coordinates recruitment of these GTP-Rab7 effectors to compartments that would ordinarily be perceived as early endosomes, thereby promoting the degradation of selected cargo.
A cDNA encoding a cytoplasmic oxysterol binding protein was expressed at high levels by transfection in animal cells. This protein binds oxysterols such as 25-hydroxycholesterol that regulate sterol metabolism by transcriptional and posttranscriptional effects. In the transfected cells, some of the oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm, and some was bound to small vesicles near the nucleus, as revealed by indirect immunofluorescence. Upon addition of 25-hydroxycholesterol, most of the OSBP became concentrated in large perinuclear structures that stained with lentil lectin, a protein that stains the Golgi apparatus. The structures that contained OSBP were disrupted by brefeldin A, confirming their identification as Golgi. A mutant OSBP lacking the COOH-terminal oxysterol binding domain localized to the Golgi spontaneously, suggesting that this domain normally occludes the domain that binds to the Golgi and that sterols relieve this occlusion. The previously noted potential leucine zipper sequence in OSBP was not required for Golgi localization, nor was it essential for homodimer formation. We conclude that OSBP is triggered to bind extrinsically to Golgi membranes when it binds oxysterols and speculate that this translocation may play a role in the transport, metabolism, or regulatory actions of oxysterols.
The study identifies a sterol- and oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-regulated phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase that regulates ceramide transport protein (CERT) activity and sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis. RNA interference silencing experiments identify PI4KIIα; as the mediator of Golgi recruitment of CERT, providing a potential mechanism for coordinating assembly of SM and cholesterol in the Golgi or more distal compartments.
Cholesterol and sphingomyelin (SM) associate in raft domains and are metabolically coregulated. One aspect of coordinate regulation occurs in the Golgi apparatus where oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) mediates sterol-dependent activation of ceramide transport protein (CERT) activity and SM synthesis. Because CERT transfer activity is dependent on its phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate [PtdIns(4)P]-specific pleckstrin homology domain, we investigated whether OSBP activation of CERT involved a Golgi-associated PtdIns 4-kinase (PI4K). Cell fractionation experiments revealed that Golgi/endosome-enriched membranes from 25-hydroxycholesterol-treated Chinese hamster ovary cells had increased activity of a sterol-sensitive PI4K that was blocked by small interfering RNA silencing of OSBP. Consistent with this sterol-requirement, OSBP silencing also reduced the cholesterol content of endosome/trans-Golgi network (TGN) fractions containing PI4KIIα. PI4KIIα, but not PI4KIIIβ, was required for oxysterol-activation of SM synthesis and recruitment of CERT to the Golgi apparatus. However, neither PI4KIIα nor PI4KIIIβ expression was required for 25-hydroxycholesterol–dependent translocation of OSBP to the Golgi apparatus. The presence of OSBP, CERT, and PI4KIIα in the TGN of oxysterol-stimulated cells suggests that OSBP couples sterol binding or transfer activity with regulation of PI4KIIα activity, leading to CERT recruitment to the TGN and increased SM synthesis.
Late endosomes (LEs) have characteristic intracellular distributions determined by their interactions with various motor proteins. Motor proteins associated to the dynactin subunit p150Glued bind to LEs via the Rab7 effector Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) in association with the oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L. We found that cholesterol levels in LEs are sensed by ORP1L and are lower in peripheral vesicles. Under low cholesterol conditions, ORP1L conformation induces the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–LE membrane contact sites. At these sites, the ER protein VAP (VAMP [vesicle-associated membrane protein]-associated ER protein) can interact in trans with the Rab7–RILP complex to remove p150Glued and associated motors. LEs then move to the microtubule plus end. Under high cholesterol conditions, as in Niemann-Pick type C disease, this process is prevented, and LEs accumulate at the microtubule minus end as the result of dynein motor activity. These data explain how the ER and cholesterol control the association of LEs with motor proteins and their positioning in cells.