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1.  Biogenesis and Function of Multivesicular Bodies 
The two major cellular sites for membrane protein degradation are the proteasome and the lysosome. Ubiquitin attachment is a sorting signal for both degradation routes. For lysosomal degradation, ubiquitination triggers the sorting of cargo proteins into the lumen of late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes. MVB formation occurs when a portion of the limiting membrane of an endosome invaginates and buds into its own lumen. Intralumenal vesicles are degraded when MVBs fuse to lysosomes. The proper delivery of proteins to the MVB interior relies on specific ubiquitination of cargo, recognition and sorting of ubiquitinated cargo to endosomal subdomains, and the formation and scission of cargo-filled intralumenal vesicles. Over the past five years, a number of proteins that may directly participate in these aspects of MVB function and biogenesis have been identified. However, major questions remain as to exactly what these proteins do at the molecular level and how they may accomplish these tasks.
PMCID: PMC2911632  PMID: 17506697
endosome; lysosome; ubiquitin; ESCRT; downregulation; peptidase
2.  Hrs and SNX3 Functions in Sorting and Membrane Invagination within Multivesicular Bodies  
PLoS Biology  2008;6(9):e214.
After internalization, ubiquitinated signaling receptors are delivered to early endosomes. There, they are sorted and incorporated into the intralumenal invaginations of nascent multivesicular bodies, which function as transport intermediates to late endosomes. Receptor sorting is achieved by Hrs—an adaptor-like protein that binds membrane PtdIns3P via a FYVE motif—and then by ESCRT complexes, which presumably also mediate the invagination process. Eventually, intralumenal vesicles are delivered to lysosomes, leading to the notion that EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular bodies mediates lysosomal targeting. Here, we report that Hrs is essential for lysosomal targeting but dispensable for multivesicular body biogenesis and transport to late endosomes. By contrast, we find that the PtdIns3P-binding protein SNX3 is required for multivesicular body formation, but not for EGF receptor degradation. PtdIns3P thus controls the complementary functions of Hrs and SNX3 in sorting and multivesicular body biogenesis.
Author Summary
The cell's genetic program is modulated by extracellular signals that activate cell surface receptors and, in turn, intracellular effectors, to regulate transcription. For cells to function normally, these signals must be turned off to avoid permanent activation—a situation often associated with cancer. For many receptors, signaling is repressed, or down-regulated, in a process that first internalizes and then degrades the receptors. After receptors are removed from the cell surface into structures called early endosomes, they are selectively incorporated within vesicles that form inside the endosome. During this process, endosomal membranes are pulled away from the cytoplasm towards the endosome lumen, against the flow of intracellular membrane traffic, eventually resulting in the formation of a “multivesicular body” (vesicles within vesicles). The common view is that these intralumenal vesicles are then delivered to lysosomes, where they are degraded along with their receptor cargo. We have investigated the mechanisms responsible for the biogenesis of intralumenal vesicles in multivesicular bodies. We find that the small protein SNX3, which binds the signaling lipid phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate, is necessary for the formation of intralumenal vesicles, but is not involved in the degradation of the cell surface receptor for EGF. Conversely, we find that Hrs, which also binds phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate and mediates receptor sorting into intralumenal vesicles, is essential for lysosomal targeting but dispensable for multivesicular body biogenesis. Phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate thus controls the complementary functions of Hrs and SNX3 in the sorting of signaling receptors and multivesicular body biogenesis.
SNX3 plays a direct role in the formation of intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) but is not involved in EGF receptor degradation, whereas Hrs is essential for lysosomal targeting but dispensable for MVB biogenesis. Hence, intralumenal vesicle formation in MVB biogenesis can be uncoupled from lysosomal targeting.
PMCID: PMC2528051  PMID: 18767904
3.  Molecular Mechanism of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis by ESCRT Complexes 
Nature  2010;464(7290):864-869.
When internalized receptors and other cargo are destined for lysosomal degradation, they are ubiquitinated and sorted by the ESCRT complexes 0, I, II, and III into multivesicular bodies. Multivesicular bodies are formed when cargo-rich patches of the limiting membrane of endosomes bud inward by an unknown mechanism and are then cleaved to yield cargo-bearing intralumenal vesicles. The biogenesis of multivesicular bodies was reconstituted and visualized using giant unilamellar vesicles, fluorescent ESCRT-0, I, II, and III complexes, and a membrane-tethered fluorescent ubiquitin fusion as a model cargo. ESCRT-0 forms domains of clustered cargo but does not deform membranes. ESCRT-I and II in combination deform the membrane into buds, in which cargo is confined. ESCRT-I and II localize to the bud necks, and recruit ESCRT-0-ubiquitin domains to the buds. ESCRT-III subunits localize to the bud neck and efficiently cleave the buds to form intralumenal vesicles. Intralumenal vesicles produced in this reaction contain the model cargo but are devoid of ESCRTs. The observations explain how the ESCRTs direct membrane budding and scission from the cytoplasmic side of the bud without being consumed in the reaction.
PMCID: PMC2851844  PMID: 20305637
4.  Autophagy discriminates between Alix and ESCRTs 
Autophagy  2009;5(1):106-107.
Alix and ESCRT proteins are required for membrane fission during viral budding and egress and during the abscission stage of cytokinesis. These common roles have suggested that Alix functions as an ESCRT protein, a conclusion challenged by the finding that unlike ESCRTs, which control the formation of multivesicular endosomes, Alix does not influence the degradation of the EGF receptor. We previously showed that Alix controls neuronal death by an unknown mechanism, but dependent on its interaction with ESCRT proteins. Since then, numerous reports have shown that ESCRTs participate in macroautophagy. Given the direct interaction between ESCRTs and Alix, together with the known contribution of autophagy to cell death, it was hypothesized that Alix controls autophagy and thereby cell death. Our recent published results show that this is not the case. ESCRT protein activity therefore needs Alix for viral budding and cytokinesis but not for autophagy. The function of ESCRT can thus be clearly be disconnected from that of Alix.
PMCID: PMC3325908  PMID: 19029801
Animals; Autophagy; Biological Transport; Calcium-Binding Proteins; metabolism; Caspases; metabolism; Endosomes; metabolism; Humans; Multiprotein Complexes; metabolism; Alix; Autophagy; ESCRT; endocytosis; MVB
5.  HIV Gag mimics the Tsg101-recruiting activity of the human Hrs protein 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2003;162(3):425-434.
The HIV-1 Gag protein recruits the cellular factor Tsg101 to facilitate the final stages of virus budding. A conserved P(S/T)AP tetrapeptide motif within Gag (the “late domain”) binds directly to the NH2-terminal ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) domain of Tsg101. In the cell, Tsg101 is required for biogenesis of vesicles that bud into the lumen of late endosomal compartments called multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However, the mechanism by which Tsg101 is recruited from the cytoplasm onto the endosomal membrane has not been known. Now, we report that Tsg101 binds the COOH-terminal region of the endosomal protein hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs; residues 222–777). This interaction is mediated, in part, by binding of the Tsg101 UEV domain to the Hrs 348PSAP351 motif. Importantly, Hrs222–777 can recruit Tsg101 and rescue the budding of virus-like Gag particles that are missing native late domains. These observations indicate that Hrs normally functions to recruit Tsg101 to the endosomal membrane. HIV-1 Gag apparently mimics this Hrs activity, and thereby usurps Tsg101 and other components of the MVB vesicle fission machinery to facilitate viral budding.
PMCID: PMC2172688  PMID: 12900394
virus budding; virions; ubiquitin; vacuolar protein sorting; multivesicular body
6.  Ist1 Regulates Vps4 Localization and Assembly 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2008;19(2):465-474.
The ESCRT protein complexes are recruited from the cytoplasm and assemble on the endosomal membrane into a protein network that functions in sorting of ubiquitinated transmembrane proteins into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. This transport pathway packages cargo proteins into vesicles that bud from the MVB limiting membrane into the lumen of the compartment and delivers these vesicles to the lysosome/vacuole for degradation. The dissociation of ESCRT machinery by the AAA-type ATPase Vps4 is a necessary late step in the formation of MVB vesicles. This ATP-consuming step is regulated by several Vps4-interacting proteins, including the newly identified regulator Ist1. Our data suggest that Ist1 has a dual role in the regulation of Vps4 activity: it localizes to the ESCRT machinery via Did2 where it positively regulates recruitment of Vps4 and it negatively regulates Vps4 by forming an Ist1-Vps4 heterodimer, in which Vps4 cannot bind to the ESCRT machinery. The activity of the MVB pathway might be in part determined by outcome of these two competing activities.
PMCID: PMC2230601  PMID: 18032582
7.  Hrs regulates multivesicular body formation via ESCRT recruitment to endosomes 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2003;162(3):435-442.
Hrs and the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, are involved in the endosomal sorting of membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies and lysosomes or vacuoles. The ESCRT complexes are also required for formation of intraluminal endosomal vesicles and for budding of certain enveloped RNA viruses such as HIV. Here, we show that Hrs binds to the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 via a PSAP motif that is conserved in Tsg101-binding viral proteins. Depletion of Hrs causes a reduction in membrane-associated ESCRT-I subunits, a decreased number of multivesicular bodies and an increased size of late endosomes. Even though Hrs mainly localizes to early endosomes and Tsg101 to late endosomes, the two proteins colocalize on a subpopulation of endosomes that contain lyso-bisphosphatidic acid. Overexpression of Hrs causes accumulation of Tsg101 on early endosomes and prevents its localization to late endosomes. We conclude that Hrs mediates the initial recruitment of ESCRT-I to endosomes and, thereby, indirectly regulates multivesicular body formation.
PMCID: PMC2172703  PMID: 12900395
endocytosis; lysosome; membrane traffic; Tsg101; protein sorting
8.  Did2 coordinates Vps4-mediated dissociation of ESCRT-III from endosomes 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2006;175(5):715-720.
The sorting of transmembrane cargo proteins into the lumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) depends on the recruitment of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) to the cytosolic face of endosomal membranes. The subsequent dissociation of ESCRT complexes from endosomes requires Vps4, a member of the AAA family of adenosine triphosphatases. We show that Did2 directs Vps4 activity to the dissociation of ESCRT-III but has no role in the dissociation of ESCRT-I or -II. Surprisingly, vesicle budding into the endosome lumen occurs in the absence of Did2 function even though Did2 is required for the efficient sorting of MVB cargo proteins into lumenal vesicles. This uncoupling of MVB cargo sorting and lumenal vesicle formation suggests that the Vps4-mediated dissociation of ESCRT-III is an essential step in the sorting of cargo proteins into MVB vesicles but is not a prerequisite for the budding of vesicles into the endosome lumen.
PMCID: PMC2064671  PMID: 17130288
9.  Regulation of Vps4 during MVB Sorting and Cytokinesis 
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)  2011;12(10):1298-1305.
Multivesicular body (MVB) formation is the result of invagination and budding of the endosomal limiting membrane into its intralumenal space. These intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) contain a subset of endosomal transmembrane cargoes destined for degradation within the lysosome, the result of active selection during MVB sorting. Membrane bending and scission during ILV formation is topologically similar to cytokinesis in that both events require the abscission of a membrane neck that is oriented away from the cytoplasm. The endosomal sorting machinery required for transport (ESCRTs) represents cellular machinery whose function makes essential contributions to both of these processes. In particular the AAA-ATPase Vps4 and its substrate ESCRT-III are key components that seem to execute the membrane abscission reaction. This review summarizes current knowledge about the Vps4-ESCRT-III system and discusses a model how the recruitment of Vps4 to the different sites of function might be regulated.
PMCID: PMC3171586  PMID: 21658171
ESCRT; MVB pathway; cytokinesis; endocytosis; protein trafficking
10.  Distinct Roles for Tsg101 and Hrs in Multivesicular Body Formation and Inward Vesiculation 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2006;17(8):3469-3483.
In mammalian cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation promotes multivesicular body (MVB) formation and inward vesiculation within MVB. Annexin 1 is required for EGF-stimulated inward vesiculation but not MVB formation, demonstrating that MVB formation (the number of MVBs/unit cytoplasm) and inward vesiculation (the number of internal vesicles/MVB) are regulated by different mechanisms. Here, we show that EGF-stimulated MVB formation requires the tumor susceptibility gene, Tsg101, a component of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. Depletion of Tsg101 potently inhibits EGF degradation and MVB formation and causes the vacuolar domains of the early endosome to tubulate. Although Tsg101 depletion inhibits MVB formation and alters the morphology of the early endosome in unstimulated cells, these effects are much greater after EGF stimulation. In contrast, depletion of hepatocyte growth factor receptor substrate (Hrs) only modestly inhibits EGF degradation, does not induce tubulation of the early endosome, and causes the generation of enlarged MVBs that retain the ability to fuse with the lysosome. Together, these results indicate that Tsg101 is required for the formation of stable vacuolar domains within the early endosome that develop into MVBs and Hrs is required for the accumulation of internal vesicles within MVBs and that both these processes are up-regulated by EGF stimulation.
PMCID: PMC1525239  PMID: 16707569
11.  SNX12 Role in Endosome Membrane Transport 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38949.
In this paper, we investigated the role of sorting nexin 12 (SNX12) in the endocytic pathway. SNX12 is a member of the PX domain-containing sorting nexin family and shares high homology with SNX3, which plays a central role in the formation of intralumenal vesicles within multivesicular endosomes. We found that SNX12 is expressed at very low levels compared to SNX3. SNX12 is primarily associated with early endosomes and this endosomal localization depends on the binding to 3-phosphoinositides. We find that overexpression of SNX12 prevents the detachment (or maturation) of multivesicular endosomes from early endosomes. This in turn inhibits the degradative pathway from early to late endosomes/lysosomes, much like SNX3 overexpression, without affecting endocytosis, recycling and retrograde transport. In addition, while previous studies showed that Hrs knockdown prevents EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular endosomes, we find that overexpression of SNX12 restores the sorting process in an Hrs knockdown background. Altogether, our data show that despite lower expression level, SNX12 shares redundant functions with SNX3 in the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes.
PMCID: PMC3376135  PMID: 22719997
12.  Crystal structure of subunit VPS25 of the endosomal trafficking complex ESCRT-II 
Down-regulation of plasma membrane receptors via the endocytic pathway involves their monoubiquitylation, transport to endosomal membranes and eventual sorting into multi vesicular bodies (MVB) destined for lysosomal degradation. Successive assemblies of Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT-I, -II and III) largely mediate sorting of plasma membrane receptors at endosomal membranes, the formation of multivesicular bodies and their release into the endosomal lumen. In addition, the human ESCRT-II has been shown to form a complex with RNA polymerase II elongation factor ELL in order to exert transcriptional control activity.
Here we report the crystal structure of Vps25 at 3.1 Å resolution. Vps25 crystallizes in a dimeric form and each monomer is composed of two winged helix domains arranged in tandem. Structural comparisons detect no conformational changes between unliganded Vps25 and Vps25 within the ESCRT-II complex composed of two Vps25 copies and one copy each of Vps22 and Vps36 [1,2].
Our structural analyses present a framework for studying Vps25 interactions with ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III partners. Winged helix domain containing proteins have been implicated in nucleic acid binding and it remains to be determined whether Vps25 has a similar activity which might play a role in the proposed transcriptional control exerted by Vps25 and/or the whole ESCRT-II complex.
PMCID: PMC539351  PMID: 15579210
13.  Multivesicular bodies: co-ordinated progression to maturity 
Current Opinion in Cell Biology  2008;20(4-24):408-414.
Multivesicular endosomes/bodies (MVBs) sort endocytosed proteins to different destinations. Many lysosomally directed membrane proteins are sorted onto intralumenal vesicles, whilst recycling proteins remain on the perimeter membrane from where they are removed via tubular extensions. MVBs move to the cell centre during this maturation process and, when all recycling proteins have been removed, fuse with lysosomes. Recent advances have identified endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-dependent and ESCRT-independent pathways in intralumenal vesicle formation and mechanisms for sorting recycling cargo into tubules. Cytoskeletal motors, through interactions with these machineries and by regulating MVB movement, help to co-ordinate events leading to a mature, fusion-competent MVB.
PMCID: PMC2577128  PMID: 18502633
14.  The ESCRT-III Subunit hVps24 Is Required for Degradation but Not Silencing of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2006;17(6):2513-2523.
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, are thought to mediate the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) and endosomal sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins. Here, we have compared the importance of the ESCRT-I subunit tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101) and the ESCRT-III subunit hVps24/CHMP3 for endosomal functions and receptor signaling. Like Tsg101, endogenous hVps24 localized mainly to late endosomes. Depletion of hVps24 by siRNA showed that this ESCRT subunit, like Tsg101, is important for degradation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and for transport of the receptor from early endosomes to lysosomes. Surprisingly, however, whereas depletion of Tsg101 caused sustained EGF activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, depletion of hVps24 had no such effect. Moreover, depletion of Tsg101 but not of hVps24 caused a major fraction of internalized EGF to accumulate in nonacidified endosomes. Electron microscopy of hVps24-depleted cells showed an accumulation of EGFRs in MVEs that were significantly smaller than those in control cells, probably because of an impaired fusion with lyso-bisphosphatidic acid-positive late endosomes/lysosomes. Together, our results reveal functional differences between ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III in degradative protein trafficking and indicate that degradation of the EGFR is not required for termination of its signaling.
PMCID: PMC1474783  PMID: 16554368
15.  Regulation of Vps4 ATPase activity by ESCRT-III 
Biochemical Society transactions  2009;37(0 1):143-145.
Multivesicular body (MVB) formation occurs when the limiting membrane of an endosome invaginates into the intralumenal space and buds into the lumen, bringing with it a subset of transmembrane-cargoes. Exvagination of the endosomal membrane from the cytosol is topologically similar to the budding of retroviral particles and cytokinesis, wherein membranes bud away from the cytoplasm, and the machinery responsible for MVB sorting has been implicated in these phenomena. The AAA-ATPase Vps4 performs a critical function in the MVB sorting pathway. Vps4 appears to dissociate the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) from endosomal membranes during the course of MVB sorting, but it is unclear how Vps4 ATPase activity is synchronized with ESCRT release. We have investigated the mechanisms by which ESCRT components stimulate the ATPase activity of Vps4. These studies support a model wherein spatial and temporal regulation of Vps4 activity is impacted via distinct mechanisms during MVB sorting.
PMCID: PMC3898632  PMID: 19143619
16.  PI3P signaling regulates receptor sorting but not transport in the endosomal pathway 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2003;162(6):971-979.
While evidence is accumulating that phosphoinositide signaling plays a crucial role in growth factor and hormone receptor down-regulation, this signaling pathway has also been proposed to regulate endosomal membrane transport and multivesicular endosome biogenesis. Here, we have followed the fate of the down-regulated EGF receptor (EGFR) and bulk transport (fluid phase) markers in the endosomal pathway in vivo and in vitro. We find that bulk transport from early to late endosomes is not affected after inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) signaling pathway, but that the EGFR then remains trapped in early endosomes. Similarly, we find that hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is not directly involved in bulk solute transport, but is required for EGFR sorting. These observations thus show that transport and sorting can be uncoupled in the endosomal pathway. They also show that PI3P signaling does not regulate the core machinery of endosome biogenesis and transport, but controls the sorting of down-regulated receptor molecules in early endosomes via Hrs.
PMCID: PMC2172844  PMID: 12975344
EGF receptor; phosphoinositide; FYVE; PHOX and PX; multivesicular body
17.  An endosomal beta COP is involved in the pH-dependent formation of transport vesicles destined for late endosomes 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1996;133(1):29-41.
In this paper, we show that beta COP is present on endosomes and is required for the formation of vesicles which mediate transport from early to late endosomes. Both the association of beta COP to endosomal membranes as well as transport vesicle formation depend on the lumenal pH. We find that epsilon COP, but not gamma COP, is also associated to endosomes, and that this association is also lumenal pH dependent. Our data, thus, indicate that a subset of COPs is part of the mechanism regulating endosomal membrane transport, and that membrane association of these COPs is controlled by the acidic properties of early endosomes, presumably via a trans-membrane pH sensor.
PMCID: PMC2120778  PMID: 8601610
18.  Bro1 binding to Snf7 regulates ESCRT-III membrane scission activity in yeast 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2011;192(2):295-306.
The ubiquitin hydrolase activating factor Bro1 enhances ESCRT-III stability by inhibiting Vps4-mediated disassembly.
Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) promote the invagination of vesicles into the lumen of endosomes, the budding of enveloped viruses, and the separation of cells during cytokinesis. These processes share a topologically similar membrane scission event facilitated by ESCRT-III assembly at the cytosolic surface of the membrane. The Snf7 subunit of ESCRT-III in yeast binds directly to an auxiliary protein, Bro1. Like ESCRT-III, Bro1 is required for the formation of intralumenal vesicles at endosomes, but its role in membrane scission is unknown. We show that overexpression of Bro1 or its N-terminal Bro1 domain that binds Snf7 enhances the stability of ESCRT-III by inhibiting Vps4-mediated disassembly in vivo and in vitro. This stabilization effect correlates with a reduced frequency in the detachment of intralumenal vesicles as observed by electron tomography, implicating Bro1 as a regulator of ESCRT-III disassembly and membrane scission activity.
PMCID: PMC3172170  PMID: 21263029
19.  Activation of the Retroviral Budding Factor ALIX▿† 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(17):9222-9226.
The cellular ALIX protein functions within the ESCRT pathway to facilitate intralumenal endosomal vesicle formation, the abscission stage of cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. Here, we report that the C-terminal proline-rich region (PRR) of ALIX folds back against the upstream domains and auto-inhibits V domain binding to viral late domains. Mutations designed to destabilize the closed conformation of the V domain opened the V domain, increased ALIX membrane association, and enhanced virus budding. These observations support a model in which ALIX activation requires dissociation of the autoinhibitory PRR and opening of the V domain arms.
PMCID: PMC3165844  PMID: 21715492
20.  Global Analysis of Yeast Endosomal Transport Identifies the Vps55/68 Sorting Complex 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2008;19(4):1282-1294.
Endosomal transport is critical for cellular processes ranging from receptor down-regulation and retroviral budding to the immune response. A full understanding of endosome sorting requires a comprehensive picture of the multiprotein complexes that orchestrate vesicle formation and fusion. Here, we use unsupervised, large-scale phenotypic analysis and a novel computational approach for the global identification of endosomal transport factors. This technique effectively identifies components of known and novel protein assemblies. We report the characterization of a previously undescribed endosome sorting complex that contains two well-conserved proteins with four predicted membrane-spanning domains. Vps55p and Vps68p form a complex that acts with or downstream of ESCRT function to regulate endosomal trafficking. Loss of Vps68p disrupts recycling to the TGN as well as onward trafficking to the vacuole without preventing the formation of lumenal vesicles within the MVB. Our results suggest the Vps55/68 complex mediates a novel, conserved step in the endosomal maturation process.
PMCID: PMC2291407  PMID: 18216282
21.  A novel pathway for sorting to intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes involved in organelle morphogenesis 
Developmental cell  2006;10(3):343-354.
Cargo partitioning into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular endosomes underlies such cellular processes as growth factor down-regulation, viral budding, and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles including melanosomes. Here we show that the melanosomal protein, Pmel17, is sorted into ILVs by a novel mechanism that is conserved in non-pigment cells and is dependent upon lumenal determinants. ILV targeting of Pmel17 is unaffected by mutagenesis of cytoplasmic lysine and cysteine residues or replacement of the cytoplasmic domain, indicating independence of ubiquitylation, and unlike ILV targeting of ubiquitylated cargo, is insensitive to functional inhibition of Hrs and ESCRT complexes. Chimeric protein and deletion analyses indicate that two N-terminal lumenal sub-domains are necessary and sufficient for ILV targeting. Pmel17 fibril formation, which occurs during melanosome maturation in melanocytes, requires a third lumenal sub-domain and proteolytic processing that itself requires ILV localization. These results establish a novel Hrs- and perhaps ESCRT-independent pathway of ILV sorting by lumenal determinants and a requirement for ILV sorting in fibril formation.
PMCID: PMC1773005  PMID: 16516837
melanosome; endosome; multivesicular body; fibril formation; amyloid; EGFR, EGF receptor; ESCRT, endosomal sorting complex required for transport; HPM, Hrs-positive membranes; IEM, immunoelectron microscopy; IFM, immunofluorescence microscopy; ILV, intralumenal vesicle; LBPA, lysobisphosphatidic acid; LRO, lysosome-related organelle; MVB, multivesicular body; PC, proprotein convertase; PKD, polycystic kidney disease-1 domain; Tf, transferrin; Ubq, ubiquitin; WT, wild-type
22.  Rab9 and retromer regulate retrograde trafficking of luminal protein required for epithelial tube length control 
Nature Communications  2013;4:1358-.
Apical extracellular matrix filling the lumen controls the morphology and geometry of epithelial tubes during development, yet the regulation of luminal protein composition and its role in tube morphogenesis are not well understood. Here we show that an endosomal-retrieval machinery consisting of Rab9, retromer and actin nucleator WASH (Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome Protein and SCAR Homolog) regulates selective recycling of the luminal protein Serpentine in the Drosophila trachea. Secreted Serpentine is endocytosed and sorted into the late endosome. Vps35, WASH and actin filaments differentially localize at the Rab9-enriched subdomains of the endosomal membrane, where Serpentine containing vesicles bud off. In Rab9, Vps35 and WASH mutants, Serpentine was secreted normally into the tracheal lumen, but the luminal quantities were depleted at later stages, resulting in excessively elongated tubes. In contrast, secretion of many luminal proteins was unaffected, suggesting that retrograde trafficking of a specific class of luminal proteins is a pivotal rate-limiting mechanism for continuous tube length regulation.
The development of biological tubes is regulated by mutual interactions between cells and luminal extracellular matrix. Dong et al. show that retrograde recycling of luminal chitin deacetylase regulates Drosophila tracheal tubule geometry by restricting length independently of diameter.
PMCID: PMC3562448  PMID: 23322046
23.  Immunocytochemical characterization of the endocytic and phagolysosomal compartments in peritoneal macrophages 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1992;116(1):95-112.
We have used endocytic and phagocytic tracers in an EM immunocytochemical study to define the compartments of the phagocytic and endocytic pathways in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Endocytosed BSA- gold appeared successively in early endosomes, spherical endosomal vesicles, a late endosomal tubuloreticular compartment (TC), and terminal lysosomes. The TC appeared as an elaborate structure enriched for the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins Lamp 1 and Lamp 2, and expressing significant levels of rab7, a late endosome-specific GTP- binding protein. The cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor was restricted to specialized regions of the TC that were predominantly adjacent to the Golgi complex. Both the early endosome and the TC had coated bud structures whose composition and function are presently unknown. Phagolysosomes containing latex beads expressed the same membrane antigens and received endocytic tracers simultaneously with the TC. Since the membrane surrounding both organelles was also in direct continuity, we assume that both structures form one functional compartment. Macrosialin, an antigen confined to macrophages and dendritic cells, was heavily expressed in TC and phagolysosomal membranes with low levels being detected in other endosomal compartments and on the cell surface. Treatment of cells with wheat germ agglutinin drastically altered the morphology of the TC, giving rise to sheets of tightly adherent membrane and greatly expanded vesicles, in which cell-associated wheat germ agglutinin was concentrated. The spherical endosomal carrier vesicles loaded with internalized gold tracers clustered nearby, often making contact without fusing. Since the delivery of endocytic tracer to the TC was significantly delayed these experiments suggest that the lectin is somehow preventing the endosome vesicles from fusing with the TC. Collectively, our data argue first that the PLC is equivalent to the "tubular lysosomes" commonly described in macrophages, and second that the meeting of the phagocytic and endocytic pathway occurs in this compartment.
PMCID: PMC2289258  PMID: 1730752
24.  Endosome-to-cytosol transport of viral nucleocapsids 
Nature Cell Biology  2005;7(7):653-664.
During viral infection, fusion of the viral envelope with endosomal membranes and nucleocapsid release were thought to be concomitant events. We show here that for the vesicular stomatitis virus, they occur sequentially, at two successive steps of the endocytic pathway. Fusion already occurs in transport intermediates between early and late endosomes, presumably releasing the nucleocapsid within the lumen of intra-endosomal vesicles, where it remains hidden. Transport to late endosomes is then required for the nucleocapsid to be delivered to the cytoplasm. The latter step, which initiates infection, depends on the late endosomal lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its putative effector Alix/AIP1 and is regulated by PI3P signaling via the PI3P-binding protein SNX16. We conclude that the nucleocapsid is exported into the cytoplasm after the back-fusion of internal vesicles with the limiting membrane of late endosomes, and that this process is controlled by the phospholipids LBPA and PI3P, and by their effectors.
PMCID: PMC3360589  PMID: 15951806
Animals; Biological Transport; physiology; Cattle; Cell Line; Cricetinae; Cytosol; metabolism; ultrastructure; Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport; Endosomes; metabolism; ultrastructure; Epithelial Cells; virology; Fibroblasts; virology; Hela Cells; Humans; Lysophospholipids; physiology; Membrane Fusion; drug effects; physiology; Microscopy, Electron; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Monoglycerides; Nucleocapsid; metabolism; Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates; physiology; Phosphoproteins; genetics; physiology; RNA, Viral; biosynthesis; metabolism; Signal Transduction; physiology; Sorting Nexins; Time Factors; Transport Vesicles; metabolism; ultrastructure; Vesicular Transport Proteins; genetics; physiology; Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus; physiology; Virus Replication; genetics
25.  A novel requirement for C. elegans Alix/ALX-1 in RME-1 mediated membrane transport 
Current biology : CB  2007;17(22):1913-1924.
Alix/Bro1p family proteins have recently been identified as important components of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) involved in the sorting of endocytosed integral membrane proteins, interacting with components of the ESCRT complex, the unconventional phospholipid LBPA, and other known endocytosis regulators. During infection Alix can be co-opted by enveloped retroviruses, including HIV, providing an important function during virus budding from the plasma membrane. In addition Alix is associated with the actin cytoskeleton and may regulate cytoskeletal dynamics.
Here we demonstrate a novel physical interaction between the only apparent Alix/Bro1p family protein in C. elegans, ALX-1, and a key regulator of receptor recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane called RME-1. Analysis of alx-1 mutants indicates that ALX-1 is required for endocytic recycling of specific basolateral cargo in the C. elegans intestine, a pathway previously defined by analysis of rme-1 mutants. Expression of truncated human Alix in HeLa cells disrupts recycling of MHCI, a known Ehd1/RME-1 dependent transport step, suggesting phylogenetic conservation of this function. We show that the interaction of ALX-1 with RME-1 in C. elegans, mediated by RME-1/YPSL and ALX-1/NPF motifs, is required for this recycling process. In the C. elegans intestine ALX-1 localizes to both recycling endosomes and MVEs, but the ALX-1/RME-1 interaction appears dispensable for ALX-1 function in MVEs/late endosomes.
This work provides the first demonstration of a requirement for an Alix/Bro1p family member in the endocytic recycling pathway in association with the recycling regulator RME-1.
PMCID: PMC2175126  PMID: 17997305

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