The two major cellular sites for membrane protein degradation are the proteasome and the lysosome. Ubiquitin attachment is a sorting signal for both degradation routes. For lysosomal degradation, ubiquitination triggers the sorting of cargo proteins into the lumen of late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes. MVB formation occurs when a portion of the limiting membrane of an endosome invaginates and buds into its own lumen. Intralumenal vesicles are degraded when MVBs fuse to lysosomes. The proper delivery of proteins to the MVB interior relies on specific ubiquitination of cargo, recognition and sorting of ubiquitinated cargo to endosomal subdomains, and the formation and scission of cargo-filled intralumenal vesicles. Over the past five years, a number of proteins that may directly participate in these aspects of MVB function and biogenesis have been identified. However, major questions remain as to exactly what these proteins do at the molecular level and how they may accomplish these tasks.
endosome; lysosome; ubiquitin; ESCRT; downregulation; peptidase
After internalization, ubiquitinated signaling receptors are delivered to early endosomes. There, they are sorted and incorporated into the intralumenal invaginations of nascent multivesicular bodies, which function as transport intermediates to late endosomes. Receptor sorting is achieved by Hrs—an adaptor-like protein that binds membrane PtdIns3P via a FYVE motif—and then by ESCRT complexes, which presumably also mediate the invagination process. Eventually, intralumenal vesicles are delivered to lysosomes, leading to the notion that EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular bodies mediates lysosomal targeting. Here, we report that Hrs is essential for lysosomal targeting but dispensable for multivesicular body biogenesis and transport to late endosomes. By contrast, we find that the PtdIns3P-binding protein SNX3 is required for multivesicular body formation, but not for EGF receptor degradation. PtdIns3P thus controls the complementary functions of Hrs and SNX3 in sorting and multivesicular body biogenesis.
The cell's genetic program is modulated by extracellular signals that activate cell surface receptors and, in turn, intracellular effectors, to regulate transcription. For cells to function normally, these signals must be turned off to avoid permanent activation—a situation often associated with cancer. For many receptors, signaling is repressed, or down-regulated, in a process that first internalizes and then degrades the receptors. After receptors are removed from the cell surface into structures called early endosomes, they are selectively incorporated within vesicles that form inside the endosome. During this process, endosomal membranes are pulled away from the cytoplasm towards the endosome lumen, against the flow of intracellular membrane traffic, eventually resulting in the formation of a “multivesicular body” (vesicles within vesicles). The common view is that these intralumenal vesicles are then delivered to lysosomes, where they are degraded along with their receptor cargo. We have investigated the mechanisms responsible for the biogenesis of intralumenal vesicles in multivesicular bodies. We find that the small protein SNX3, which binds the signaling lipid phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate, is necessary for the formation of intralumenal vesicles, but is not involved in the degradation of the cell surface receptor for EGF. Conversely, we find that Hrs, which also binds phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate and mediates receptor sorting into intralumenal vesicles, is essential for lysosomal targeting but dispensable for multivesicular body biogenesis. Phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate thus controls the complementary functions of Hrs and SNX3 in the sorting of signaling receptors and multivesicular body biogenesis.
SNX3 plays a direct role in the formation of intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) but is not involved in EGF receptor degradation, whereas Hrs is essential for lysosomal targeting but dispensable for MVB biogenesis. Hence, intralumenal vesicle formation in MVB biogenesis can be uncoupled from lysosomal targeting.
When internalized receptors and other cargo are destined for lysosomal degradation, they are ubiquitinated and sorted by the ESCRT complexes 0, I, II, and III into multivesicular bodies. Multivesicular bodies are formed when cargo-rich patches of the limiting membrane of endosomes bud inward by an unknown mechanism and are then cleaved to yield cargo-bearing intralumenal vesicles. The biogenesis of multivesicular bodies was reconstituted and visualized using giant unilamellar vesicles, fluorescent ESCRT-0, I, II, and III complexes, and a membrane-tethered fluorescent ubiquitin fusion as a model cargo. ESCRT-0 forms domains of clustered cargo but does not deform membranes. ESCRT-I and II in combination deform the membrane into buds, in which cargo is confined. ESCRT-I and II localize to the bud necks, and recruit ESCRT-0-ubiquitin domains to the buds. ESCRT-III subunits localize to the bud neck and efficiently cleave the buds to form intralumenal vesicles. Intralumenal vesicles produced in this reaction contain the model cargo but are devoid of ESCRTs. The observations explain how the ESCRTs direct membrane budding and scission from the cytoplasmic side of the bud without being consumed in the reaction.
Hrs and the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, are involved in the endosomal sorting of membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies and lysosomes or vacuoles. The ESCRT complexes are also required for formation of intraluminal endosomal vesicles and for budding of certain enveloped RNA viruses such as HIV. Here, we show that Hrs binds to the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 via a PSAP motif that is conserved in Tsg101-binding viral proteins. Depletion of Hrs causes a reduction in membrane-associated ESCRT-I subunits, a decreased number of multivesicular bodies and an increased size of late endosomes. Even though Hrs mainly localizes to early endosomes and Tsg101 to late endosomes, the two proteins colocalize on a subpopulation of endosomes that contain lyso-bisphosphatidic acid. Overexpression of Hrs causes accumulation of Tsg101 on early endosomes and prevents its localization to late endosomes. We conclude that Hrs mediates the initial recruitment of ESCRT-I to endosomes and, thereby, indirectly regulates multivesicular body formation.
endocytosis; lysosome; membrane traffic; Tsg101; protein sorting
Multivesicular body (MVB) formation is the result of invagination and budding of the endosomal limiting membrane into its intralumenal space. These intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) contain a subset of endosomal transmembrane cargoes destined for degradation within the lysosome, the result of active selection during MVB sorting. Membrane bending and scission during ILV formation is topologically similar to cytokinesis in that both events require the abscission of a membrane neck that is oriented away from the cytoplasm. The endosomal sorting machinery required for transport (ESCRTs) represents cellular machinery whose function makes essential contributions to both of these processes. In particular the AAA-ATPase Vps4 and its substrate ESCRT-III are key components that seem to execute the membrane abscission reaction. This review summarizes current knowledge about the Vps4-ESCRT-III system and discusses a model how the recruitment of Vps4 to the different sites of function might be regulated.
ESCRT; MVB pathway; cytokinesis; endocytosis; protein trafficking
Alix and ESCRT proteins are required for membrane fission during viral budding and egress and during the abscission stage of cytokinesis. These common roles have suggested that Alix functions as an ESCRT protein, a conclusion challenged by the finding that unlike ESCRTs, which control the formation of multivesicular endosomes, Alix does not influence the degradation of the EGF receptor. We previously showed that Alix controls neuronal death by an unknown mechanism, but dependent on its interaction with ESCRT proteins. Since then, numerous reports have shown that ESCRTs participate in macroautophagy. Given the direct interaction between ESCRTs and Alix, together with the known contribution of autophagy to cell death, it was hypothesized that Alix controls autophagy and thereby cell death. Our recent published results show that this is not the case. ESCRT protein activity therefore needs Alix for viral budding and cytokinesis but not for autophagy. The function of ESCRT can thus be clearly be disconnected from that of Alix.
Animals; Autophagy; Biological Transport; Calcium-Binding Proteins; metabolism; Caspases; metabolism; Endosomes; metabolism; Humans; Multiprotein Complexes; metabolism; Alix; Autophagy; ESCRT; endocytosis; MVB
In this paper, we investigated the role of sorting nexin 12 (SNX12) in the endocytic pathway. SNX12 is a member of the PX domain-containing sorting nexin family and shares high homology with SNX3, which plays a central role in the formation of intralumenal vesicles within multivesicular endosomes. We found that SNX12 is expressed at very low levels compared to SNX3. SNX12 is primarily associated with early endosomes and this endosomal localization depends on the binding to 3-phosphoinositides. We find that overexpression of SNX12 prevents the detachment (or maturation) of multivesicular endosomes from early endosomes. This in turn inhibits the degradative pathway from early to late endosomes/lysosomes, much like SNX3 overexpression, without affecting endocytosis, recycling and retrograde transport. In addition, while previous studies showed that Hrs knockdown prevents EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular endosomes, we find that overexpression of SNX12 restores the sorting process in an Hrs knockdown background. Altogether, our data show that despite lower expression level, SNX12 shares redundant functions with SNX3 in the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes.
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, are thought to mediate the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) and endosomal sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins. Here, we have compared the importance of the ESCRT-I subunit tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101) and the ESCRT-III subunit hVps24/CHMP3 for endosomal functions and receptor signaling. Like Tsg101, endogenous hVps24 localized mainly to late endosomes. Depletion of hVps24 by siRNA showed that this ESCRT subunit, like Tsg101, is important for degradation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and for transport of the receptor from early endosomes to lysosomes. Surprisingly, however, whereas depletion of Tsg101 caused sustained EGF activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, depletion of hVps24 had no such effect. Moreover, depletion of Tsg101 but not of hVps24 caused a major fraction of internalized EGF to accumulate in nonacidified endosomes. Electron microscopy of hVps24-depleted cells showed an accumulation of EGFRs in MVEs that were significantly smaller than those in control cells, probably because of an impaired fusion with lyso-bisphosphatidic acid-positive late endosomes/lysosomes. Together, our results reveal functional differences between ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III in degradative protein trafficking and indicate that degradation of the EGFR is not required for termination of its signaling.
The ESCRT protein complexes are recruited from the cytoplasm and assemble on the endosomal membrane into a protein network that functions in sorting of ubiquitinated transmembrane proteins into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. This transport pathway packages cargo proteins into vesicles that bud from the MVB limiting membrane into the lumen of the compartment and delivers these vesicles to the lysosome/vacuole for degradation. The dissociation of ESCRT machinery by the AAA-type ATPase Vps4 is a necessary late step in the formation of MVB vesicles. This ATP-consuming step is regulated by several Vps4-interacting proteins, including the newly identified regulator Ist1. Our data suggest that Ist1 has a dual role in the regulation of Vps4 activity: it localizes to the ESCRT machinery via Did2 where it positively regulates recruitment of Vps4 and it negatively regulates Vps4 by forming an Ist1-Vps4 heterodimer, in which Vps4 cannot bind to the ESCRT machinery. The activity of the MVB pathway might be in part determined by outcome of these two competing activities.
The sorting of transmembrane cargo proteins into the lumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) depends on the recruitment of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) to the cytosolic face of endosomal membranes. The subsequent dissociation of ESCRT complexes from endosomes requires Vps4, a member of the AAA family of adenosine triphosphatases. We show that Did2 directs Vps4 activity to the dissociation of ESCRT-III but has no role in the dissociation of ESCRT-I or -II. Surprisingly, vesicle budding into the endosome lumen occurs in the absence of Did2 function even though Did2 is required for the efficient sorting of MVB cargo proteins into lumenal vesicles. This uncoupling of MVB cargo sorting and lumenal vesicle formation suggests that the Vps4-mediated dissociation of ESCRT-III is an essential step in the sorting of cargo proteins into MVB vesicles but is not a prerequisite for the budding of vesicles into the endosome lumen.
The HIV-1 Gag protein recruits the cellular factor Tsg101 to facilitate the final stages of virus budding. A conserved P(S/T)AP tetrapeptide motif within Gag (the “late domain”) binds directly to the NH2-terminal ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) domain of Tsg101. In the cell, Tsg101 is required for biogenesis of vesicles that bud into the lumen of late endosomal compartments called multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However, the mechanism by which Tsg101 is recruited from the cytoplasm onto the endosomal membrane has not been known. Now, we report that Tsg101 binds the COOH-terminal region of the endosomal protein hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs; residues 222–777). This interaction is mediated, in part, by binding of the Tsg101 UEV domain to the Hrs 348PSAP351 motif. Importantly, Hrs222–777 can recruit Tsg101 and rescue the budding of virus-like Gag particles that are missing native late domains. These observations indicate that Hrs normally functions to recruit Tsg101 to the endosomal membrane. HIV-1 Gag apparently mimics this Hrs activity, and thereby usurps Tsg101 and other components of the MVB vesicle fission machinery to facilitate viral budding.
virus budding; virions; ubiquitin; vacuolar protein sorting; multivesicular body
Multivesicular endosomes/bodies (MVBs) sort endocytosed proteins to different destinations. Many lysosomally directed membrane proteins are sorted onto intralumenal vesicles, whilst recycling proteins remain on the perimeter membrane from where they are removed via tubular extensions. MVBs move to the cell centre during this maturation process and, when all recycling proteins have been removed, fuse with lysosomes. Recent advances have identified endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-dependent and ESCRT-independent pathways in intralumenal vesicle formation and mechanisms for sorting recycling cargo into tubules. Cytoskeletal motors, through interactions with these machineries and by regulating MVB movement, help to co-ordinate events leading to a mature, fusion-competent MVB.
Down-regulation of plasma membrane receptors via the endocytic pathway involves their monoubiquitylation, transport to endosomal membranes and eventual sorting into multi vesicular bodies (MVB) destined for lysosomal degradation. Successive assemblies of Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT-I, -II and III) largely mediate sorting of plasma membrane receptors at endosomal membranes, the formation of multivesicular bodies and their release into the endosomal lumen. In addition, the human ESCRT-II has been shown to form a complex with RNA polymerase II elongation factor ELL in order to exert transcriptional control activity.
Here we report the crystal structure of Vps25 at 3.1 Å resolution. Vps25 crystallizes in a dimeric form and each monomer is composed of two winged helix domains arranged in tandem. Structural comparisons detect no conformational changes between unliganded Vps25 and Vps25 within the ESCRT-II complex composed of two Vps25 copies and one copy each of Vps22 and Vps36 [1,2].
Our structural analyses present a framework for studying Vps25 interactions with ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III partners. Winged helix domain containing proteins have been implicated in nucleic acid binding and it remains to be determined whether Vps25 has a similar activity which might play a role in the proposed transcriptional control exerted by Vps25 and/or the whole ESCRT-II complex.
We have used endocytic and phagocytic tracers in an EM immunocytochemical study to define the compartments of the phagocytic and endocytic pathways in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Endocytosed BSA- gold appeared successively in early endosomes, spherical endosomal vesicles, a late endosomal tubuloreticular compartment (TC), and terminal lysosomes. The TC appeared as an elaborate structure enriched for the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins Lamp 1 and Lamp 2, and expressing significant levels of rab7, a late endosome-specific GTP- binding protein. The cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor was restricted to specialized regions of the TC that were predominantly adjacent to the Golgi complex. Both the early endosome and the TC had coated bud structures whose composition and function are presently unknown. Phagolysosomes containing latex beads expressed the same membrane antigens and received endocytic tracers simultaneously with the TC. Since the membrane surrounding both organelles was also in direct continuity, we assume that both structures form one functional compartment. Macrosialin, an antigen confined to macrophages and dendritic cells, was heavily expressed in TC and phagolysosomal membranes with low levels being detected in other endosomal compartments and on the cell surface. Treatment of cells with wheat germ agglutinin drastically altered the morphology of the TC, giving rise to sheets of tightly adherent membrane and greatly expanded vesicles, in which cell-associated wheat germ agglutinin was concentrated. The spherical endosomal carrier vesicles loaded with internalized gold tracers clustered nearby, often making contact without fusing. Since the delivery of endocytic tracer to the TC was significantly delayed these experiments suggest that the lectin is somehow preventing the endosome vesicles from fusing with the TC. Collectively, our data argue first that the PLC is equivalent to the "tubular lysosomes" commonly described in macrophages, and second that the meeting of the phagocytic and endocytic pathway occurs in this compartment.
In yeast and mammals, many plasma membrane (PM) proteins destined for degradation are tagged with ubiquitin. These ubiquitinated proteins are internalized into clathrin-coated vesicles and are transported to early endosomal compartments. There, ubiquitinated proteins are sorted by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery into the intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes. Degradation of these proteins occurs after endosomes fuse with lysosomes/lytic vacuoles to release their content into the lumen. In plants, some PM proteins, which cycle between the PM and endosomal compartments, have been found to be ubiquitinated, but it is unclear whether ubiquitin is sufficient to mediate internalization and thus acts as a primary sorting signal for the endocytic pathway. To test whether plants use ubiquitin as a signal for the degradation of membrane proteins, we have translationally fused ubiquitin to different fluorescent reporters for the plasma membrane and analyzed their transport.
Ubiquitin-tagged PM reporters localized to endosomes and to the lumen of the lytic vacuole in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and in tobacco epidermal cells. The internalization of these reporters was significantly reduced if clathrin-mediated endocytosis was inhibited by the coexpression of a mutant of the clathrin heavy chain, the clathrin hub. Surprisingly, a ubiquitin-tagged reporter for the Golgi was also transported into the lumen of the vacuole. Vacuolar delivery of the reporters was abolished upon inhibition of the ESCRT machinery, indicating that the vacuolar delivery of these reporters occurs via the endocytic transport route.
Ubiquitin acts as a sorting signal at different compartments in the endomembrane system to target membrane proteins into the vacuolar degradation pathway: If displayed at the PM, ubiquitin triggers internalization of PM reporters into the endocytic transport route, but it also mediates vacuolar delivery if displayed at the Golgi. In both cases, ubiquitin-tagged proteins travel via early endosomes and multivesicular bodies to the lytic vacuole. This suggests that vacuolar degradation of ubiquitinated proteins is not restricted to PM proteins but might also facilitate the turnover of membrane proteins in the early secretory pathway.
The ubiquitin hydrolase activating factor Bro1 enhances ESCRT-III stability by inhibiting Vps4-mediated disassembly.
Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) promote the invagination of vesicles into the lumen of endosomes, the budding of enveloped viruses, and the separation of cells during cytokinesis. These processes share a topologically similar membrane scission event facilitated by ESCRT-III assembly at the cytosolic surface of the membrane. The Snf7 subunit of ESCRT-III in yeast binds directly to an auxiliary protein, Bro1. Like ESCRT-III, Bro1 is required for the formation of intralumenal vesicles at endosomes, but its role in membrane scission is unknown. We show that overexpression of Bro1 or its N-terminal Bro1 domain that binds Snf7 enhances the stability of ESCRT-III by inhibiting Vps4-mediated disassembly in vivo and in vitro. This stabilization effect correlates with a reduced frequency in the detachment of intralumenal vesicles as observed by electron tomography, implicating Bro1 as a regulator of ESCRT-III disassembly and membrane scission activity.
Targeting of membrane proteins into the lysosomal/vacuolar lumen for degradation requires their prior sorting into multivesicular bodies (MVB). The MVB sorting pathway depends on ESCRT-0, -I, -II, and -III protein complexes functioning on the endosomal membrane and on additional factors, such as Bro1/Alix and the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5/Nedd4. We used the split-ubiquitin two-hybrid assay to analyze the interaction partners of yeast Bro1 at its natural cellular location. We show that Bro1 interacts with ESCRT-I and -III components, including Vps23, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of human Tsg101. These interactions do not require the C-terminal proline-rich domain (PRD) of Bro1. Rather, this PRD interacts with the Doa4 deubiquitinating enzyme to recruit it to the endosome. This interaction is disrupted by a single amino acid substitution in the conserved ELC box motif in Doa4. The PRD of Bro1 also mediates an association with Rsp5, and this interaction appears to be conserved, as Alix, the human homologue of Bro1, coimmunoprecipitates with Nedd4 in yeast lysates. We further show that the Bro1 PRD domain is essential to MVB sorting of only cargo proteins whose sorting to the vacuolar lumen is dependent on their own ubiquitination and Doa4. The Bro1 region preceding the PRD, however, is required for MVB sorting of proteins irrespective of whether their targeting to the vacuole is dependent on their ubiquitination and Doa4. Our data indicate that Bro1 interacts with several ESCRT components and contributes via its PRD to associating ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes with the MVB sorting machinery.
Cargo partitioning into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular
endosomes underlies such cellular processes as growth factor down-regulation,
viral budding, and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles including
melanosomes. Here we show that the melanosomal protein, Pmel17, is sorted into
ILVs by a novel mechanism that is conserved in non-pigment cells and is
dependent upon lumenal determinants. ILV targeting of Pmel17 is unaffected by
mutagenesis of cytoplasmic lysine and cysteine residues or replacement of the
cytoplasmic domain, indicating independence of ubiquitylation, and unlike ILV
targeting of ubiquitylated cargo, is insensitive to functional inhibition of Hrs
and ESCRT complexes. Chimeric protein and deletion analyses indicate that two
N-terminal lumenal sub-domains are necessary and sufficient for ILV targeting.
Pmel17 fibril formation, which occurs during melanosome maturation in
melanocytes, requires a third lumenal sub-domain and proteolytic processing that
itself requires ILV localization. These results establish a novel Hrs- and
perhaps ESCRT-independent pathway of ILV sorting by lumenal determinants and a
requirement for ILV sorting in fibril formation.
melanosome; endosome; multivesicular body; fibril formation; amyloid; EGFR, EGF receptor; ESCRT, endosomal sorting complex required for transport; HPM, Hrs-positive membranes; IEM, immunoelectron microscopy; IFM, immunofluorescence microscopy; ILV, intralumenal vesicle; LBPA, lysobisphosphatidic acid; LRO, lysosome-related organelle; MVB, multivesicular body; PC, proprotein convertase; PKD, polycystic kidney disease-1 domain; Tf, transferrin; Ubq, ubiquitin; WT, wild-type
In mammalian cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation promotes multivesicular body (MVB) formation and inward vesiculation within MVB. Annexin 1 is required for EGF-stimulated inward vesiculation but not MVB formation, demonstrating that MVB formation (the number of MVBs/unit cytoplasm) and inward vesiculation (the number of internal vesicles/MVB) are regulated by different mechanisms. Here, we show that EGF-stimulated MVB formation requires the tumor susceptibility gene, Tsg101, a component of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. Depletion of Tsg101 potently inhibits EGF degradation and MVB formation and causes the vacuolar domains of the early endosome to tubulate. Although Tsg101 depletion inhibits MVB formation and alters the morphology of the early endosome in unstimulated cells, these effects are much greater after EGF stimulation. In contrast, depletion of hepatocyte growth factor receptor substrate (Hrs) only modestly inhibits EGF degradation, does not induce tubulation of the early endosome, and causes the generation of enlarged MVBs that retain the ability to fuse with the lysosome. Together, these results indicate that Tsg101 is required for the formation of stable vacuolar domains within the early endosome that develop into MVBs and Hrs is required for the accumulation of internal vesicles within MVBs and that both these processes are up-regulated by EGF stimulation.
The cellular ALIX protein functions within the ESCRT pathway to facilitate intralumenal endosomal vesicle formation, the abscission stage of cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. Here, we report that the C-terminal proline-rich region (PRR) of ALIX folds back against the upstream domains and auto-inhibits V domain binding to viral late domains. Mutations designed to destabilize the closed conformation of the V domain opened the V domain, increased ALIX membrane association, and enhanced virus budding. These observations support a model in which ALIX activation requires dissociation of the autoinhibitory PRR and opening of the V domain arms.
Lysosomes play a central role in the degradation of proteins and other macromolecules. The mechanisms by which receptors are transferred to lysosomes for constitutive degradation are poorly understood. We have analyzed the processes that lead to the lysosomal delivery of the Fc receptor, FcRn. These studies provide support for a novel pathway for receptor delivery. Specifically, unlike other receptors that enter intraluminal vesicles in late endosomes, FcRn is transferred from the limiting membrane of such endosomes to lysosomes, and is rapidly internalized into the lysosomal lumen. By contrast, LAMP-1 persists on the limiting membrane. Receptor transfer is mediated by tubular extensions from late endosomes to lysosomes or by interactions of the two participating organelles in kiss-and-linger like processes, whereas full fusion is rarely observed. The persistence of FcRn on the late endosomal limiting membrane, together with selective transfer to lysosomes, allows this receptor to undergo recycling or degradation. Consequently, late endosomes have functional plasticity, consistent with the presence of the Rab5 GTPase in discrete domains on these compartments.
Endosomal trafficking; FcRn; LAMP-1; lysosome; Rab GTPase
Autophagy delivers cytosolic components to lysosomes for their degradation. The delivery of autophagic cargo to late endosomes for complete or partial degradation has also been described. In this report, we present evidence that distinct autophagic mechanisms control cytosolic protein delivery to late endosomes and identify a microautophagy-like process that delivers soluble cytosolic proteins to the vesicles of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVB). This microautophagy-like process has selectivity and is distinct from chaperone-mediated autophagy that occurs in lysosomes. Endosomal microautophagy occurs during MVB formation, relying on the ESCRT I and III systems for formation of the vesicles in which the cytosolic cargo is internalized. Protein cargo selection is mediated by the chaperone hsc70 and requires the cationic domain of hsc70 for electrostatic interactions with the endosomal membrane. Therefore, we propose that endosomal microautophagy shares molecular components with both the endocytic and autophagic pathways.
Cells permeabilized by the bacterial pore-forming toxin streptolysin O (SLO) reseal their plasma membrane in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Resealing involves Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of lysosomes, release of acid sphingomyelinase and rapid formation of endosomes that carry the transmembrane pores into the cell. The intracellular fate of the toxin-carrying endocytic vesicles, however, is still unknown. Here, we show that SLO pores removed from the plasma membrane by endocytosis are sorted into the lumen of lysosomes, where they are degraded. SLO-permeabilized cells contain elevated numbers of total endosomes, which increase gradually in size while transitioning from endosomes with flat clathrin coats to large multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Under conditions that allow endocytosis and plasma membrane repair, SLO is rapidly ubiquitinated and gradually degraded, in a process sensitive to inhibitors of lysosomal hydrolysis but not of proteasomes. The endosomes induced by SLO permeabilization become increasingly acidified and promote SLO degradation under normal conditions, but not in cells silenced for expression of Vps24, an ESCRT-III complex component required for the release of intraluminal vesicles into MVBs. Thus, cells dispose of SLO transmembrane pores by ubiquitination/ESCRT-dependent sorting into the lumen of late endosomes/lysosomes.
endocytosis; ESCRT; lysosome; multivesicular body; repair; resealing; streptolysin O
Sorting of multivesicular bodies requires the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. The kinases Pkh1/2 phosphorylate the ESCRT-0 subunit Vps27 on residue S613. Furthermore, this phosphorylation regulates ESCRT-I recruitment to endosomes.
Multivesicular endosomes (MVBs) are major sorting platforms for membrane proteins and participate in plasma membrane protein turnover, vacuolar/lysosomal hydrolase delivery, and surface receptor signal attenuation. MVBs undergo unconventional inward budding, which results in the formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). MVB cargo sorting and ILV formation are achieved by the concerted function of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-0 to ESCRT-III. The ESCRT-0 subunit Vps27 is a key player in this pathway since it recruits the other complexes to endosomes. Here we show that the Pkh1/Phk2 kinases, two yeast orthologues of the 3-phosphoinositide–dependent kinase, phosphorylate directly Vps27 in vivo and in vitro. We identify the phosphorylation site as the serine 613 and demonstrate that this phosphorylation is required for proper Vps27 function. Indeed, in pkh-ts temperature-sensitive mutant cells and in cells expressing vps27S613A, MVB sorting of the carboxypeptidase Cps1 and of the α-factor receptor Ste2 is affected and the Vps28–green fluorescent protein ESCRT-I subunit is mainly cytoplasmic. We propose that Vps27 phosphorylation by Pkh1/2 kinases regulates the coordinated cascade of ESCRT complex recruitment at the endosomal membrane.
While evidence is accumulating that phosphoinositide signaling plays a crucial role in growth factor and hormone receptor down-regulation, this signaling pathway has also been proposed to regulate endosomal membrane transport and multivesicular endosome biogenesis. Here, we have followed the fate of the down-regulated EGF receptor (EGFR) and bulk transport (fluid phase) markers in the endosomal pathway in vivo and in vitro. We find that bulk transport from early to late endosomes is not affected after inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) signaling pathway, but that the EGFR then remains trapped in early endosomes. Similarly, we find that hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is not directly involved in bulk solute transport, but is required for EGFR sorting. These observations thus show that transport and sorting can be uncoupled in the endosomal pathway. They also show that PI3P signaling does not regulate the core machinery of endosome biogenesis and transport, but controls the sorting of down-regulated receptor molecules in early endosomes via Hrs.
EGF receptor; phosphoinositide; FYVE; PHOX and PX; multivesicular body