Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR = 3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.
Depression negatively affects health and well-being among older adults, but there have been no nationally representative comparisons of depression prevalence among older adults in England and the United States.
We sought to compare depressive symptoms among older adults in these countries and identify sociodemographic and clinical correlates of depression in these countries.
Design and Setting
We assessed depressive symptoms in non-Hispanic whites aged 65 and over in 2002 in two nationally representative, population-based studies: the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).
8,295 HRS respondents and 5,208 ELSA respondents.
Main Outcome Measures
We measured depressive symptoms using the eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We determined whether depressive symptom differences between the US and England were associated with sociodemographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, and health behaviors.
Significant depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥4) were more prevalent in English than US adults (17.6% vs. 14.6%, adjusted Wald test F(1, 1593) = 11.4, p<0.001). Adjusted rates of depressive symptoms in England were 19% higher compared to the US (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40). US adults had higher levels of education, and net worth, but lower levels of ADL/IADL impairments, tobacco use, and cognitive impairment, which may have contributed to relatively lower levels of depressive symptoms in the US.
Older adults in the US had lower rates of depressive symptoms than their English counterparts despite having more chronic health conditions. Future cross-national studies should identify how depression treatment influences outcomes in these populations.
depression; Health and Retirement Study English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; older adults
To determine whether depressed older adults who attribute becoming depressed to “old age” rather than illness are more likely to believe it is not important to seek treatment for depression.
Cross-sectional mailed survey.
Academically affiliated primary care physicians' network.
Surveys were mailed to 588 patients age ≥65 years who were randomly identified from patient lists of 20 physicians. Surveys were returned by 429 patients (73%). Patients were eligible for this study if they scored ≥2 points on the 5-item Geriatric Depression Scale (n = 94) and were not missing key variables (final n = 90).
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS
Of the 90 depressed patients, 48 (53%) believed that feeling depressed was very important to discuss with a doctor. In unadjusted analysis, older adults who did not believe it is very important to discuss feeling depressed with a doctor were more likely to attribute becoming depressed to aging (41% vs 17%; P = .012). In a logistic regression model adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, number of impairments in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, medical comorbidity, and physical (PCS-12) and mental (MCS-12) component summary scores from the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form-12, depressed older adults who attributed depression to aging had a 4.3 times greater odds than those who attributed depression to illness to not believe it is very important to discuss depression with a doctor (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 14.5).
Among older persons with depression, attributing feeling depressed to old age may be an important barrier to care seeking.
aged; attitude to health; barriers to treatment; depression; health belief
Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent among medically ill homebound elderly and are associated with significant functional decline, lower quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Despite this, depression is generally under-diagnosed and undertreated among medically ill homebound older adults. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of a brief depression measure (CES-D) and examine the nature of depressive symptoms reported by the older sample. Using confirmatory factor and rating scale analysis, the factor structure of responses in a cross-sectional home care sample (n = 618) was examined with a further analysis of item responses from identified urban and rural subsamples. Radloff’s (1977) four factor depression model fit the data well. Some symptom items were expressed differently and this offers an opportunity to understand the unique clinical aspects of depression in homebound older adults.
Depressive symptoms; assessment; medically ill; homebound; older adult
Evidence on the association between fish consumption and depression is inconsistent and virtually non-existent from low- and middle-income countries. Using a standard protocol, we aim to assess the association of fish consumption and late-life depression in seven low- and middle-income countries.
We used cross-sectional data from the 10/66 cohort study and applied two diagnostic criteria for late-life depression to assess the association between categories of weekly fish consumption and depression according to ICD-10 and the EURO-D depression symptoms scale scores, adjusting for relevant confounders. All-catchment area surveys were carried out in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India, and over 15,000 community-dwelling older adults (65+) were sampled. Using Poisson models the adjusted association between categories of fish consumption and ICD-10 depression was positive in India (p for trend = 0.001), inverse in Peru (p = 0.025), and not significant in all other countries. We found a linear inverse association between fish consumption categories and EURO-D scores only in Cuba (p for trend = 0.039) and China (p<0.001); associations were not significant in all other countries. Between-country heterogeneity was marked for both ICD-10 (I2>61%) and EURO-D criteria (I2>66%).
The associations of fish consumption with depression in large samples of older adults varied markedly across countries and by depression diagnosis and were explained by socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Experimental studies in these settings are needed to confirm our findings.
Few studies have examined the associated factors of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS) in low-income countries, yet the World Health Organization identifies depressive disorders as the second leading cause of global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mental disorders and their predictors among pregnant women in Bangladesh. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of rural Bangladeshi pregnant women.
The study used cross-sectional data originating from a rural community-based prospective cohort study of 720 randomly selected women in their third trimester of pregnancy from a district of Bangladesh. The validated Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure ADS, and a trait anxiety inventory to assess general anxiety symptoms. Background information was collected using a structured questionnaire at the respondents' homes.
Prevalence of ADS was 18% and AAS 29%. Women's literacy (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.95), poor partner relationship (OR 2.23, 95% CI 3.37-3.62), forced sex (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-3.75), physical violence by spouse (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.80), and previous depression (OR 4.62 95% CI 2.72-7.85) were found to be associated with ADS. The associated factors of AAS were illiteracy, poor household economy, lack of practical support, physical partner violence, violence during pregnancy, and interaction between poor household economy and poor partner relationship.
Depressive and anxiety symptoms are found to occur commonly during pregnancy in Bangladesh, drawing attention to a need to screen for depression and anxiety during antenatal care. Policies aimed at encouraging practical support during pregnancy, reducing gender-based violence, supporting women with poor partner relationships, and identifying previous depression may ameliorate the potentially harmful consequences of antepartum depression and anxiety for the women and their family, particularly children.
To describe patterns of recent health service utilisation, and consequent out-of-pocket expenses among older people in countries with low and middle incomes, and to assess the equity with which services are accessed and delivered.
17,944 people aged 65 years and over were assessed in one-phase population-based cross-sectional surveys in geographically-defined catchment areas in nine countries - urban and rural sites in China, India, Mexico and Peru, urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and a rural site in Nigeria. The main outcome was use of community health care services in the past 3 months. Independent associations were estimated with indicators of need (dementia, depression, physical impairments), predisposing factors (age, sex, and education), and enabling factors (household assets, pension receipt and health insurance) using Poisson regression to generate prevalence ratios and fixed effects meta-analysis to combine them.
The proportion using healthcare services varied from 6% to 82% among sites. Number of physical impairments (pooled prevalence ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.26-1.49) and ICD-10 depressive episode (pooled PR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.38) were associated with service use, but dementia was inversely associated (pooled PR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Other correlates were female sex, higher education, more household assets, receiving a pension, and health insurance. Standardisation for age, sex, physical impairments, depression and dementia did not explain variation in service use. There was a strong borderline significant ecological correlation between the proportion of consultations requiring out-of-pocket costs and the prevalence of health service use (r = -0.50, p = 0.09).
While there was little evidence of ageism, inequity was apparent in the independent enabling effects of education and health insurance cover, the latter particularly in sites where out-of-pocket expenses were common, and private health insurance an important component of healthcare financing. Variation in service use among sites was most plausibly accounted for by stark differences in the extent of out-of-pocket expenses, and the ability of older people and their families to afford them. Health systems that finance medical services through out-of-pocket payments risk excluding the poorest older people, those without a secure regular income, and the uninsured.
To analyse the psychometric properties of the Whooley questions and the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21) in older adults with depression and chronic health problems.
A population-based study.
474 adults, aged 72–73 years, living in the city of Oulu, Finland.
Main outcome measures
The screening parameters of the Whooley questions and the BDI-21 for detecting major depression.
The prevalence of major depression according to the DSM-IV was 5.3% (single or recurrent episode) obtained by the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The BDI-21 was best able to identify a current episode of major depression with a cut-off point of 11. The sensitivity and specificity of this cut-off point were 88.0% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 68.8–97.5) and 81.7% (95% CI 77.8–85.2), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was 0.89 (95% CI 0.83–0.96). The two Whooley screening questions had a sensitivity of 62.5% (95% CI 40.6–81.2) and either screening question plus the help question had a sensitivity of 66.7% (44.7–84.4).
The Beck Depression Inventory is a valid instrument for the diagnosis of depression in older adults. As a screening measure, the optimal cut-off score should be 11 or higher. Our results indicate that the sensitivity of the Whooley questions is not high enough to be used as a screening scale among the elderly.
Depression; elderly; Finland; general practice; screening instruments; validation studies
Background. Depression and cognitive impairment are two common mental and public health problems especially among elderly. In this study, we determined the prevalence of these problems and their associations with sociodemographic factors among hospitalized elderly in Egypt. To achieve this, 200 elderly medical inpatients were included in this cross-sectional study. Methods. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was done for every participant. Sociodemographic variables were assessed by interviews with patients and their family members. Depressive symptoms were screened for by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a GDS score of ≥6. Cognitive impairment was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) Scale, and cognitive impairment was defined as a MMSE score of ≤23 out of a total score of 30. Results. The prevalence of both depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment was 72% and 30%, respectively. Significant associations were noticed between each of depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment, and low income and advancing age (P < 0.01), respectively. Other associations were insignificant. Conclusions. The findings of this study may be an alarm for health authorities and staffs involved in elderly care to increase their awareness of social and mental health problems among the elderly.
Previous studies have attempted to provide estimates of depression prevalence in older adults. The Aging, Demographics and Memory Study (ADAMS) is a population-representative study that included a depression assessment, providing an opportunity to estimate the prevalence of depression in late life in the U.S.A.
The ADAMS sample was drawn from the larger Health and Retirement Study. A total of 851 of 856 ADAMS participants aged 71 and older had available depression data. Depression was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview – Short Form (CIDI-SF) and the informant depression section of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). We estimated the national prevalence of depression, stratified by age, race, sex, and cognitive status. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association of depression and previously reported risk factors for the condition.
When combining symptoms of major or minor depression with reported treatment for depression, we found an overall depression prevalence of 11.19%. Prevalence was similar for men (10.19%) and women (11.44%). Whites and Hispanics had nearly three times the prevalence of depression found in African-Americans. Dementia diagnosis and pain severity were associated with increased depression prevalence, while black race was associated with lower rates of depression.
The finding of similar prevalence estimates for depression in men and women was not consistent with prior research that has shown a female predominance. Given the population-representativeness of our sample, similar depression rates between the sexes in ADAMS may result from racial, ethnic and socioeconomic diversity.
depression; elderly; prevalence
The proportion of the global population aged 60 and over is increasing,
more so in Latin America than any other region. Depression is common among
elderly people and an important cause of disability worldwide.
To estimate the prevalence and correlates of late-life depression,
associated disability and access to treatment in five locations in Latin
A one-phase cross-sectional survey of 5886 people aged 65 and over from
urban and rural locations in Peru and Mexico and an urban site in Venezuela.
Depression was identified according to DSM–IV and ICD–10 criteria,
Geriatric Mental State–Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer
Assisted Taxonomy (GMS–AGECAT) algorithm and EURO–D cut-off point.
Poisson regression was used to estimate the independent associations of
sociodemographic characteristics, economic circumstances and health status
with ICD–10 depression.
For DSM–IV major depression overall prevalence varied between 1.3%
and 2.8% by site, for ICD–10 depressive episode between 4.5% and 5.1%,
for GMS–AGECAT depression between 30.0% and 35.9% and for EURO–D
depression between 26.1% and 31.2%; therefore, there was a considerable
prevalence of clinically significant depression beyond that identified by
ICD–10 and DSM–IV diagnostic criteria. Most older people with
depression had never received treatment. Limiting physical impairments and a
past history of depression were the two most consistent correlates of the
ICD–10 depressive episode.
The treatment gap poses a significant challenge for Latin American health
systems, with their relatively weak primary care services and reliance on
private specialists; local treatment trials could establish the
cost-effectiveness of mental health investment in the government sector.
To examine the association between perceived health and self-reported
presence of certain geriatric conditions. Perceived health (the way people
rate their own health) is a summary measure of health status that predicts
functional decline, health care use, and mortality, but has not been
examined as a measure of the prevalence of key geriatric conditions among
Cross-sectional surveys addressing perceived health and other study variables
were mailed to practice patients.
An urban university-based family medicine residency program.
In a random sample of 400 patients (from 1327 potential participants) older
than 65 years (excluding those with known dementia), more than half (262)
responded with usable surveys.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Self-reported geriatric syndromes, such as perceived memory loss, depression,
falls, incontinence, weight loss, problems with walking, and difficulties
with instrumental activities of daily living.
Of 262 respondents, 102 reported that they perceived their health as poor or
fair and were much more likely than people who perceived their health as
robust (good, very good, or excellent) to report memory impairment (49.6% vs
23.1%), depression (38.0% vs 13.5%), falls (26.5% vs 12.5%), incontinence
(48.5% vs 34.6%), weight loss (33.3% vs 15.4%), needing help with walking
(27.3% vs 13.1%), and difficulties with activities of daily living (57.6% vs
These results support the hypothesis that assessment of perceived health can
help differentiate low-risk elderly people requiring usual surveillance for
geriatric conditions from high-risk elderly people who require timely
evaluation and management.
Individuals with asthma may be at increased risk of depression, but few studies have identified precursors to depression onset. The study goal was to identify risk factors for depression onset among a community-based sample of adults with asthma.
Data were from 3 telephone interviews of a longitudinal cohort (n=439) conducted at 2-year intervals. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD) measured depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analyses tested associations of sociodemographic and health-related variables with depression prevalence (cross-sectional analyses) and incident depression (longitudinal analyses).
15% of subjects were classified as “depressed” (CESD≥23) at each interview. Individuals depressed at baseline were more likely to drop out (OR=1.76 [95% CI 1.05, 2.96]). Low perceived control of asthma (measured with the Perceived Control of Asthma Questionnaire [PCAQ]) exhibited the most consistent association with depression. Lower PCAQ was cross-sectionally associated with depression (OR=0.51 per 0.5 SD difference in PCAQ [0.35, 0.75]). Depression onset was noted in 38 individuals. Decrease in perceived control at follow-up was associated with depression onset (OR=7.47 [2.15, 26.01]).
Low perceived control of asthma predicted depression onset among adults with asthma. This risk factor may respond to self-management education.
asthma; depression; perceived control
Depression is a leading contributor to the burden of disease worldwide, a critical barrier to HIV prevention and a common serious HIV co-morbidity. However, depression screening and treatment are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are few population-level studies examining the prevalence and gender-specific factors associated with depression.
We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 18–49 year-old adults from five districts in Botswana with the highest prevalence of HIV-infection. We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms, using a Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression (HSCL-D) score of ≥1.75 to define depression, and correlates of depression using multivariate logistic regression stratified by sex.
Of 1,268 participants surveyed, 25.3% of women and 31.4% of men had depression. Among women, lower education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.07, 95% confidence interval [1.30–3.32]), higher income (1.77 [1.09–2.86]), and lack of control in sexual decision-making (2.35 [1.46–3.81]) were positively associated with depression. Among men, being single (1.95 [1.02–3.74]), living in a rural area (1.63 [1.02–2.65]), having frequent visits to a health provider (3.29 [1.88–5.74]), anticipated HIV stigma (fearing discrimination if HIV status was revealed) (2.04 [1.27–3.29]), and intergenerational sex (2.28 [1.17–4.41]) were independently associated with depression.
Depression is highly prevalent in Botswana, and its correlates are gender-specific. Our findings suggest multiple targets for screening and prevention of depression and highlight the need to integrate mental health counseling and treatment into primary health care to decrease morbidity and improve HIV management efforts.
We aimed primarily to investigate the level of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and depression in older adults and secondly to identify the impact of LUTS and depression on HRQoL.
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to November 2010. Participants were recruited from five community senior centers serving community dwelling older adults in Jeju city. Data analysis was based on 171 respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to guide interviews; the data were collected including demographic characteristics, body mass index, adherence to regular exercise, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis), depression, urinary incontinence, LUTS (measured via the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]), and HRQoL as assessed by use of the EQ-5D Index. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to test predictors of HRQoL.
Eighteen percent (18.6%) of the respondents reported depressive symptoms. The mean LUTS score was 8.9 (IPSS range, 0 to 35). The severity of LUTS, was reported to be mild (score, 0 to 7) by 53% of the respondents, moderate (score, 8 to 19) by 34.5%, and severe (score, 20 to 35) by 12.5%. HRQoL was significantly predicted by depression (Partial R2=0.193, P<0.01) and LUTS (Partial R2=0.048, P=0.0047), and 24% of the variance in HRQoL was explained.
LUTS and depression were the principal predictors of HRQoL in older adults.
Lower urinary tract symptoms; Depression; Quality of life; Aged
To explore the association of major depressive symptoms with advancing age, sex, and self-rated health among older adults.
Design and methods
We analyzed 10 years of annual assessments in a longitudinal cohort of 5888 Medicare recipients in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Self-rated health was assessed with a single question, and subjects categorized as healthy or sick. Major depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale, with subjects categorized as nondepressed (score < 10) or depressed (≥ 10). Age-, sex-, and health-specific prevalence of depression and the probabilities of transition between depressed and nondepressed states were estimated.
The prevalence of a major depressive state was higher in women, and increased with advancing age. The probability of becoming depressed increased with advancing age among the healthy but not the sick. Women showed a greater probability than men of becoming depressed, regardless of health status. Major depressive symptoms persisted over one-year intervals in about 60% of the healthy and 75% of the sick, with little difference between men and women.
Clinically significant depressive symptoms occur commonly in older adults, especially women, increase with advancing age, are associated with poor self-rated health, and are largely intransigent. In order to limit the deleterious consequences of depression among older adults, increased attention to prevention, screening, and treatment is warranted. A self-rated health item could be used in clinical settings to refine the prognosis of late-life depression.
self-rated health; mental health; epidemiology
Involvement in activities has been found to be beneficial for improving quality of life and successful aging for older adults. Little is known, however, about the involvement in activities and depression of older adults in Asian developing countries. This study explores whether participation in leisure social and religious activities are related to depression and satisfaction with life in older adults of Nepal. Gender differences are also explored.
The study sample was derived from a survey which aimed to determine the intergenerational relationships between older adults and their married sons. A cross-sectional quantitative study of older adults sixty years and over in Nepal was conducted with face-to-face interviews using structured instruments. A convenience sample of 489 community dwelling older adults, 247 men and 242 women, were included in the study. The dependent variables, depression and satisfaction with life, were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) respectively. Age, gender, marital status, education, perceived health, financial satisfaction, social support received and provided by older adults, and social activity were independent variables in the study.
Saying prayers (B = -2.75; p < 0.005), watching television and listening to the radio (B = -1.88; p < 0.05), and participating in physical activity (B = -1.05; p < 0.05) correlated to lower depression for older men, but only watching television and listening to the radio (B = -2.68; p < 0.005) related to lower rates of depression for women. Socializing with others (B = 1.22; p < 0.05) was related to higher satisfaction with life for men, but for women visiting friends (B = 1.29; p < 0.05), socializing with others (B = 1.45; p < 0.005), and watching television and listening to the radio (B = 0.92; p < 0.05) related to improved satisfaction with life. Activity engagement significantly improved mental health in older adults.
Specific activity participation was a significant correlate of lower levels of depression and higher levels of satisfaction with life among older adults in Nepal. The findings explore the need for further research on activity participation in developing countries so that it can be useful for health care practioners and those involved with the activities of aged populations in developing countries.
Assess the association between depressive symptoms (not meeting the criteria for major depression) and gait dysfunction in older adults.
Einstein Aging Study, a community-based longitudinal aging study.
Six hundred ten nondemented and nondepressed community-residing adults age 70 and older.
Depressive symptoms measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. To obtain a comprehensive assessment of gait, eight individual quantitative gait parameters were assessed: velocity (cm/s), stride length (cm), cadence (steps/min), swing phase (seconds), stance phase (seconds), double support phase (seconds), stride length variability (SD of stride length), and swing time variability (SD of swing time). Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to study the association of depressive symptoms with gait, adjusting for potential confounders including demographic variables, medical illnesses, and clinical gait abnormalities.
Increased level of depressive symptoms was associated with worse velocity, stride, and swing time variability. The relationship of the remaining five gait variables with depressive symptoms was not significant in the fully adjusted models.
Higher levels of depressive symptoms are associated with worse performance in specific quantitative gait variables in community-residing older adults.
depressive symptoms; epidemiology; elderly; gait
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To explain the variations in depressive symptomatology among primary caregivers of community dwelling activities of daily living disabled elderly and to evaluate the role of family and religiosity on the mental health consequences of caregiving in Spain. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: City of Leganes in the metropolitan area of Madrid, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All caregivers of a representative sample of community dwelling activities of daily living disabled persons, aged 65 and over were approached. The response rate was 85% (n = 194). Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. MAIN RESULTS: Controlling for caregivers' income, education, health status, and caregiving stress, religiosity was associated with more depressive symptoms among children caregivers while for spouses the association was negative. Emotional support was negatively associated with depression, but instrumental support was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptomatology is frequent among Spanish caregivers of disabled elderly. This study concludes that religiosity and family emotional support play an important part in the mental health of Spanish caregivers. The role of religiosity may be different according to kinship tie and needs further investigation.
Despite the high occurrence of depressive symptoms in older adults, especially women, little is known about the long-term course of late-life depressive symptoms.
To characterize the natural course of depressive symptoms among elderly women followed for nearly 20 years, going from young old to oldest old.
Using a latent class growth-curve analysis, we analyzed women enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study (1988–2009).
Clinic sites in Baltimore, MD, Minneapolis, MN, the Monongahela Valley near Pittsburgh, PA, and Portland, OR.
We studied 7240 community-dwelling women age 65 years or older.
Main Outcome Measure
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) short form (range: 0–15) was used to assess depressive symptoms repeatedly over follow-up.
We identified four latent classes over 20 years, comprising an expected 28% of women with minimal depressive symptoms, 54% with persistently low symptoms, 15% with increasing symptoms, and 3% with persistently high symptoms. In an adjusted model for latent class membership, odds ratios (ORs) for belonging in the increasing and persistently high depressive symptom classes, respectively, compared with minimal symptom group were substantially and significantly (P < .05) elevated for baseline smoking (ORs, 4.69 and 7.97), physical inactivity (ORs, 2.11 and 2.78), small social network (ORs, 3.24 and 6.75), physical impairment (ORs, 8.11 and 16.43), myocardial infarction (ORs, 2.09 and 2.41), diabetes (ORs, 2.98 and 3.03), and obesity (ORs, 1.86 and 2.90).
Over 20 years, approximately 20% of older women experienced persistently high or increasing depressive symptoms. In addition, these women had more comorbidities, physical impairment, and negative lifestyle factors at baseline. These associations support the need for intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depressive symptoms into oldest-old years.
Convergent validation of the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills (KELS) to screen older adults’ capacity for safe and independent living.
Cross-sectional study correlating KELS with components of a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment.
200 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 including 100 referred by adult protective services (APS) and 100 ambulatory patients matched on age, race, gender, and socio-economic status.
In-home comprehensive assessment
Main Outcome Measures
Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills (KELS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Physical Performance Test (mPPT), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Knee Extensor Break Test, Executive test (EXIT25), CLOX 1 & 2, and an 8-foot walk test.
Older adults with abnormal KELS scores performed significantly worse on all tests except for the Knee Extensor Break Test. Accordingly, among the entire group, the KELS correlated with measures of executive function (EXIT25, r = .705, p <.001; CLOX 1, r = −.629 p<.001), cognitive function (MMSE, r=−.508, p<.001), affect (GDS, r= .318, p<.001) and physical function (mPPT, r= −.472, p<.001) but did not correlate with the Knee Extensor Break Test (r = −.068, p = .456). Among those referred by APS the KELS failed to correlate with only the 8-foot walk test (r = .175, p = .153) and GDS (r = .080, p = .450).
This study demonstrated the convergent validity of KELS with a battery of cognitive, affective, executive, and functional measures often used to determine older adults’ ability to live safely and independently in the community. KELS may be a valid and pragmatic alternative to screen for the capacity to live safely and independently among older adults.
Activities of Daily Living; Functional Status; Restorative Care
The purposes of this study are to determine the frequency and severity of insomnia symptoms and related complaints experienced by older adults with GAD and compare them with older adults without GAD; compare insomnia symptoms among older adults with GAD with and without comorbid depression; determine if there are age differences in insomnia severity among people with GAD; and determine if there are differences in insomnia severity between older adults with GAD and older adults diagnosed with insomnia.
Participants were recruited through primary care clinics, advertisements, and mass mailings.
110 older adults; 31 with GAD, 25 with GAD and depression, 33 worried well, and 21 with no psychiatric diagnosis.
Psychiatric diagnosis, sleep disturbance, and health.
Participants with GAD with and without comorbid depression reported significantly greater sleep disturbance severity than participants with no psychiatric diagnosis and the worried well. There were no differences in sleep disturbances between older adults with GAD only and older adults with comorbid GAD and depression. The severity of sleep disturbance reported by older participants with GAD was greater than reports by young and middle-aged participants with GAD, and comparable to reports by older adults with a diagnosis of insomnia.
Ninety percent of older adults with GAD report dissatisfaction with sleep and the majority report moderate to severe insomnia. These findings support the assessment of sleep disturbances within the context of late-life GAD.
Anxiety; GAD; insomnia; sleep
To examine and describe vascular depression epidemiology in the United States.
Cross-sectional data from a national probability sample of household resident adults (18-years and older; N = 16,423) living in the 48 coterminous United States were analyzed to calculate prevalence estimates of vascular depression, associated disability and treatment rates. In this study, vascular depression was defined as the presence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and CVD major risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and obesity) among adults 50-years and older who also met 12-month DSM-IV major depression criteria.
We estimated that about 3.4% or approximately 2.64 million American adults 50-years and older met our criteria for vascular depression. Among adults who met criteria for lifetime major depression, over one-in-five (22.1%) were considered to have the vascular depression subtype. Secondly, vascular depression was associated with significantly increased functional impairment relative to the non-depressed population and adults meeting criteria for major depression alone. Although depression care use was significantly higher among vascular depression respondents relative to those with major depression alone, practice guideline concordant therapy use was not.
Vascular depression appears to be an important public health problem that affects a large portion of the U.S. adult population with major depression, and that it is associated with excess functional impairment without concomitant better depression care.
Major depressive disorder; Depression; Vascular depression; Epidemiology; Cardiovascular disease; Stroke
Black Americans are more likely to obtain mental health care from primary care than from a mental health specialist. Our objective was to investigate the association of ethnicity with the identification and active management of depression among older patients.
Cross-sectional survey 355 older adults with and without significant depressive symptoms. At the index visit, doctor's ratings of depression and reports of active management were obtained on 341 of the 355 patients who completed in-home interviews.
Older black patients were less likely to be identified as depressed than were older whites (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.25, 0.63]) and less likely to be actively managed for depression in the 6 months prior to interview (unadjusted OR = 0.63, 95% CI [0.19, 2.16]). In multivariate models that controlled for potentially influential characteristics such as patient age, gender, marital status, level of education, functional status, physical health, severity of depressive symptoms, severity of anxiety symptoms, attitudes about depression, number of office visits in the last 6 months, and the doctor’s rating of how well they knew the patient, the associations of identification (OR = 0.25, 95% CI [0.17, 0.39]) and management (OR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.19, 1.77]) with patient ethnicity remained substantially unchanged.
Our study calls attention to the role ethnicity may play in the identification and active management of depression among older primary care patients.
African-Americans; aged; depression; mental health services; primary health care
Background and objective
Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008.
We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression.
The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems) were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months.
Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems), can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults.
self-reported depression symptoms; risk factors; older adults; South Africa; WHO SAGE