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1.  Factors Associated With Complications of Open Versus Laparoscopic Sigmoid Resection for Diverticulitis 
This study critically reviews sigmoid colon resection for diverticulitis comparing open and laparoscopic techniques.
We conducted a retrospective review of all open and laparoscopic cases of diverticulitis between 1992 and 2001. Data analyzed included the following: indications for operation, postoperative complications, and incidence of laparoscopic conversion to laparotomy. Major and minor complications were analyzed in relation to patients' preoperative diagnosis, age, presence or absence of splenic flexure mobilization, length of stay, and laparoscopic sigmoid resection versus open sigmoid resection.
Over a 10-year period, 166 resections for diverticulitis were performed including 126 open cases and 40 laparoscopic cases. No significant differences existed in patient characteristics between the groups. Major complications occurred in 14% of patients, and the laparoscopic conversion rate was 20%. The presence of abscess, fistula, or stricture preoperatively was associated with a higher complication rate only in patients ≥50 years old undergoing open sigmoid resection. The length of stay between patients undergoing laparoscopic resection was significantly less than in patients having open resection.
Advanced laparoscopic sigmoid resection is an alternative to open sigmoid resection in patients with diverticulitis and its complications. Open sigmoid resection in patients >50 years may have a higher complication rate in complicated diverticulitis when compared with laparoscopic sigmoid resection (all patient ages) and open sigmoid resection (patients <50 years old). Regarding complications, no difference existed between the length of stay in patients with open vs. laparoscopic resection.
PMCID: PMC3015556  PMID: 15791973
Laparoscopy; Sigmoid resection; Diverticulitis
2.  Surgical outcomes and their relation to the number of prior episodes of diverticulitis 
Gastroenterology Report  2013;1(1):64-69.
Purpose: We aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of prior episodes of diverticulitis and outcomes of sigmoid colectomy.
Methods: After institutional review board approval, a retrospective review was undertaken based on records of patients who underwent sigmoid resection with anastomosis for diverticulitis between 4 May 2007 and 29 February 2012. Patients were divided into two groups: 0–3 attacks (group 1) and ≥4 attacks (group 2). Statistical analyses were performed to determine whether the groups differed on demographic, intra-operative and postoperative variables.
Results: We identified 247 patients who underwent sigmoid colectomy for diverticulitis (45 open, 202 laparoscopic). The two groups did not differ significantly in age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, past surgical history, body mass index, length of stay, use of a stoma or number of prior hospitalizations for diverticulitis. Group 1 had a higher rate of abscesses (30.6 vs 6.8%, P < 0.001) and fistulas (19.4 vs 0.9%, P < 0.001); a longer operative time (190.1 vs 166.3 min, P = 0.0024); and higher rates of postoperative complications (45.8 vs 23.3%, P < 0.001) and conversion (17.1 vs 4.4%, P = 0.0091). The most common surgical complications in groups 1 and 2 were wound infection (35 vs 10) and ileus (20 vs 8). Based on multivariate regression analysis, ≥4 attacks were independently correlated with a lower complication rate (odds ratio = 0.512, 95% confidence interval = 0.266–0.987, P = 0.046).
Conclusions: Patients who had ≥4 previous attacks of diverticulitis had fewer postoperative complications.
PMCID: PMC3941440  PMID: 24759669
diverticulitis; sigmoidectomy; numbers of prior attacks
3.  Laparoscopic Resection of Chronic Sigmoid Diverticulitis with Fistula 
This study indicates that patients with sigmoid diverticulitis and fistula may be successfully treated by laparoscopic excision with outcomes similar to patients without fistula.
Background and Objectives:
A growing number of operations for sigmoid diverticulitis are being done laparoscopically. There is a paucity of data on the outcome of laparoscopy for sigmoid diverticulitis complicated by colonic fistula. The aim of this study was to compare the results of laparoscopic resection of sigmoid diverticulitis with and without colonic fistula.
A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of sigmoid diverticulitis complicated by fistula at a single tertiary care institution over a 7-year period. Comparison was made with a group of patients who underwent resection for diverticulitis without fistula during the same study period.
Forty-two patients were analyzed (group 1: diverticular fistula, group 2: no fistula). The median age was similar (49 vs. 50 years, P = .68). A chronic abscess was present in 24% of patients in group 1 and 10% in group 2 (P = .40). Fistula types were colovesical (71%), colovaginal (19%), and colocutaneous (10%). Operation types were sigmoidectomy (57% vs. 81%) and anterior resection (43% vs. 19%) in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = .18). Ureteral catheters were used more frequently in group 1 (67% vs. 33% [P = .06]). No difference was noted in operative time, blood loss, conversion rate, length of stay, overall complications, wound infection rate, readmission rate, reoperation rate, and mortality. All patients healed without fistula recurrence.
Patients with sigmoid diverticulitis with fistula can be successfully treated with laparoscopic excision, with similar outcomes for patients without fistula.
PMCID: PMC3866070  PMID: 24398208
Laparoscopic resection; Sigmoid diverticulitis; Colonic fistula
4.  Vesico-ileosigmoidal fistula caused by diverticulitis: report of a case and literature review in Japan. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(3):433-436.
Enterovesical fistula is a relatively uncommon complication of colorectal and pelvic malignancies, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, radiotherapy, and trauma in Asian countries. A case of vesico-ileosigmoidal fistula and a literature review of this disease in Japan are presented. A 70-yr-old male was referred with complaints of urinary pain and pneumaturia. On admission, urinary tract infection and pneumaturia were presented. A barium enema demonstrated multiple diverticulum in his sigmoid colon and the passage of contrast medium into the bladder and ileum. Under the diagnosis of vesico-ileosigmoidal fistula due to suspected diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon, sigmoidectomy and partial resection of the ileum with partial cystectomy were performed. The histopathology revealed diverticulosis of the sigmoid colon with diverticulitis and development of a vesico-ileosigmoidal fistula. No malignant findings were observed. Until the year 2000, a total of 173 cases of vesico-sigmoidal fistula caused by diverticulitis had been reported in Japan. Pneumaturia and fecaluria are the most common types, presenting symptoms in 63% of the cases. Computed tomography, with a sensitivity of 40% to 100%, is the most commonly used diagnostic study. For patients with vesico-sigmoidal fistula, resection of the diseased sigmoid colon and partial cystectomy with primary anastomosis are the safest and most acceptable procedures, leading to the best results.
PMCID: PMC3055041  PMID: 12808335
5.  Laparoscopic Sigmoidectomy for Diverticulitis: a Prospective Study 
Results of this study suggest that laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is a safe, feasible, and effective management strategy.
Surgical treatment of complicated colonic diverticular disease is still debatable. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy in patients with diverticulitis. Patients offered laparoscopic surgery presented with acute complicated diverticulitis (Hinchey type I, II, III), chronically recurrent diverticulitis, bleeding, or sigmoid stenosis caused by chronic diverticulitis.
All patients who underwent laparoscopic colectomy within a 12-year period were prospectively entered into a database registry. One-stage laparoscopic resection and primary anastomosis constituted the planned procedure. A 4-trocar approach with suprapubic minilaparotomy was performed. Main data recorded were age, sex, postoperative pain, return of bowel function, operation time, duration of hospital stay, and early and late complications.
During the study period, 260 sigmoid colectomies were performed for diverticulitis. The cohort included 104 male and 156 female patients; M to F ratio was 4:6. Postoperative pain was controlled by NSAIDs or weak opioid analgesia. Fifteen patients (5.7%) required conversion from laparoscopic to open colectomy. The most common reasons for conversion were directly related to the inflammatory process, abscess, and peritonitis. Mean operative time was 130±54. Average postoperative hospital stay was 10±3 days. A longer hospital stay was recorded for Hinchey type IIb patients. Complications were recorded in 30 patients (11.5%). The most common complications that required reoperation were hemorrhage in 2 patients (0.76) and anastomotic leak in 5 patients (only 3 of them required reoperation). The mortality among them was 2 patients (0.76%).
Laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is safe, feasible, and effective. Therefore, laparoscopic colectomy has replaced open resection as standard surgery for recurrent and complicated diverticulitis at our institution.
PMCID: PMC3083034  PMID: 21605507
Sigmoid diverticulitis; Laparoscopic surgery; Hinchey classification; Colectomy
6.  Elective Laparoscopic-Assisted Colectomy for Sigmoid Diverticulitis 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic-assisted sigmoid colectomy for diverticulitis and to assess its postoperative advantages.
From 1999 to 2001, 5 patients were selectively operated on with a laparoscopic-assisted procedure for uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis. In the preceding period (September 1997 through December 1998), 4 patients underwent open procedures for the same pathology. The surgical indication with the same criteria was restrictive: at least 2 acute episodes had occurred that were treated with hospital admission and that were separated by an adequate period (2 months) of medical therapy.
No conversions of laparoscopy to an open procedure were necessary. Age, sex, weight, morbidity, and mortality were similar between the 2 groups. Operative time was 180 minutes for laparoscopy and 120 minutes for laparotomy. Postoperative resumption of peristalsis was 24 hours versus 4 days, resumption of alimentation was on the second postoperative day versus the fifth postoperative day, and hospital stay was 7 days versus 12 days for laparoscopy and laparotomy, respectively.
This study shows the feasibility and the advantages of elective laparoscopic-assisted colonic re-section for uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis. The advantages of the laparoscopic approach are the lower need for analgesics and the more precocious ambulation, canalization, resumption of alimentation, and the shorter hospital stay.
PMCID: PMC3015656  PMID: 16709361
Left colectomy; Laparoscopic approach; Laparotomic approach; Uncomplicated diverticular disease
7.  Adenocarcinoma Arising within a Colonic Diverticulum in a Patient with Recurrent Diverticulitis 
Clinical Medicine. Oncology  2008;2:529-531.
In 2006, while admitted in our hospital for surgical treatment of recurrent diverticulitis, a 54-year-old man was found to have an adenocarcinoma arising within a colonic diverticulum. Computed tomography, during this episode of diverticulitis, showed a thickened wall of the sigmoid and inflammatory induration of the pericolonic fat. Colonoscopy could be performed up to no more then 25 cm from the anus due to mucosal edema. A sigmoid resection was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen showed an inflamed diverticulum with a submucosal adenocarcinoma of the intestinal type within its wall. The surrounding flat colonic mucosa was not involved by the cancerous process. Due to lymph node involvement the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and remained disease free during follow up.
PMCID: PMC3161636  PMID: 21892327
adenocarcinoma; diverticulum; colon
8.  Elective operation after acute complicated diverticulitis: Is it still mandatory? 
AIM: To investigate recurrence rates, patterns and complications after nonoperatively managed complicated diverticulitis (CD).
METHODS: A retrospective study of patients treated for CD was performed. CD was defined on computed tomography by the presence of a localized abscess, pelvic abscess or extraluminal air. For follow-up, patients were contacted by telephone. Numbers of elective surgeries, recurrences and abdominal pain were analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 114 patients (median age 57 years (range 29-97)), were admitted for CD. Nine patients required surgical intervention for failure of conservative therapy (Hartmann’s procedure: n = 6; resection and colorectal anastomosis: n = 3). Of the 105 remaining patients, 24 (22.9%) underwent elective sigmoid resection. The 81 (71%) non-operated patients were all contacted after a median follow-up of 32 mo (4-63). Among them, six had developed a recurrent episode of diverticulitis at a median follow-up of 12 mo (6-36); however, no patient required hospitalization. Sixty-eight patients (84%) were asymptomatic and 13 (16%) had recurrent abdominal pain.
CONCLUSION: Conservative policy is feasible and safe in 71% of cases, with a low medium-term recurrence risk.
PMCID: PMC4081688
Diverticulosis; Diverticular abscess; Hinchey classification; Percutaneous drainage; Recurrent diverticulitis
9.  Diverticulitis in a Young Man with Hyper IgE Syndrome 
Southern medical journal  2010;103(12):1261-1263.
Autosomal dominant hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES, Job syndrome) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophilia, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections, dermatitis, and connective tissue and skeletal abnormalities. A 26-year-old male with known HIES presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea. Imaging showed sigmoid diverticulitis without abscess or perforation. Conservative management with antibiotics failed, and he developed a peridiverticular abscess, which was percutaneously drained with plans for elective resection. He returned four days later with progression of his diverticulitis, requiring partial colectomy with primary anastomosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of diverticulitis in HIES. Diverticulitis is rare in younger individuals, raising the possibility that the connective tissue abnormalities of HIES patients may predispose them to colonic diverticula. Although the majority of complications are sinopulmonary and skin infections, diverticulitis should be considered in the differential of intra-abdominal processes in HIES.
PMCID: PMC3059239  PMID: 21037522
Hyper IgE Syndrome; diverticulitis
10.  Complicated Jejunal Diverticulitis: A Challenging Diagnosis and Difficult Therapy 
In contrast to diverticulosis of the colon, jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity that often becomes clinically relevant only after exacerbations occur. The variety of symptoms and low incidence make this disease a difficult differential diagnosis.
Patients and Methods:
Data from all patients who were treated in our surgical department for complicated jejunal diverticulitis, that is, gastrointestinal hemorrhage or a diverticula perforation were collected prospectively over a 6-year period (January 2004 to January 2010) and analyzed retrospectively.
The median age among the 9 patients was 82 years (range: 54–87). Except for 2 cases (elective operation for a status postjejunal peridiverticulitis and a re-perforation of a diverticula in a patient s/p segment resection with free perforation), the diagnosis could only be confirmed with an exploratory laparotomy. Perforation was observed in 5 patients, one of which was a retroperitoneal perforation. The retroperitoneal perforation was associated with transanal hemorrhage. Hemodynamically relevant transanal hemorrhage requiring transfusion were the reason for an exploratory laparotomy in 2 further cases. In one patient, the hemorrhage was the result of a systemic vasculitis with resultant gastrointestinal involvement. A singular jejunal diverticulum caused an adhesive ileus in one patient. The extent of jejunal diverticulosis varied between a singular diverticulum to complete jejunal involvement. A tangential, transverse excision of the diverticulum was carried out in 3 patients. The indication for segment resection was made in the case of a perforation with associated peritonitis (n=4) as well as the presence of 5 or more diverticula (n=2). Histological analysis revealed chronic pandiverticulitis in all patients. Median operating time amounted to 142 minutes (range: 65–210) and the median in-hospital stay was 12 days (range: 5–45). Lethality was 0%. Major complications included secondary wound closure after s/p repeated lavage and bilateral pleural effusions in one case. Signs of malabsorption as the result of a short bowel syndrome were not observed. Minor complications included protracted intestinal atony in 2 cases and pneumonia in one case. Median follow-up was 6 months (range: 1–18).
Complicated jejunal diverticulitis often remains elusive preoperatively due to its unspecific clinical presentation. A definitive diagnosis can often only be made intraoperatively. The resection of all diverticula and/or the complete diverticula-laden segment is the goal in chronic cases. The operative approach chosen (tangential, transverse excision vs segment resection) should be based on the extent of the jejunal diverticulosis as well as the intraoperative findings.
PMCID: PMC3326973  PMID: 22421718
Diverticulosis; jejunum; surgery
11.  Impact of early or delayed elective resection in complicated diverticulitis 
AIM: To investigate the outcomes of early and delayed elective resection after initial antibiotic treatment in patients with complicated diverticulitis.
METHODS: The study, a non-randomized comparison of the two approaches, included 421 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis (Hinchey classification I-II) at the Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf between 2004 and 2009. The operating procedure, duration of hospital and intensive care unit stay, outcome, complications and socioeconomic costs were analyzed, with comparison made between the early and delayed elective resection strategies.
RESULTS: The severity of the diverticulitis and American Society of Anesthesiologists score were comparable for the two groups. Patients who underwent delayed elective resection had a shorter hospital stay and operating time, and the rate of successfully completed laparoscopic resections was higher (80% vs 75%). Eight patients who were scheduled for delayed elective resection required urgent surgery because of complications of the diverticulitis, which resulted in a high rate of morbidity. Analysis of the socioeconomic effects showed that hospitalization costs were significantly higher for delayed elective resection compared with early elective resection (9296 € ± 694 € vs 8423 € ± 968 €; P = 0.001). Delayed elective resection showed a trend toward lower complications, and the operation appeared simpler to perform than early elective resection. Nevertheless, delayed elective resection carries a risk of complications occurring during the period of 6-8 wk that could necessitate an urgent resection with its consequent high morbidity, which counterbalanced many of the advantages.
CONCLUSION: Overall, early elective resection for complicated, non-perforated diverticulitis is shown to be a suitable alternative to delayed elective resection after 6-8 wk, with additional beneficial socioeconomic effects.
PMCID: PMC3247691  PMID: 22219596
Complicated diverticulitis; Resection of sigmoid; Delayed elective resection; Early elective resection; Socioeconomic effects
12.  Pneumomediastinum caused by colonic diverticulitis perforation 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;80(Suppl 1):S17-S20.
A 59-year-old man presented with abdominal and left flank pain. The symptom had started 30 days before as an acute nephrolithiasis, which had worsened despite conservative management. The abdomen was slightly distended and tender over the lower abdomen, without signs of generalized peritoneal irritation. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed an abscess in left para-renal space up to the subphrenic space and an unexpected pneumomediastinum. An emergency operation was performed, which showed retroperitoneal diverticulitis perforation of the sigmoid descending junction with abscess formation. A segmental resection of the diseased colon and end-colostomy was performed (Hartmann's procedure). However, the patient's condition progressively deteriorated, and he died of sepsis and multi-organ failure on the 5th postoperative day. Although pneumomediastinum caused by colonic diverticulitis perforation is extremely rare, it could be a life-threatening condition in patients without signs of peritonitis because of delayed diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3205377  PMID: 22066076
Pneumomediastinum; Diagnostic; Diverticulitis; Colonic; Perforation
13.  New and emerging treatments for the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis 
Sigmoid diverticulitis is a common benign condition which carries significant morbidity and socioeconomic burden. This article describes the management of sigmoid diverticulitis with a focus on indications for surgical intervention. The mainstay of management of uncomplicated diverticulitis is broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. The old surgical dictum that two episodes of sigmoid diverticulitis warranted surgical intervention has been challenged by recently published data. Surgery for diverticulitis thus needs to be tailored to suit individual presentation; patients presenting with recurrent diverticulitis, severe symptoms or debilitating disease impacting patient’s quality of life mandate surgical intervention. Complicated diverticular disease typically prompts intervention to resect a diseased, strictured sigmoid colon, fistulizing disease, or a life-threatening colonic perforation. Laterally, minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the management of this disease and recent data suggests that localized colonic perforation may be managed by laparoscopic peritoneal lavage, without resection. This review focuses discussion on available evidence for contemporary surgical and nonoperative management of diverticulitis.
PMCID: PMC3190288  PMID: 22016581
sigmoid diverticulitis; colon; laparoscopic peritoneal lavage; surgical intervention
14.  A Case of Colovesical Fistula Induced by Sigmoid Diverticulitis 
Colonic diverticulosis has continuously increased, noticeably left-sided diseases, in Korea. A colovesical fistula is an uncommon complication of diverticulitis, and its most common cause is diverticular disease. Confirmation of its presence generally depends on clinical findings, such as pneumaturia and fecaluria. The primary aim of a diagnostic workup is not to observe the fistular tract itself but to find the etiology of the disease so that an appropriate therapy can be initiated. We present here the case of a 79-year-old man complaining of pneumaturia and fecaluria. On abdomen and pelvis CT, the patient was diagnosed as having a colovesical fistula due to sigmoid diverticulitis. After division of the adhesion between the sigmoid colon and the bladder, the defect of the bladder wall was repaired by simple closure. The colonic defect was treated with a segmental resection, including the rectosigmoid junction. The patient is doing well at 6 months after the operation and shows no evidence of recurrence of the fistula.
PMCID: PMC3092082  PMID: 21602969
Intestinal Fistula; Colonic diverticulitis; Sigmoid colon
15.  Emergency Management of Diverticulitis 
The most common indications for emergency operative intervention in the treatment of sigmoid diverticulitis are peritonitis and failure of medical therapy. Primary resection and diversion (Hartmann's procedure) followed by delayed colostomy closure is the current standard of emergency surgical care. Guidelines for best operative strategy, however, remain controversial and continue to evolve based on recent comparative reviews of surgical outcomes. Primary resection and anastomosis with or without proximal diversion and laparoscopic lavage are alternatives to Hartmann's procedure that may provide an improved outcome in properly selected patients. Ongoing changes in the historical paradigm of the surgical approach to this disease mandate the need for large multicentered prospective randomized trials to determine the best surgical strategy under emergent conditions for the treatment of diverticulitis. The current literature is reviewed with suggestions for a management algorithm.
PMCID: PMC2780262  PMID: 20676259
Diverticular peritonitis; diverticulitis; peritonitis; Hartmann's procedure; primary resection; anastomosis; laparoscopic lavage
16.  A Delayed Recrudescent Case of Sigmoidocutaneous Fistula due to Diverticulitis 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2007;1(1):116-122.
Colocutaneous fistula caused by diverticulitis is relatively rare, and a delayed recrudescent case of colocutaneous fistula is very uncommon. We herein report a rare case of a Japanese 56-year-old male with delayed recrudescent sigmoidocutaneous fistula due to diverticulitis. A colocutaneous fistula was formed after a drainage operation against a perforation of the sigmoid colon diverticulum. After 5 years from treatment, he was admitted to our hospital because of lower abdominal pain. We diagnosed the recrudescent sigmoidocutaneous fistula by abdominal computed tomography and gastrografin enema, and managed the patient with total parenteral nutrition and antibiotics. As the fistula formation did not improve, a low anterior resection with fistulectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged. It has been reported that, in fistulas of the skin caused by diverticular disease, complete closure of the fistula by conservative therapy may not be possible. This case also implies the possibility of a recurrence of the fistula even if the conservative treatment was effective. In cases of colocutaneous fistulas due to diverticulitis, radical surgery is considered necessary because of possibility of recurrence of the fistula.
PMCID: PMC3073798  PMID: 21487556
Colocutaneous fistula; Diverticular disease; Diverticulitis
17.  The influence of mechanical bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery for diverticulitis 
Techniques in Coloproctology  2012;16(4):309-314.
Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) has been shown to have no influence on the incidence of anastomotic leakage in overall colorectal surgery. The role of MBP in elective surgery in combination with an inflammatory component such as diverticulitis is yet unclear. This study evaluates the effects of MBP on anastomotic leakage and other septic complications in 190 patients who underwent elective surgery for colonic diverticulitis.
A subgroup analysis was performed in a prior multicenter (13 hospitals) randomized trial comparing clinical outcome of MBP versus no MBP in elective colorectal surgery. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of anastomotic leakage in patients operated on for diverticulitis, and secondary endpoints were septic complications and mortality.
Out of a total of 1,354 patients, 190 underwent elective colorectal surgery (resection with primary anastomosis) for (recurrent or stenotic) diverticulitis. One hundred and three patients underwent MBP prior to surgery and 87 did not. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 7.8 % of patients treated with MBP and in 5.7 % of patients not treated with MBP (p = 0.79). There were no significant differences between the groups in septic complications and mortality.
Mechanical bowel preparation has no influence on the incidence of anastomotic leakage, or other septic complications, and may be safely omitted in case of elective colorectal surgery for diverticulitis.
PMCID: PMC3398249  PMID: 22706733
Colonic diverticulitis; Mechanical bowel preparation; Anastomotic leak; Surgical site infection
18.  Microencapsulated sodium butyrate administered to patients with diverticulosis decreases incidence of diverticulitis—a prospective randomized study 
Microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) has been previously associated with anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties regarding large bowel mucosa. We aimed to examine a role of MSB in patients with diverticulosis, hypothesizing its potential for reduction of diverticulitis episodes and diverticulitis prevention.
Seventy-three patients with diverticulosis (diagnosed in colonoscopy or/and barium enema or/and CT colography) were recruited for the study and randomized. The investigated group was administered MSB 300 mg daily; the control group was administered placebo. After 12 months, a total of 52 patients completed the study and were subject to analysis (30 subjects and 22 controls). During the study, the number of episodes of diverticulitis (symptomatic diagnosis with acute pain, fever, and leukocytosis), hospitalizations, and surgery performed for diverticulitis were recorded. Additionally, a question regarding subjective improvement of symptoms reflected changes in quality of life during the analysis.
After 12 months, the study group noted a significantly decreased number of diverticulitis episodes in comparison to the control group. The subjective quality of life in the study group was higher than in the control group. There were no side effects of the MSB during the therapy.
MSB reduces the frequency of diverticulitis episodes, is safe, and improves the quality of life. It can play a role in the prevention of diverticulitis.
PMCID: PMC3936115  PMID: 24343275
Sodium butyrate; Diverticulitis; Diverticulosis; Prevention
19.  Cauda Equina Syndrome Secondary to Complicated Diverticulitis 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2013;7(3):455-461.
A 58-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with cauda equina syndrome and sepsis. The symptoms were attributed to a complicated episode of sigmoid diverticulitis. MRI showed that the diverticulitis had caused an intra-abdominal fistula to a presacrally localized abscess expanding into the spinal canal, compressing the cauda equina nerves. Although Hartmann's procedure was performed, the neurological symptoms persisted, causing the patient to remain partially paraplegic. This case report illustrates that cauda equina syndrome is a condition that can also be caused by intra-abdominal pathology such as diverticulitis.
PMCID: PMC3884184  PMID: 24403885
Complicated diverticulitis; Colonic diverticulitis; Sigmoid; Fistula; Cauda equina syndrome
20.  Acute ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis: Case report of an uncommon entity 
Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Its reported incidence varies from 0.05% to 6%. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life threatening and require early surgical treatment. We report a case of an 88-year-old man investigated for acute abdominal pain with a high biological inflammatory syndrome. Inflammation of multiple giant jejunal diverticulum was discovered at abdominal computed tomography (CT). As a result of the clinical and biological signs of early peritonitis, an emergency surgical exploration was performed. The first jejunal loop showed clear signs of jejunal diverticulitis. Primary segmental jejunum resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathology report confirmed an ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis with imminent perforation and acute local peritonitis. The patient made an excellent rapid postoperative recovery. Jejunal diverticulum is rare but may cause serious complications. It should be considered a possible etiology of acute abdomen, especially in elderly patients with unusual symptomatology. Abdominal CT is the diagnostic tool of choice. The best treatment is emergency surgical management.
PMCID: PMC2761593  PMID: 18985822
Jejunal diverticulum; Diverticulitis; Surgery; Tomography
21.  Colouterine Fistula Caused by Diverticulitis of the Sigmoid Colon 
Colouterine fistula is an extremely rare condition because the uterus is a thick, muscular organ. Here, we present a case of a colouterine fistula secondary to colonic diverticulitis. An 81-year-old woman was referred to the emergency department with abdominal pain and vaginal discharge. Computed tomography showed a myometrial abscess cavity in the uterus adherent to the thick sigmoid wall. Upon contrast injection via the cervical os for fistulography, we observed spillage of the contrast into the sigmoid colon via the uterine fundus. Inflammatory adhesion of the distal sigmoid colon to the posterior wall of the uterus was found during surgery. The colon was dissected off the uterus. Resection of the sigmoid colon, primary anastomosis, and repair of the fistula tract of the uterus were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. This case represents an unusual type of diverticulitis complication and illustrates diagnostic procedures and surgical management for a colouterine fistula.
PMCID: PMC3548148  PMID: 23346512
Colon; Uterus; Diverticulitis; Fistula
22.  Current indications and role of surgery in the management of sigmoid diverticulitis 
Sigmoid diverticulitis is a common disease which carries both a significant morbidity and a societal economic burden. This review article analyzes the current data regarding management of sigmoid diverticulitis in its variable clinical presentations. Wide-spectrum antibiotics are the standard of care for uncomplicated diverticulitis. Recently published data indicate that sigmoid diverticulitis does not mandate surgical management after the second episode of uncomplicated disease as previously recommended. Rather, a more individualized approach, taking into account frequency, severity of the attacks and their impact on quality of life, should guide the indication for surgery. On the other hand, complicated diverticular disease still requires surgical treatment in patients with acceptable comorbidity risk and remains a life-threatening condition in the case of free peritoneal perforation. Laparoscopic surgery is increasingly accepted as the surgical approach of choice for most presentations of the disease and has also been proposed in the treatment of generalized peritonitis. There is not sufficient evidence supporting any changes in the approach to management in younger patients. Conversely, the available evidence suggests that surgery should be indicated after one attack of uncomplicated disease in immunocompromised individuals. Uncommon clinical presentations of sigmoid diverticulitis and their possible association with inflammatory bowel disease are also discussed.
PMCID: PMC2825327  PMID: 20143459
Sigmoid diverticulitis; Diverticulitis management; Diverticulitis surgery; Acute diverticulitis; Complicated diverticulitis; Perforated diverticulitis; Laparoscopic colectomy
23.  Controversies in the Surgical Management of Sigmoid Diverticulitis 
The timing and appropriateness of surgical treatment of sigmoid diverticular disease remain a topic of controversy. We have reviewed the current literature on this topic, focusing on issues related to the indications and types of surgery. Current evidence would suggest that elective surgery for diverticulitis can be avoided in patients with uncomplicated disease, regardless of the number of recurrent episodes. Furthermore, the need for elective surgey should not be influenced by the age of the patient. Operation should be undertaken in patients with severe attacks, as determined by their clinical and radiological evaluation.
PMCID: PMC1852385  PMID: 17436142
Sigmoid diverticulitis; Surgical management; Diagnosis; Elective surgery
24.  Position paper: management of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis 
Over the last three decades, emergency surgery for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis has evolved dramatically but remains controversial. Diverticulitis is categorized as uncomplicated (amenable to outpatient treatment) versus complicated (requiring hospitalization). Patients with complicated diverticulitis undergo computerized tomography (CT) scanning and the CT findings are used categorize the severity of disease. Treatment of stage I (phlegmon with or without small abscess) and stage II (phlegmon with large abscess) diverticulitis (which includes bowel rest, intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous drainage (PCD) of the larger abscesses) has not changed much over last two decades. On the other hand, treatment of stage III (purulent peritonitis) and stage IV (feculent peritonitis) diverticulitis has evolved dramatically and remains morbid. In the 1980s a two stage procedure (1st - segmental sigmoid resection with end colostomy and 2nd - colostomy closure after three to six months) was standard of care for most general surgeons. However, it was recognized that half of these patients never had their colostomy reversed and that colostomy closure was a morbid procedure. As a result starting in the 1990s colorectal surgical specialists increasing performed a one stage primary resection anastomosis (PRA) and demonstrated similar outcomes to the two stage procedure. In the mid 2000s, the colorectal surgeons promoted this as standard of care. But unfortunately despite advances in perioperative care and their excellent surgical skills, PRA for stage III/IV diverticulitis continued to have a high mortality (10-15%). The survivors require prolonged hospital stays and often do not fully recover. Recent case series indicate that a substantial portion of the patients who previously were subjected to emergency sigmoid colectomy can be successfully treated with less invasive nonoperative management with salvage PCD and/or laparoscopic lavage and drainage. These patients experience a surprisingly lower mortality and more rapid recovery. They are also spared the need for a colostomy and do not appear to benefit from a delayed elective sigmoid colectomy. While we await the final results ongoing prospective randomized clinical trials testing these less invasive alternatives, we have proposed (based primarily on case series and our expert opinions) what we believe safe and rationale management strategy.
PMCID: PMC3877957  PMID: 24369826
Complicated diverticulitis; Hartmann’s procedure; Primary resection anastomosis; Laparoscopic lavage and drainage; Percutaneous drainage
25.  Elective Surgical Treatment of Diverticulitis 
Elective surgical resection in cases of diverticulitis should be offered to patients who have experienced two episodes. High-risk patients such as immunocompromised individuals or transplant patients may warrant resection after one episode. It is controversial whether young patients or patients with right-sided diverticulitis need to be treated differently. Chronic diverticulitis can be successfully treated surgically in selected cases. Adequate surgical resection margins should include the top of the true rectum and the proximal extent of thickened inflamed colon to minimize the risk of recurrence. Careful operative planning and the use of proximal diversion if unsuspected significant inflammatory changes are encountered will improve surgical outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2780067  PMID: 20011274
Diverticular disease; elective surgery; right-sided diverticulitis; patient selection; temporary diversion

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