Treatment decisions associated with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), including the decision to undergo breast reconstruction, may be more problematic for Latinas due to access and language issues. To help understand the factors that influence patients’ receipt of reconstruction following mastectomy for DCIS, we conducted a population- based study of English- and Spanish-speaking Latina and non-Latina white women from 35 California counties. The objectives of this study were to identify the role of ethnicity and language in the receipt of reconstruction, the relationship between system-level factors and the receipt of reconstruction, and women’s reasons for not undergoing reconstruction. Women aged 18 and older, who self-identified as Latina or non-Latino white and were diagnosed with DCIS between 2002 and 2005 were selected from eight California Cancer Registry (CCR) regions encompassing 35 counties. Approximately 24 months after diagnosis, they were surveyed about their DCIS treatment decisions. Survey data were merged with CCR records to obtain tumor and treatment data. The survey was successfully completed by 745 women, 239 of whom had a mastectomy and represent the sample included in this study. Whites had a higher completion rate than Latinas (67 and 55%, respectively). Analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression modeling. Mean age was 54 years. A greater proportion of whites had reconstruction (72%) compared to English-speaking Latinas (69%) and Spanish-speaking Latinas (40%).Multivariate analysis showed thatwomenwho were aged 65 and older, unemployed, and had a lower ratio of plastic surgeons in their county were less likely to have reconstructive surgery after mastectomy. The most frequent reasonsmentioned not to receive reconstruction included lack of importance and desire to avoid additional surgery. Although ethnic/language differences in treatment selection were observed, multivariable analysis suggests that these differences could be explained by differential employment levels and geographic availability of plastic surgeons.
Ductal carcinoma in situ; Latinas; Reconstruction; Treatment decisions
Access and satisfaction are determinants of preventive service use, but few studies have evaluated their role in breast and cervical cancer screening in multiethnic populations.
We sought to investigate the relationship between race/ethnicity, access, satisfaction, and regular mammogram and Papanicolaou test receipt in 5 racial/ethnic groups.
We conducted a telephone survey in 4 languages.
Our subjects were black, Chinese, Filipino, Latino, or white women aged 40 to 74 residing in Alameda County, California.
Outcome: regular mammograms (last test within 15 months and another within 2 years prior) and Papanicolaou tests (36 months and 3 years, respectively). Independent: race/ethnicity, sociodemographic variables, access (health insurance, usual site of care, regular doctor, check-up within 12 months, knowing where to go, copayment for tests), and satisfaction (overall satisfaction scale, waiting times, test-related pain and embarrassment, test satisfaction).
Among women who had ever had a mammogram or Papanicolaou test, 54% and 77%, respectively, received regular screening. In multivariate analyses, regular mammography was positively associated with increased age (odds ratio [OR] 1.05 per year), private insurance (OR 1.7), check-up in the past year (OR 2.3), knowing where to go for mammography (OR 3.0), and greater satisfaction with processes of care (OR 1.04 per unit), and negatively with not knowing copayment amount (OR 0.4), too many forms to fill out (OR 0.5), embarrassment at the last mammogram (OR 0.6), and Filipino race/ethnicity. Similar results were found for regular Papanicolaou tests.
Access and satisfaction are important predictors of screening but do little to explain racial/ethnic variation. Tailored interventions to improve regular mammography and Papanicolaou test screening in multiethnic populations are needed.
access to care; mammography; race and ethnicity; cancer screening; patient satisfaction
Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74 interviewed by telephone in their preferred languages. The relationship between base-line constructs and mammography 2 years later was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Intention predicted mammography overall and among Whites (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 10), with racial/ethnic differences in association (p = .020). Self-efficacy predicted mammography overall and among Whites (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 11), with no racial/ethnic interaction. Perceived benefits and subjective norms were associated with screening overall and in some racial/ethnic groups. These results generally support cross-cultural applicability of four of the five constructs to screening with mixed predictive value of measures across racial/ethnic groups. Additional in-depth inquiry is required to refine assessment of constructs.
perceived benefits; perceived susceptibility; self-efficacy; intention; subjective norms; cross-cultural measurement
Disparities in breast cancer (BC) screening continue to affect Latinas significantly but the factors that explain these disparities remain unclear.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether physician’s instruction on breast examination and mammography recommendations predicted Latinas’ adherence to mammography screening above and beyond other influential variables.
A cross-sectional, descriptive design was utilized. Convenience and snowball sampling techniques were followed to recruit 344 Latinas age 41 years and older from predominantly Latino neighborhoods in Denver, Colorado.
Main Outcome Measures
Latinas’ adherence to mammography screening recommendations by the American Cancer Society (Smith et al., 2003).
Characteristics that were significantly associated with mammography adherence were age, Pap smear adherence, physician’s breast examination instructions and physician’s mammography recommendations.
The study provides evidence that the BC screening disparities that significantly affect Latinas can be addressed by increasing physician’s involvement through BC screening instruction and referral.
cancer control; health disparities; social determinants; Hispanic
Kaiser Permanente Colorado is an integrated health care system that uses automatic reminder programs and reduces barriers to access preventive services, including financial barriers. Breast cancer screening rates have not improved during the last five years, and rates differ between subgroups: for example, black and Latina women have lower rates of mammography screening than other racial groups.
We retrospectively evaluated data from 47,946 women age 52 to 69 years who had continuous membership for 24 months but had not undergone mammography. Poisson regression models estimated relative risk for the impact of self-identified race/ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics, health status, and use of health care services on screening completion.
The distribution of race/ethnicity among unscreened women was 55.5% white, 7.0% Latina, and 3.7% black, but race/ethnicity data were missing for 29%. Of these, no record of race/ethnicity was available for 86.7%, and for 5.1%, the data request was recorded but the women declined to identify their race/ethnicity. Nonwhite ethnicity increased risk of screening failure if black, Latina, “other” (eg, American Indian), or missing race/ethnicity. Population-attributable risks were low for minorities compared with the group for whom race/ethnicity data was missing. A greater number of office visits in any setting was associated with greater likelihood of undergoing mammography. Women with missing race/ethnicity data had fewer visits and were less likely to have an identified primary care physician.
Greater improvement in mammography screening rates could be achieved in our population by increasing screening among women with missing race/ethnicity data, rather than by targeting those who are known to be of racial/ethnic minorities. Efforts to address screening disparities have been refocused on inreach and outreach to our “missing women.”
PURPOSE: To determine whether self-report of mammography and Pap smear utilization was accurate and to determine whether racial/ethnic differences existed. METHODS: Face-to-face surveys were administered to 314 consecutively selected women over 40 attending two low-income inner-city family practice sites. Medical records were reviewed for documentation of mammography and Pap smear utilization. Level of agreement between self-report and chart review was reported. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. MAIN FINDINGS: Puerto Rican women had lower income levels and were less educated than African-American and non-Latina white women. Self-report of mammograms and Pap smears were higher than medical record documentation. Level of agreement was higher for more recent tests. Negative predictive values for mammography were high (75-95.5%). Lower sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for mammography were seen among Puerto Rican women compared to African-American and non-Latina white women. CONCLUSIONS: High negative predictive values suggest that asking women about mammography use may be an inexpensive, easy intervention in the primary care setting to increase screening among women currently not being screened by increasing conversations between patients and providers to address personal barriers to screening.
Mortality from breast cancer has increased among American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) women. Despite this alarming reality, AI/AN women have some of the lowest breast cancer screening rates. Only 37% of eligible AI/AN women report a mammogram within the last year and 52% report a mammogram within the last two years compared to 57% and 72% for White women. The experiences and satisfaction surrounding mammography for AI/AN women likely are different from that of women of other racial/ethnic groups, due to cultural differences and limited access to Indian Health Service sponsored mammography units. The overall goals of this study are to identify and understand the mammography experiences and experiential elements that relate to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with mammography services in an AI/AN population and to develop a culturally-tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction survey.
Methods and Design
The three project aims that will be used to guide this work are: 1) To compare the mammography experiences and satisfaction with mammography services of Native American/Alaska Native women with that of Non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Black women, 2) To develop and validate the psychometric properties of an American Indian Mammography Survey, and 3) To assess variation among AI/AN women's assessments of their mammography experiences and mammography service satisfaction. Evaluations of racial/ethnic differences in mammography patient satisfaction have received little study, particularly among AI/AN women. As such, qualitative study is uniquely suited for an initial examination of their experiences because it will allow for a rich and in-depth identification and exploration of satisfaction elements.
This formative research is an essential step in the development of a validated and culturally tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction assessment. Results from this project will provide a springboard from which a maximally effective breast cancer screening program to benefit AI/AN population will be developed and tested in an effort to alter the current breast cancer-related morbidity and mortality trajectory among AI/AN women.
The Latino population is the most rapidly growing ethnic minority in the United States and Latinas have higher rates of advanced breast cancer and more rigorous treatments than White women. However, the literature lacks reviews on quality of life among this population of breast cancer patients.
A systematic review of the breast cancer quality of life (QOL) literature was conducted among studies that provided a comparison of mental, physical, social, or sexual QOL between Latinas and other racial/ethnic groups. Of the 375 studies reviewed, 20 quantitative studies and two qualitative studies met criteria for inclusion.
Latinas were more likely to report poor mental, physical, and social QOL, relative to non-Latinas. Only four studies assessed sexual QOL, making it difficult to draw any conclusions. Of these four QOL domains, the largest disparity was found in the area of mental health in which Latinas reported poorer QOL compared to non-Latina Whites and Blacks.
Most quantitative studies revealed either that Latinas consistently evidenced significantly lower QOL than non-Latinas on all measures (6 studies) or reported mixed findings in which Latinas generally demonstrated significantly worse QOL on most, but not all, measures (12 studies) included in the study. Explanatory mechanisms including socio-demographic, treatment-related, and culturally-relevant factors are discussed. Implications for research design, measurement, and clinical work are also included.
Implications for cancer survivors
Although not entirely consistent, data suggest that Latina breast cancer survivors on average experience worse QOL than non-Latina Whites.
Understanding ethnic differences in QOL among breast cancer survivors can inform interventions targeted at improving health status for Latinas.
Latina; Literature review; Quality of life; Breast cancer; Cancer survivorship
Although early detection of breast and cervical cancer is one of the most effective means of assuring timely treatment and survival, the cultural hypothesis proposes that traditional norms, values, and beliefs deter Latinas from being screened.
We assessed whether acculturation is associated with Latinas’ receipt of a recent mammogram, clinical breast examination (CBE), and Papanicolaou (Pap) test, and the contribution of acculturation to screening after adjusting for sociodemographic variables.
We used data from the Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement of the 1991 National Health Interview Survey. The sample for analyses of Pap test utilization included 1,370 Latinas age 18 and over, and for mammography and CBE, 525 Latina women age 40 and over.
Acculturation was associated with a higher likelihood of having had a recent mammogram, but this effect was not significant when controlling for sociodemographic factors. In both adjusted and unadjusted analyses, acculturation did not predict recent Pap smears. Acculturation was associated with greater likelihood of recent CBE, controlling for sociodemographic factors.
The association between acculturation and cancer screening is inconsistent. Theoretical models are needed to explain the mechanisms involved in the association (or lack thereof) between acculturation and screening.
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to compare mammography use in Haitian women versus that of other racial/ethnic groups in the same neighborhoods and to identify factors associated with mammography use in subpopulations that are seldom studied. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional survey sampled a multiethnic group of inner-city women from eastern Massachusetts. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to predict lifetime and recent (within two years) mammography screening. RESULTS: Self-reported lifetime mammography use was similar for Haitian (82%), African-American (78%), Caribbean (81%) and Latina women (86%) but higher for white women (94%, p = 0.008). Mammography use in the past two years was also similar in all groups (66-82%, p = 0.41). In multivariate models, African-American (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]; 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.9) and Haitian women (AOR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.9) had lower odds of lifetime mammography compared to white women. Factors independently related to lifetime and recent mammography included having a regular healthcare provider, greater knowledge of breast cancer screening; higher education, and private health insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Haitian women with a regular provider and knowledge of breast cancer screening reported recent mammography use similar to women from other racial/ethnic groups. The racial/ethnic patterns of mammography use in our study do not explain racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer stage or mortality.
To examine racial/ethnic disparities in older women’s health-related quality of life (QOL) and type of breast cancer treatment as mediated by physician level and individual level variables.
A cross-sectional survey of a population-based, consecutive sample identified through the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program of Latina (n = 99), African-American (n = 66), and White (n = 92) women aged 55 years or older (N = 257) between 3 and 9 months after primary breast cancer diagnosis and at least one month post treatment. An exploratory, empirically-developed latent variable model tested the relationships among demographic and physician-related variables, patient attitudes, and health-related outcomes. Health-related outcomes included QOL measures and receipt of breast conserving surgery (BCS).
Latinas reported less BCS and poorer QOL compared to Whites. Physician communication that can empower patients, in terms of patient efficacy in patient-physician interactions and breast cancer knowledge, mitigated racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of BCS. Physician emotional support was not related to patient cognitive empowerment and treatment outcomes. Medical mistrust in minority women was related to less self-efficacy and less positive coping, as well as, both directly and indirectly, to reduced QOL. Latinas reported poorer QOL in the tested model.
Physician communication style, specifically information-giving and participatory decision-making, may empower older women with breast cancer and help mitigate racial/ethnic disparities in surgical treatment received.
To understand area-based sociodemographics, physician and medical practice characteristics, and community indicators associated with mammography use in Los Angeles County. An earlier multi-level analysis by Gumpertz et al. found that distance to the nearest mammography facility helped explain the higher proportion of Latinas diagnosed with late stage breast cancer compared with non-Latina Whites in Los Angeles County. Our study examined whether Latinas also have lower rates of mammography use.
We used a multi-level spatial modeling approach to examine individual and community level associations with mammography use among a diverse group of women aged 40–84 years in Los Angeles County. To build our multi-level spatial data set, we integrated five data sources: (1) 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data, (2) 2001 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) certified mammography facility data, (3) 2003 LA Transit Authority data, (4) 2000 US Decennial Census data, and (5) 2001 Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician’s Survey data.
Our study confirmed for Los Angeles County many associations for mammography use found in other locations. An unexpected finding was that women with limited English proficiency (predominantly Latina) were significantly more likely to have had a recent mammogram than English-proficient women. We also found that, after controlling for other factors, mammography use was higher in neighborhoods with a greater density of mammography facilities.
Women with limited English proficiency were especially likely to report recent mammography in Los Angeles. This unexpected finding suggests that the intensive Spanish-language outreach program conducted by the Every Woman Counts (EWC) Program in low-income Latina communities in Los Angeles has been effective. Our study highlights the success of this targeted community-based outreach conducted between 1999 and 2001. These are the same populations that Gumpertz et al. identified as needing intervention. It would be useful to conduct another study of late-stage diagnosis in Los Angeles County to ascertain whether increased rates of mammography have also led to less late-stage diagnosis among Latinas in the neighborhoods where they are concentrated in Los Angeles.
Breast neoplasms; Mammography; Healthcare disparities; Inequalities; GIS; Logistic models; Socioeconomic factors; Multi-level spatial models
Overall, Latinas are more likely to be diagnosed with a more advanced stage of breast cancer, and are 20% more likely to die of breast cancer than non-Hispanic white women. It is estimated that from 2003–2006, $82.0 billion in direct medical care expenditures, in addition to 100,000 lives annually, could be saved by eliminating health disparities experienced by Latinos and increasing the use of up to five preventive services in the U.S. An additional 3,700 lives could be saved if 90% of women ≥40 years were recently screened for breast cancer. We examined risk for breast cancer in a case-control population-based sample of Mexican-origin women in Harris County, TX (n=714), where rates of breast cancer mortality for Latina women have doubled since 1990. Half of breast cancer cases (n=119) were diagnosed before the age of 50. In a multivariable model, women with a family history of breast cancer (OR=4.3), born in Mexico and having high levels of language acculturation (OR=2.5), and without health insurance (OR=1.6) were found to have the highest risk of breast cancer. Because Mexican-origin women were found to be of high-risk for early onset pre-menopausal breast cancer, we recommend policies targeting screening, education and treatment to prevent increased disparities in mortality. The inclusion of community members and policymakers as partners in these endeavors would further safeguard against an increase in cancer health disparities, and aid in formulating a policy agenda congruent with scientifically-based, community-driven policy efforts addressing breast cancer screening, education and treatment in this vulnerable population.
We conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected Latinas (n = 208) and Anglo women (n = 222) to determine predictors of mammography use. The cooperation rate was 78.5%. Relatively high proportions of Latinas (61%) and Anglo women (79%) reported mammography use within the past 2 years. A logistic regression analysis revealed that knowledge and attitudes did not independently predict use. On the other hand, having health insurance, being married, and being Latino were consistent independent predictors. We conclude that mammography use among Latinas and Anglo women is increasing. However, further gains in use must address difficult barriers such as lack of health insurance.
Latinos/Hispanics; mammography; breast cancer
The study objectives were to compare and examine mammography use trends among ethnic/racial women in the context of United States Healthy People 2010 goals.
We analyzed pooled, multistage probability sample data from the 1996–2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Included in the sample were female respondents ages 40–75 years (n=64,811) from six ethnic/racial groups (Black, White, Mexican, Other Latinas, Puerto Rican and Cuban). The primary outcome was self-reported, past two-year mammography use consistent with screening practice guidelines.
We found that for most U.S. women, the Healthy People 2010 mammography goal (70%) was achieved between 1996 and 2007. Puerto Rican and White women, respectively, had the highest mammography rates, and Black and Cuban women had rates that approached the 2010 goal.
Mexican Latinas reported the lowest rates of past two-year mammography; however, factors enabling healthcare access markedly moderated this lower likelihood. From 2000, Mexican Latinas’ mammography use was markedly below (10%) the Healthy People 2010 goal and remained there for the duration.
Our findings indicate that healthcare equity goals are attainable if efforts are made to reach a sizeable portion of vulnerable populations.
Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to be adequately treated for depression. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is strongly associated with depression. Less is known about how Latina IPV survivors understand depression.
To understand Latina women's beliefs, attitudes, and recommendations regarding depression and depression care, with a special focus on the impact of gender, ethnicity, violence, and social stressors.
Focus group study.
Spanish-speaking Latina women with a lifetime history of IPV and moderate to severe depressive symptoms.
We used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to conduct a thematic analysis using an inductive approach.
Thirty-one women participated in five focus groups. Women felt depression is caused by “keeping things inside”. They also felt that keeping things inside could lead to physical illness or an inability to function. Their inability to talk was fueled by issues such as stigma, fear, isolation, cultural norms, or simply “not having the words”. They felt that the key to treating depression was finding a way to talk about the things that they had kept inside. They greatly valued information about depression and appreciated learning from providers that their physical symptoms were caused by depression. They wanted confidential depression care programs that not only helped them deal with their depression, but also addressed the violence in their lives, gave them practical skills, and attended to practical issues such as childcare. They had negative attitudes toward antidepressants, primarily due to experiences with side effects. Negative experiences with the health care system were primarily attributed to lack of good healthcare insurance.
The concept of "keeping things inside" was key to participants' understanding of the cause of depression and other health problems. Clinicians and depression care programs can potentially use such information to provide culturally-appropriate depression care to Latina women.
Latinos; depression; violence; disparities; community-based participatory research
Evidence is mounting that annual mammography for women in their 40s may be the optimal schedule to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. Few studies have assessed predictors of repeat mammography on an annual interval among these women.
We assessed mammography screening status among 596 insured Black and Non-Hispanic white women ages 43 to 49. Adherence was defined as having a second mammogram 10 to 14 months after a previous mammogram. We examined socio-demographic, medical and healthcare-related variables on receipt of annual-interval repeat mammograms. We also assessed barriers associated with screening.
44.8% of the sample were adherent to annual-interval mammography. A history of self-reported abnormal mammograms, family history of breast cancer and never having smoked were associated with adherence. Saying they had not received mammography reminders and reporting barriers to mammography were associated with non-adherence. Four barrier categories were associated with women's non-adherence: lack of knowledge/not thinking mammograms are needed, cost, being too busy, and forgetting to make/keep appointments.
Barriers we identified are similar to those found in other studies. Health professionals may need to take extra care in discussing mammography screening risk and benefits due to ambiguity about screening guidelines for women in their 40s, especially for women without family histories of breast cancer or histories of abnormal mammograms. Reminders are important in promoting mammography and should be coupled with other strategies to help women maintain adherence to regular mammography.
breast neoplasms; guideline adherence; health behavior; middle aged; attitude to health; patient compliance; mass screening; female; risk factor; health knowledge
Older Latina women are one of the least studied American demographic groups with regard to social, health, or sexual behavior. This could leave social workers and other geriatric professionals unprepared for dealing with HIV/AIDS in this population. Currently, older Latina women are one of the fastest growing groups of new AIDS cases. Twenty percent of all women ever diagnosed with the disease are Latina and 5.5% of Latinas infected with the virus are older. The number of diagnosed infections is increasing in older women, including Latinas, in spite of recent declines in infection rates with younger populations. There are also a potentially large number of cases that go misdiagnosed or undiagnosed.
This article also addresses risk and protective factors related to gender roles, traditional Latino family values, religion, socioeconomic factors, health, and health care, with special attention to the triple jeopardy faced by this population by virtue of being female, seniors, and minorities. The article concludes with recommendations for the development of culturally competent practices with older Latinas and the development of a research agenda to better understand their risk-related and health-seeking behavior.
Latinos; women; hispanics; HIV; AIDS; risk factors; protective factors; aging; sexuality
There is concern that minority women have limited access to breast reconstruction. We described patterns of use, experiences with clinicians, and patients' satisfaction with treatment decisions for women of different race/ethnicities.
A total of 3,252 patients with breast cancer from Los Angeles and Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries were surveyed near the time of diagnosis (n = 2,260, response rate 72.2%). The primary outcomes were receipt of reconstruction, access to information about reconstruction, and decisional satisfaction. The primary independent variable was race/ethnicity (white, African American [AA], highly acculturated Latina [Latina-high], and less acculturated Latina [Latina-low]). Control variables included other sociodemographic and clinical factors. χ2 and multivariate logistic regression were used for the analyses.
Receipt of reconstruction varied significantly by patient race/ethnicity—40.9% of whites, 33.5% of AAs, 41.2% of Latina-high, and only 13.5% of Latina-low (P < .001)—and persisted when we controlled for demographic and clinical factors. Minority women were significantly less likely than whites to see a plastic surgeon before initial surgery and were more likely to desire more information about reconstruction (17.0% of whites v 27.0% of AAs, 30.0% of Latina-high, and 55.9% of Latina-low; P < .001). Decisional satisfaction was lowest among minority women without reconstruction (P < .001).
Minority women, particularly less acculturated Latinas, had low receipt of breast reconstruction, which may be related to limited information about the procedure and less access to plastic surgeons. Greater desire for information and lower satisfaction with surgical decisions among these patients motivate greater attention to treatment support for these patients.
To examine factors influencing sexual activity and functioning in racially- and ethnically-diverse, middle-aged and older women.
Cross-sectional cohort study
Integrated health care delivery system
1,977 women aged 45 to 80 years
Self-administered questionnaires assessed sexual desire, activity, satisfaction, and problems.
Of the 1,977 participants (including 876 White, 388 African American, 347 Latina, and 351 Asian women), 43% reported at least moderate sexual desire, and 60% were sexually active in the previous 3 months. Half of sexually active participants (n=969) described their overall sexual satisfaction as moderate to high. Among sexually inactive women, the most common reason for inactivity was lack of interest in sex (39%), followed by lack of a partner (36%), physical problem of partner (23%), and lack of interest by partner (11%); only 9% were inactive from personal physical problems. In multivariable analysis, African-American women were more likely than white women to report at least moderate desire (OR=1.65, 95%CI=1.25-2.17) but less likely to report weekly sexual activity (OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.48-0.96); sexually active Latina women were more likely than white women to report at least moderate sexual satisfaction (OR=1.75, 95%CI=1.20-2.55).
A substantial proportion of community-dwelling women remain interested and engaged in sexual activity into older age. Lack of a partner capable of or interested in sex may contribute more to sexual inactivity than personal health problems in this population. Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction may influence discussions about sexual difficulties in middle-aged and older women.
female sexual function; aging; race/ethnicity; sexual activity
Reasons obese women are less likely to obtain mammograms and Pap smears are poorly understood. This study evaluated associations between body mass index (BMI) and receipt of and adherence to physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear.
Data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey (8289 women aged 40-74 years) were analyzed in 2006 using logistic regression. Women with prior hysterectomy were excluded from Pap smear analyses (n=5521). Outcome measures were being up-to-date with screening, receipt of physician recommendations, and women's adherence to physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear.
After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, health care access, health behaviors, and comorbidity, severely obese women (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) were less likely to have mammography within 2 years (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.37, 0.68) and Pap smear within 3 years (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27,0.70). Obese women were as likely as normal weight women to receive physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Severely obese women were less likely to adhere to physician recommendation for mammography (OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32-0.76). Women in all obese categories (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were less likely to adhere to physician recommendation for Pap smear (OR's ranged 0.17-0.28; p<0.001).
Obese women are less likely to adhere to physician recommendations for breast and cervical cancer screening. Interventions focusing solely on increasing physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smears will probably be insufficient for obese women. Additional strategies are needed to make cancer screening more acceptable for this high-risk group.
Medically underserved women in the Greater Denver Metropolitan Area had low rates of routine repeat mammograms in the latter 1990s. “Increasing Mammography Adherence among Medically Underserved Women” was designed to increase annual rescreening among medically underserved populations living in this area. Four community-based organizations collaborated to implement this 5-year study. A culturally modified navigator model including both face-to-face and telephone formats was used to facilitate mammography for African Americans, Latinas, Native Americans, and poor White women who had not been rescreened in more than 18 months. The navigator-implemented intervention was statistically significant at the 0.05 level for increasing rescreening.
Navigators; Community-based participatory research; Breast cancer; Medically underserved; Screening; Early detection; Intervention; American Indians; Latinas; Poor White women; African-American women
Breast and cervical cancer are common among Latinas, but screening rates among foreign-born Latinas are relatively low. In this article we describe the design and implementation of a theory-based (PEN-3) outreach program to promote breast and cervical cancer screening to Latina immigrants, and evaluate the program’s effectiveness.
We used data from self-administered questionnaires completed at six annual outreach events to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of attendees and evaluate whether the program reached the priority population – foreign-born Latina immigrants with limited access to health care and screening services. To evaluate the program’s effectiveness in connecting women to screening, we examined the proportion and characteristics of women who scheduled and attended Pap smear and mammography appointments.
Among the 782 Latinas who attended the outreach program, 60% and 83% had not had a Pap smear or mammogram, respectively, in at least a year. Overall, 80% scheduled a Pap smear and 78% scheduled a mammogram. Women without insurance, who did not know where to get screening and had not been screened in the last year were more likely to schedule appointments (p < 0.05). Among women who scheduled appointments, 65% attended their Pap smear and 79% attended the mammogram. We did not identify significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics associated with appointment attendance.
Using a theoretical approach to outreach design and implementation, it is possible to reach a substantial number of Latina immigrants and connect them to cancer screening services.
Cancer screening; community-based participatory research; program evaluation; Latina immigrants
To describe recruitment of Latinas in a randomized clinical trial conducted within 2 health-care organizations.
The study relied on project-initiated telephone calls as part of a multi-faceted recruitment approach. Chi-square and t tests were conducted to compare participants and nonparticipants on a number of variables.
From 4,045 telephone contacts, 280 Latinas agreed to participate. Most were ineligible due to non-Latino ethnicity (89%). Of eligible candidates, 61% took part. Few significant differences were found on participant vs. nonparticipant characteristics.
Using appropriate recruitment procedures, a representative sample of Latinas can be obtained.
heart disease; diabetes; Latinas; multiple health behaviors; participation
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of satisfaction with the cancer care doctor and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Latina breast cancer survivors (BCS) by (1) assessing whether satisfaction would be positively correlated with HRQOL and (2) assessing whether satisfaction would significantly influence HRQOL while controlling for covariates.
The cross-sectional study used self-report data from 117 Latina BCS. Satisfaction was measured with the Hall Satisfaction Index, and HRQOL was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General (FACT-G). Analyses included calculation of descriptive statistics, t tests, bivariate correlations, analyses of variance (ANOVAs), and multivariate analyses.
Latina BCS had high satisfaction and generally good HRQOL. The Hall Satisfaction Index total score was positively associated with FACT-G functional well-being (r=0.265, p=0.004). Multivariate analyses showed that the Hall Satisfaction Index total score was a significant predictor of FACT-G functional well-being (p=0.012). Employment status was also a significant predictor, where being employed or retired resulted in better functional well-being than being unemployed.
Latina BCS were quite satisfied with their cancer care doctors, and high levels of satisfaction with the cancer care doctor influenced functional well-being when confounding variables were controlled. Despite reportedly high satisfaction, Latina BCS did report barriers to satisfaction that could be considered cultural. Implications are discussed.