PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (967241)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  New crystal forms of Diocleinae lectins in the presence of different dimannosides 
The crystallization and preliminary X-­ray data of Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL) and C. maritima lectin (CML) complexed with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe, Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe in two crystal forms [the complexes with Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group P32 and those with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group I222], which differed from those of the native proteins (P21212 for CML and C222 for CGL), are reported.
Studying the interactions between lectins and sugars is important in order to explain the differences observed in the biological activities presented by the highly similar proteins of the Diocleinae subtribe. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-­ray data of Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL) and C. maritima lectin (CML) complexed with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe, Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe in two crystal forms [the complexes with Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group P32 and those with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group I222], which differed from those of the native proteins (P21212 for CML and C222 for CGL), are reported. The crystal complexes of ConA-like lectins with Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe are reported here for the first time.
doi:10.1107/S1744309106038887
PMCID: PMC2225211  PMID: 17077488
lectin–sugar interactions; Dioocleinae lectins
2.  A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:239208.
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe), D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL) was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL) and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL). Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania.
doi:10.1155/2014/239208
PMCID: PMC4238264  PMID: 25431778
3.  Structural basis for chitotetraose-coordination by CGL3, a novel galectin-related protein from Coprinopsis cinerea 
Journal of molecular biology  2008;379(1):146-159.
Summary
Recent advances in genome sequencing efforts have revealed an abundance of novel putative lectins. Amongst these, many galectin-related proteins have been found in all corners of the eukaryotic superkingdom, characterized by many conserved residues but intriguingly lacking critical amino acids. Here we present a structural and biochemical analysis of one representative, the galectin-related lectin CGL3 found in the inky cap mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea. This protein contains all but one conserved residues known to be involved in β-galactoside binding in galectins. A Trp residue strictly conserved among galectins is changed to an Arg in CGL3 (R81). Accordingly, the galectin-related protein is not able to bind lactose. Screening of a glycan array revealed that CGL3 displays preference for oligomers of β1-4 linked N-acetyl-glucosamines (chitooligosaccharides) and GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LacdiNAc). Carbohydrate-binding affinity of this novel lectin was quantified using isothermal titration calorimetry and its mode of chitooligosaccharide coordination, not involving any aromatic amino acid residues, was studied by x-ray crystallography. The structural information was used to alter the carbohydrate-binding specificity and substrate affinity of CGL3. The importance of residue R81 in determining the carbohydrate-binding specificity was demonstrated by replacing this Arg by a Trp residue (R81W). This single amino acid change led to a lectin that failed to bind chitooligosaccarides but gained lactose-binding. Our results demonstrate that, similar to the legume lectin fold, the galectin fold represents a conserved structural framework upon which dramatically altered specificities can be grafted by few alterations in the binding site and that, in consequence, many metazoan galectin-related proteins may represent lectins with novel carbohydrate-binding specificities.
doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.03.062
PMCID: PMC2785874  PMID: 18440554
galectin; glycan array; chitooligosaccharide; LacDiNAc; mushroom
4.  Structural Studies of an Anti-Inflammatory Lectin from Canavalia boliviana Seeds in Complex with Dimannosides 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97015.
Plant lectins, especially those purified from species of the Leguminosae family, represent the best-studied group of carbohydrate-binding proteins. Lectins purified from seeds of the Diocleinae subtribe exhibit a high degree of sequence identity notwithstanding that they show very distinct biological activities. Two main factors have been related to this feature: variance in key residues influencing the carbohydrate-binding site geometry and differences in the pH-dependent oligomeric state profile. In this work, we have isolated a lectin from Canavalia boliviana (Cbol) and solved its x-ray crystal structure in the unbound form and in complex with the carbohydrates Man(α1-3)Man(α1-O)Me, Man(α1-4)Man(α1-O)Me and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-D-mannose. We evaluated its oligomerization profile at different pH values using Small Angle X-ray Scattering and compared it to that of Concanavalin A. Based on predicted pKa-shifts of amino acids in the subunit interfaces we devised a model for the dimer-tetramer equilibrium phenomena of these proteins. Additionally, we demonstrated Cbol anti-inflammatory properties and further characterized them using in vivo and in vitro models.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097015
PMCID: PMC4035259  PMID: 24865454
5.  Anti-inflammatory effect of glucose—mannose binding lectins isolated from Brazilian beans 
Mediators of Inflammation  1997;6(3):201-210.
Selectins are essential for leukocyte recruitment in inflammation. Because of a lectin domain present in the selectin structure, we investigated the anti-inflammtory activity of six mannose–glucose binding lectins from brazilian beans: Dioclea guianensis-DguiL; D. grandiflora-DgL; Cratylia floribunda-CfL; D. violacea-D.vL; D. virgata-DvirL and Canavalia brasiliensis-ConBr. The lectins were injected intravenously (i.v.) into rats (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg; 30 min before irritants) and its activities compared to E. coli endotoxin (LPS,30 μg/kg i.v.). Three lectins (DvL, CfL and DguiL), although less intense than LPS, inhibited the neutrophil migration induced by carrageenan (Cg, 300 μg) in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg). DvL activity was reversed by 0.1 M α-D-methyl-mannoside (α-CH3), but not by 0.1 M α-D-galactose. The fMLP (44 ng)-induced neutrophil migration was also reduced by these lectins. Endotoxin contamination of lectin samples could be excluded since α-CH3 treatment reversed the DvL effect, but did not modify LPS inhibitory activity. Carrageenan (300 μg)-induced paw oedema was also reduced by LPS or lectin treatments. Conversely, none of the tested lectins inhibited dextran (Dex, 300 μg)-induced paw oedema, a classical leukocyte independent model, or zymosan (Zy, 1.0 mg)-induced peritonitis and paw oedema. LPS showed no effect upon Dex-induced paw oedema and barely reduced (25%) the oedematogenic effects of zymosan. As proposed for LPS, the lectin inhibitory activity was better observed on neutrophil-mediated inflammatory reactions. We speculate that the plant lectin antiinflammatory activity is probably due to a competitive blockage of a common leukocyte and/or endothelial selectin carbohydrate ligand.
doi:10.1080/09629359791695
PMCID: PMC2365833  PMID: 18472821
6.  Structural Determinants for Activity and Specificity of the Bacterial Toxin LlpA 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(2):e1003199.
Lectin-like bacteriotoxic proteins, identified in several plant-associated bacteria, are able to selectively kill closely related species, including several phytopathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas species, but so far their mode of action remains unrevealed. The crystal structure of LlpABW, the prototype lectin-like bacteriocin from Pseudomonas putida, reveals an architecture of two monocot mannose-binding lectin (MMBL) domains and a C-terminal β-hairpin extension. The C-terminal MMBL domain (C-domain) adopts a fold very similar to MMBL domains from plant lectins and contains a binding site for mannose and oligomannosides. Mutational analysis indicates that an intact sugar-binding pocket in this domain is crucial for bactericidal activity. The N-terminal MMBL domain (N-domain) adopts the same fold but is structurally more divergent and lacks a functional mannose-binding site. Differential activity of engineered N/C-domain chimers derived from two LlpA homologues with different killing spectra, disclosed that the N-domain determines target specificity. Apparently this bacteriocin is assembled from two structurally similar domains that evolved separately towards dedicated functions in target recognition and bacteriotoxicity.
Author Summary
In their natural environments, microorganisms compete for space and nutrients, and a major strategy to assist in niche colonization is the deployment of antagonistic compounds directed at competitors, such as secondary metabolites (antibiotics) and antibacterial peptides or proteins (bacteriocins). The latter selectively kill closely related bacteria, which is also the case for members of the LlpA family. Here, we investigate the structure-function relationship for the prototype LlpABW from a saprophytic plant-associated Pseudomonas whose genus-specific target spectrum includes several phytopathogenic pseudomonads. By determining the 3D structure of this protein, we could assign LlpA to the so-called monocot mannose-binding lectin (MMBL) family, representing its first prokaryotic member, and also add a new type of protective function, as the eukaryotic MMBL members have been linked with antiviral, antifungal, nematicidal or insecticidal activities. For the protein containing two similarly folded domains, we constructed site-specific mutants affected in carbohydrate binding and domain chimers from LlpA homologues to show that mannose-specific sugar binding mediated by one domain is required for activity and that the other domain determines target strain specificity. The strategy that evolved for these bacteriocins is reminiscent of the one used by mammalian bactericidal proteins of the RegIII family that recruited a C-type lectin fold to kill bacteria.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003199
PMCID: PMC3585409  PMID: 23468636
7.  Lectin-binding properties of Aeromonas caviae strains 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2008;39(2):214-218.
The cell surface carbohydrates of four strains of Aeromonas caviae were analyzed by agglutination and lectin-binding assays employing twenty highly purified lectins encompassing all sugar specificities. With the exception of L-fucose and sialic acid, the sugar residues were detected in A. caviae strains. A marked difference, however, in the pattern of cell surface carbohydrates in different A. caviae isolates was observed. Specific receptors for Tritricum vulgaris (WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum (STA) (D-GlcNAc-binding lectins) were found only in ATCC 15468 strain, whereas Euonymus europaeus (EEL, D-Gal-binding lectin) sites were present exclusively in AeQ32 strain, those for Helix pomatia (HPA, D-GalNAc-binding lectin) in AeC398 and AeV11 strains, and for Canavalia ensiformes (Con A, D-Man-binding lectin) in ATCC 15468, AeC398, AeQ32 and AeV11 strains, after bacterial growing at 37°C. On the other hand, specific receptors for WGA and EEL were completely abrogated growing the bacteria at 22°C. Binding studies with 125I- labeled lectins from WGA, EEL and Con A were performed. These assays essentially confirmed the selectivity, demonstrated in the agglutination assays of these lectins for the A. caviae strains.
doi:10.1590/S1517-83822008000200003
PMCID: PMC3768394  PMID: 24031204
Aeromonas caviae; Lectin; Carbohydrate; Cell surface
8.  Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2012;43(2):770-778.
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256μg/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health.
doi:10.1590/S1517-83822012000200042
PMCID: PMC3768816  PMID: 24031889
Yeast; sensitivity; lectins
9.  Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycan Core β-galactoside Confers Sensitivity towards Nematotoxic Fungal Galectin CGL2 
PLoS Pathogens  2010;6(1):e1000717.
The physiological role of fungal galectins has remained elusive. Here, we show that feeding of a mushroom galectin, Coprinopsis cinerea CGL2, to Caenorhabditis elegans inhibited development and reproduction and ultimately resulted in killing of this nematode. The lack of toxicity of a carbohydrate-binding defective CGL2 variant and the resistance of a C. elegans mutant defective in GDP-fucose biosynthesis suggested that CGL2-mediated nematotoxicity depends on the interaction between the galectin and a fucose-containing glycoconjugate. A screen for CGL2-resistant worm mutants identified this glycoconjugate as a Galβ1,4Fucα1,6 modification of C. elegans N-glycan cores. Analysis of N-glycan structures in wild type and CGL2-resistant nematodes confirmed this finding and allowed the identification of a novel putative glycosyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of this glycoepitope. The X-ray crystal structure of a complex between CGL2 and the Galβ1,4Fucα1,6GlcNAc trisaccharide at 1.5 Å resolution revealed the biophysical basis for this interaction. Our results suggest that fungal galectins play a role in the defense of fungi against predators by binding to specific glycoconjugates of these organisms.
Author Summary
Fungi are a source of a large variety of carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins). Synthesis of these proteins usually occurs in the cytoplasm and is often restricted to the reproductive organs (fruiting bodies, sclerotia) of the respective fungi. Although these lectins can be very abundant in these organs, their function is unknown. The specificity for non-fungal carbohydrates and recent functional studies in genetically amenable fungi argue against an endogenous function in development. Here we show that oral administration of the fruiting-body-specific galectins of the ink cap mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea is toxic for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and that the nematotoxicity of these fungal lectins is dependent on binding to a specific β-galactoside occurring on nematode, but not on fungal, N-glycans. Since fungal-feeding nematodes represent the predominant predators of fungi in the soil, these results suggest that these lectins are effectors of a protein-mediated fungal defense system. Lectin-mediated defense strategies against predators, parasites and pathogens are also used by plants and animals. Due to the conservation of this type of innate defense amongst eukaryotes and the reduced complexity of fungi, studies of this in fungi could contribute to a better understanding of analogous systems and the evolution of multi-level defense in animals.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000717
PMCID: PMC2798750  PMID: 20062796
10.  Promiscuity of the Euonymus Carbohydrate-Binding Domain 
Biomolecules  2012;2(4):415-434.
Plants synthesize small amounts of carbohydrate-binding proteins on exposure to stress. For example, on exposure to drought, high salt, wounding and by treatment with some plant hormones or by pathogen attack. In contrast to the ‘classical’ plant lectins that are mostly located in the vacuolar compartment, this new class of inducible lectins is present in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Taking into account that any physiological role of plant lectins most likely relies on their specific carbohydrate-binding activity and specificity, the discovery of these stress-related lectins provides strong evidence for the importance of protein-carbohydrate-interactions in plant cells. Hitherto, six families of such nucleocytoplasmic lectins have been identified in plants. This review will focus on the nucleocytoplasmic lectins with one or more Euonymus lectin (EUL) domain(s). The carbohydrate-binding specificity of EUL proteins from a monocot, a dicot and a lower plant has been compared. Furthermore, modeling of the different EUL domains revealed a similar ß-trefoil fold consisting of three bundles of ß-sheet organized around a pseudo three-fold symmetry axis. Despite the sequence similarity and the conserved amino acids in the binding site, glycan array analyses showed that the EUL domain has a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site capable of accommodating high mannose N-glycans, blood group B related structures and galactosylated epitopes.
doi:10.3390/biom2040415
PMCID: PMC4030858  PMID: 24970144
binding site; carbohydrate; cytoplasm; lectin; nucleus; specificity
11.  Tailed Forisomes of Canavalia gladiata: A New Model to Study Ca2+-driven Protein Contractility 
Annals of Botany  2007;100(1):101-109.
Background and Aims
Forisomes are Ca2+-dependent contractile protein bodies that form reversible plugs in sieve tubes of faboid legumes. Previous work employed Vicia faba forisomes, a not entirely unproblematic experimental system. The aim of this study was to seek to establish a superior model to study these intriguing actuators.
Methods
Existing isolation procedures were modified to study the exceptionally large, tailed forisomes of Canavalia gladiata by differential interference contrast microscopy in vitro. To analyse contraction/expansion kinetics quantitatively, a geometric model was devised which enabled the computation of time-courses of derived parameters such as forisome volume from simple parameters readily determined on micrographs.
Key Results
Advantages of C. gladiata over previously utilized species include the enormous size of its forisomes (up to 55 µm long), the presence of tails which facilitate micromanipulation of individual forisomes, and the possibility of collecting material repeatedly from these fast-growing vines without sacrificing the plants. The main bodies of isolated Canavalia forisomes were box-shaped with square cross-sections and basically retained this shape in all stages of contraction. Ca2+-induced a 6-fold volume increase within about 10–15 s; the reverse reaction following Ca2+-depletion proceeded in a fraction of that time.
Conclusions
The sword bean C. gladiata provides a superior experimental system which will prove indispensable in physiological, biophysical, ultrastructural and molecular studies on the unique ATP-independent contractility of forisomes.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcm080
PMCID: PMC2735297  PMID: 17584851
Ca2+-dependent contractility; contractile protein; fabaceae; forisome geometry; contraction kinetics; Canavalia gladiata; phloem transport; sieve element; tailed forisome
12.  Structure Predictions of Two Bauhinia variegata Lectins Reveal Patterns of C-Terminal Properties in Single Chain Legume Lectins 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81338.
Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and –II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081338
PMCID: PMC3834338  PMID: 24260572
13.  Engineering of PA-IIL lectin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Unravelling the role of the specificity loop for sugar preference 
Background
Lectins are proteins of non-immune origin capable of binding saccharide structures with high specificity and affinity. Considering the high encoding capacity of oligosaccharides, this makes lectins important for adhesion and recognition. The present study is devoted to the PA-IIL lectin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing lethal complications in cystic fibrosis patients. The lectin may play an important role in the process of virulence, recognizing specific saccharide structures and subsequently allowing the bacteria to adhere to the host cells. It displays high values of affinity towards monosaccharides, especially fucose – a feature caused by unusual binding mode, where two calcium ions participate in the interaction with saccharide. Investigating and understanding the nature of lectin-saccharide interactions holds a great potential of use in the field of drug design, namely the targeting and delivery of active compounds to the proper site of action.
Results
In vitro site-directed mutagenesis of the PA-IIL lectin yielded three single point mutants that were investigated both structurally (by X-ray crystallography) and functionally (by isothermal titration calorimetry). The mutated amino acids (22–23–24 triad) belong to the so-called specificity binding loop responsible for the monosaccharide specificity of the lectin. The mutation of the amino acids resulted in changes to the thermodynamic behaviour of the mutants and subsequently in their relative preference towards monosaccharides. Correlation of the measured data with X-ray structures provided the molecular basis for rationalizing the affinity changes. The mutations either prevent certain interactions to be formed or allow formation of new interactions – both of afore mentioned have strong effects on the saccharide preferences.
Conclusion
Mutagenesis of amino acids forming the specificity binding loop allowed identification of one amino acid that is crucial for definition of the lectin sugar preference. Altering specificity loop amino acids causes changes in saccharide-binding preferences of lectins derived from PA-IIL, via creation or blocking possible binding interactions. This finding opens a gate towards protein engineering and subsequent protein design to refine the desired binding properties and preferences, an approach that could have strong potential for drug design.
doi:10.1186/1472-6807-7-36
PMCID: PMC1903359  PMID: 17540045
14.  Plasticity of the β-Trefoil Protein Fold in the Recognition and Control of Invertebrate Predators and Parasites by a Fungal Defence System 
PLoS Pathogens  2012;8(5):e1002706.
Discrimination between self and non-self is a prerequisite for any defence mechanism; in innate defence, this discrimination is often mediated by lectins recognizing non-self carbohydrate structures and so relies on an arsenal of host lectins with different specificities towards target organism carbohydrate structures. Recently, cytoplasmic lectins isolated from fungal fruiting bodies have been shown to play a role in the defence of multicellular fungi against predators and parasites. Here, we present a novel fruiting body lectin, CCL2, from the ink cap mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea. We demonstrate the toxicity of the lectin towards Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster and present its NMR solution structure in complex with the trisaccharide, GlcNAcβ1,4[Fucα1,3]GlcNAc, to which it binds with high specificity and affinity in vitro. The structure reveals that the monomeric CCL2 adopts a β-trefoil fold and recognizes the trisaccharide by a single, topologically novel carbohydrate-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of CCL2 and identification of C. elegans mutants resistant to this lectin show that its nematotoxicity is mediated by binding to α1,3-fucosylated N-glycan core structures of nematode glycoproteins; feeding with fluorescently labeled CCL2 demonstrates that these target glycoproteins localize to the C. elegans intestine. Since the identified glycoepitope is characteristic for invertebrates but absent from fungi, our data show that the defence function of fruiting body lectins is based on the specific recognition of non-self carbohydrate structures. The trisaccharide specifically recognized by CCL2 is a key carbohydrate determinant of pollen and insect venom allergens implying this particular glycoepitope is targeted by both fungal defence and mammalian immune systems. In summary, our results demonstrate how the plasticity of a common protein fold can contribute to the recognition and control of antagonists by an innate defence mechanism, whereby the monovalency of the lectin for its ligand implies a novel mechanism of lectin-mediated toxicity.
Author Summary
All multicellular organisms have developed mechanisms to defend themselves against predators, parasites and pathogens. As a common mechanism, animals, plants and fungi use a large arsenal of carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) to protect themselves from predation and parasitism. The success of this type of innate defence mechanism critically depends on the diversity of specific recognition of foreign carbohydrate structures by the host lectins. In this study, we use NMR structure determination to show that part of this diversity is created by the plasticity of common protein folds. The identified fungal lectin that is toxic to nematodes and insects, adopts a common lectin fold but is remarkable in terms of its specificity and affinity for the recognized foreign carbohydrate structure, the number and location of the carbohydrate binding sites on the protein and the degree of oligomerization. Since the identified in vivo target of the fungal lectin is characteristic for invertebrates, our results may be exploited to develop novel approaches for the control of animal and human parasites.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002706
PMCID: PMC3355094  PMID: 22615566
15.  Plant Lectin-Like Bacteriocin from a Rhizosphere-Colonizing Pseudomonas Isolate 
Journal of Bacteriology  2003;185(3):897-908.
Rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas sp. strain BW11M1, which belongs to the Pseudomonas putida cluster, secretes a heat- and protease-sensitive bacteriocin which kills P. putida GR12-2R3. The production of this bacteriocin is enhanced by DNA-damaging treatment of producer cells. We isolated a TnMod mutant of strain BW11M1 that had lost the capacity to inhibit the growth of strain GR12-2R3. A wild-type genomic fragment encompassing the transposon insertion site was shown to confer the bacteriocin phenotype when it was introduced into Escherichia coli cells. The bacteriocin structural gene was identified by defining the minimal region required for expression in E. coli. This gene was designated llpA (lectin-like putidacin) on the basis of significant homology of its 276-amino-acid product with mannose-binding lectins from monocotyledonous plants. LlpA is composed of two monocot mannose-binding lectin (MMBL) domains. Several uncharacterized bacterial genes encoding diverse proteins containing one or two MMBL domains were identified. A phylogenetic analysis of the MMBL domains present in eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins assigned the putidacin domains to a new bacterial clade within the MMBL-containing protein family. Heterologous expression of the llpA gene also conveyed bacteriocin production to several Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. In addition, we demonstrated that strain BW11M1 and heterologous hosts secrete LlpA into the growth medium without requiring a cleavable signal sequence. Most likely, the mode of action of this lectin-like bacteriocin is different from the modes of action of previously described Pseudomonas bacteriocins.
doi:10.1128/JB.185.3.897-908.2003
PMCID: PMC142807  PMID: 12533465
16.  The lectin concanavalin-A signals MT1-MMP catalytic independent induction of COX-2 through an IKKγ/NF-κB-dependent pathway 
The lectin from Canavalia ensiformis (Concanavalin-A, ConA), one of the most abundant lectins known, enables one to mimic biological lectin/carbohydrate interactions that regulate extracellular matrix protein recognition. As such, ConA is known to induce membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) which expression is increased in brain cancer. Given that MT1-MMP correlated to high expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in gliomas with increasing histological grade, we specifically assessed the early proinflammatory cellular signaling processes triggered by ConA in the regulation of COX-2. We found that treatment with ConA or direct overexpression of a recombinant MT1-MMP resulted in the induction of COX-2 expression. This increase in COX-2 was correlated with a concomitant decrease in phosphorylated AKT suggestive of cell death induction, and was independent of MT1-MMP’s catalytic function. ConA- and MT1-MMP-mediated intracellular signaling of COX-2 was also confirmed in wild-type and in Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65−/− mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), but was abrogated in NF-κB1 (p50)−/− and in I kappaB kinase (IKK) γ−/− mutant MEF cells. Collectively, our results highlight an IKK/NF-κB-dependent pathway linking MT1-MMP-mediated intracellular signaling to the induction of COX-2. That signaling pathway could account for the inflammatory balance responsible for the therapy resistance phenotype of glioblastoma cells, and prompts for the design of new therapeutic strategies that target cell surface carbohydrate structures and MT1-MMP-mediated signaling. Concise summary Concanavalin-A (ConA) mimics biological lectin/carbohydrate interactions that regulate the proinflammatory phenotype of cancer cells through yet undefined signaling. Here we highlight an IKK/NF-κB-dependent pathway linking MT1-MMP-mediated intracellular signaling to the induction of cyclooxygenase-2, and that could be responsible for the therapy resistance phenotype of glioblastoma cells.
doi:10.1007/s12079-009-0084-0
PMCID: PMC2821472  PMID: 20195390
Concanavalin-A; Inflammation; Cyclooxygenase; MT1-MMP; Cancer
17.  The lectin concanavalin-A signals MT1-MMP catalytic independent induction of COX-2 through an IKKγ/NF-κB-dependent pathway 
The lectin from Canavalia ensiformis (Concanavalin-A, ConA), one of the most abundant lectins known, enables one to mimic biological lectin/carbohydrate interactions that regulate extracellular matrix protein recognition. As such, ConA is known to induce membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) which expression is increased in brain cancer. Given that MT1-MMP correlated to high expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in gliomas with increasing histological grade, we specifically assessed the early proinflammatory cellular signaling processes triggered by ConA in the regulation of COX-2. We found that treatment with ConA or direct overexpression of a recombinant MT1-MMP resulted in the induction of COX-2 expression. This increase in COX-2 was correlated with a concomitant decrease in phosphorylated AKT suggestive of cell death induction, and was independent of MT1-MMP’s catalytic function. ConA- and MT1-MMP-mediated intracellular signaling of COX-2 was also confirmed in wild-type and in Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65−/− mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), but was abrogated in NF-κB1 (p50)−/− and in I kappaB kinase (IKK) γ−/− mutant MEF cells. Collectively, our results highlight an IKK/NF-κB-dependent pathway linking MT1-MMP-mediated intracellular signaling to the induction of COX-2. That signaling pathway could account for the inflammatory balance responsible for the therapy resistance phenotype of glioblastoma cells, and prompts for the design of new therapeutic strategies that target cell surface carbohydrate structures and MT1-MMP-mediated signaling. Concise summary Concanavalin-A (ConA) mimics biological lectin/carbohydrate interactions that regulate the proinflammatory phenotype of cancer cells through yet undefined signaling. Here we highlight an IKK/NF-κB-dependent pathway linking MT1-MMP-mediated intracellular signaling to the induction of cyclooxygenase-2, and that could be responsible for the therapy resistance phenotype of glioblastoma cells.
doi:10.1007/s12079-009-0084-0
PMCID: PMC2821472  PMID: 20195390
Concanavalin-A; Inflammation; Cyclooxygenase; MT1-MMP; Cancer
18.  Production of active human glucocerebrosidase in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) plants 
Glycobiology  2011;22(4):492-503.
There is a clear need for efficient methods to produce protein therapeutics requiring mannose-termination for therapeutic efficacy. Here we report on a unique system for production of active human lysosomal acid β-glucosidase (glucocerebrosidase, GCase, EC 3.2.1.45) using seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) mutant, which are deficient in the activity of N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase I (EC 2.4.1.101). Gaucher disease is a prevalent lysosomal storage disease in which affected individuals inherit mutations in the gene (GBA1) encoding GCase. A gene cassette optimized for seed expression was used to generate the human enzyme in seeds of the cgl (C5) mutant, and the recombinant GCase was mainly accumulated in the apoplast. Importantly, the enzymatic properties including kinetic parameters, half-maximal inhibitory concentration of isofagomine and thermal stability of the cgl-derived GCase were comparable with those of imiglucerase, a commercially available recombinant human GCase used for enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher patients. N-glycan structural analyses of recombinant cgl-GCase showed that the majority of the N-glycans (97%) were mannose terminated. Additional purification was required to remove ~15% of the plant-derived recombinant GCase that possessed potentially immunogenic (xylose-and/or fucose-containing) N-glycans. Uptake of cgl-derived GCase by mouse macrophages was similar to that of imiglucerase. The cgl seed system requires no addition of foreign (non-native) amino acids to the mature recombinant GCase protein, and the dry transgenic seeds represent a stable repository of the therapeutic protein. Other strategies that may completely prevent plant-like complex N-glycans are discussed, including the use of a null cgl mutant.
doi:10.1093/glycob/cwr157
PMCID: PMC3425599  PMID: 22061999 CAMSID: cams2308
Arabidopsis cgl mutant; Gaucher disease; human glucocerebrosidase; mannose-terminated N-glycans; N-glycosylation
19.  Spatial orientation of glycoproteins in membranes of rat liver rough microsomes. I. Localization of lectin-binding sites in microsomal membranes 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1978;78(3):874-893.
Carbohydrate-containing structures in rat liver rough microsomes (RM) were localized and characterized using iodinated lectins of defined specificity. Binding of [125I]Con A increased six- to sevenfold in the presence of low DOC (0.04--0.05%) which opens the vesicles and allows the penetration of the lectins. On the other hand, binding of [125I]WGA and [125I]RCA increased only slightly when the microsomal vesicles were opened by DOC. Sites available in the intact microsomal fraction had an affinity for [125I]Con A 14 times higher than sites for lectin binding which were exposed by the detergent treatment. Lectin-binding sites in RM were also localized electron microscopically with lectins covalently bound to biotin, which, in turn, were visualized after their reaction with ferritin-avidin (F-Av) markers. Using this method, it was demonstrated that in untreated RM samples, binding sites for lectins are not present on the cytoplasmic face of the microsomal vesicles, even after removal of ribosomes by treatment with high salt buffer and puromycin, but are located on smooth membranes which contaminate the rough microsomal fraction. Combining this technique with procedures which render the interior of the microsomal vesicles accessible to lectins and remove luminal proteins, it was found that RM membranes contain binding sites for Con A and for Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) located exclusively on the cisternal face of the membrane. No sites for WGA, RCA, soybean (SBA) and Lotus tetragonobulus (LTA) agglutinins were detected on either the cytoplasmic or the luminal faces of the rough microsomes. These observations demonstrate that: (a) sugar moieties of microsomal glycoproteins are exposed only on the luminal surface of the membranes and (b) microsomal membrane glycoproteins have incomplete carbohydrate chains without the characteristic terminal trisaccharides N-acetylglucosamine comes from galactose comes from sialic acid or fucose present in most glycoproteins secreted by the liver. The orientation and composition of the carbohydrate chains in microsomal glycoproteins indicate that the passage of these glycoproteins through the Golgi apparatus, followed by their return to the endoplasmic reticulum, is not required for their biogenesis and insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane.
PMCID: PMC2110186  PMID: 701363
20.  Wheatgerm agglutinin-mediated toxicity in pancreatic cancer cells 
British Journal of Cancer  1999;80(11):1754-1762.
Lectin binding specificities for carbohydrate allow phenotypic and functional characterization of membrane-associated glycoproteins expressed on cancer cells. This analysis examined wheatgerm agglutinin binding to pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the resulting toxicity. Membrane preparations of nine human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines were studied for lectin binding using wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohaemagglutinin-L (PHA-L) in a lectin blot analysis. Cell proliferation in vitro was measured by thymidine incorporation in the absence or presence of lectins at various concentrations. Sialic acid binding lectins or succinyl-WGA (succWGA) served as controls. WGA toxicity was tested after swainsonine or neuraminidase pretreatment. Binding and uptake of fluorescein-labelled lectins was studied under fluorescence microscopy. All pancreatic cell lines displayed high WGA membrane binding, primarily to sialic acid residues. Other lectins were bound with weak to moderate intensity only. Lectin toxicity corresponded to membrane binding intensity, and was profound in case of WGA (ID50 at 2.5–5 μg ml−1). WGA exposure induced chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and DNA release consistent with apoptosis. Important steps for WGA toxicity included binding to sialic acid on swainsonine-sensitive carbohydrate and lectin internalization. There was rapid cellular uptake and subsequent nuclear relocalization of WGA. In contradistinction to the other lectins studied, WGA proved highly toxic to human pancreatic carcinoma cells in vitro. WGA binding to sialic acid residues of N-linked carbohydrate, cellular uptake and subsequent affinity to N-acetyl glucosamine appear to be necessary steps. Further analysis of this mechanism of profound toxicity may provide insight relevant to the treatment of pancreatic cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690593
PMCID: PMC2363124  PMID: 10468292
wheatgerm agglutinin; pancreatic cancer; lectin; apoptosis; sialic acid surface binding; swainsonine
21.  Energetics of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose binding to the Parkia platycephala seed lectin and its use for MAD phasing 
The first crystal structure of a Mimosoideae lectin, Parkia platycephala has been solved by MAD phasing using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose as an anomalous X-ray scatterer. This strategy may be useful for structure elucidation of novel lectins or when molecular replacement methods fail.
Parkia platycephala belongs to the most primitive group of Leguminosae plants. Its seed lectin is made up of three homologous β-prism repeats and exhibits binding specificity for mannose/glucose. The properties of the association between the lectin from P. platycephala seeds and monosaccharide ligands were analysed by isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The results are consistent with the lectin bearing three thermodynamically identical binding sites for mannose/glucose per monomer with dissociation constants in the millimolar range. Binding of each ligand by the lectin is enthalpically driven. Crystals have been obtained of the lectin in complex with a brominated derivative of mannose (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose), which were suitable for deriving an electron-density map by MAD phasing. In agreement with the thermodynamic data, six Br atoms were found in the asymmetric unit of the monoclinic P21 crystals, which contained two P. platycephala lectin molecules. The availability of other Br derivatives of monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, fucose) may make this strategy widely useful for structure elucidation of novel lectins or when (as in the case of the P. platycephala lectin) molecular-replacement methods fail.
doi:10.1107/S1744309105004835
PMCID: PMC1952276  PMID: 16511032
protein–carbohydrate interactions; Parkia platycephala lectin; isothermal titration calorimetry; surface plasmon resonance; β-prism domain; MAD phasing
22.  Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:154542.
Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins.
doi:10.1155/2013/154542
PMCID: PMC3860074  PMID: 24380079
23.  Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Regulatory roles of cell surface glycans 
International Journal of Oncology  2014;44(5):1433-1442.
Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic acid enhanced Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Helix pomatia (HPA) and Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA) lectin binding reactivity to cell surface of lymphoma cells suggesting that neuraminidase removes cell surface sialic acid. In cell adhesion and invasion assays treatment with neuraminidase markedly enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1 and decreased cell invasive capacity through galectin-1. α2,6-linked sialic acid may be involved in masking the effect of the interaction between galectin-1 and cell surface glycans. H-ALCL cells expressed the β-galactoside-α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6Gal1. On resialylation assay by recombinant ST6Gal1 with CMP-Neu5Ac, α2,6-resialylation of L-PHA reactive oligosaccharide by ST6Gal1 resulted in inhibition of H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-1 compared to the desialylated H-ALCL cells. On knockdown experiments, knockdown of ST6Gal1 dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1. N-glycosylation inhibitor swainsonine treatment resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-1. In glycomic analysis using the lectin blocking assay treatment with PNA, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Glycine max (SBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Vicia villosa (VVA), Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA), Phaseolus vulgaris-E4 (E-PHA), Datura stramonium (DSA) lectins resulted in modulation of lymphoma cell to galectin-1 suggesting that several types of glycans may regulate cell adhesion to galectin-1 by steric hindrance. The adhesive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate kinase (PI3K) and actin cytoskeleton, and the invasive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by PI3K, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Rho and actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, galectin-1-induced cell death in H-ALCL cells was accompanied by inhibition of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. In conclusion, cell adhesion and invasion to galectin-1 appeared to be regulated by cell surface sialylation and N-glycosylation, and galectin-1 regulates cell death through inhibition of CD45 PTP activity of H-ALCL.
doi:10.3892/ijo.2014.2319
PMCID: PMC4027875  PMID: 24589677
galectin-1; glycosylation; sialic acid; sialyltransferase; cell adhesion; cell death; lectin array
24.  Distribution of cell surface saccharides on pancreatic cells. II. Lectin-labeling patterns on mature guinea pig and rat pancreatic cells 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1979;80(1):77-95.
The surface saccharide composition of collagenase-dispersed pancreatic cells from adult guinea pig and rat glands was examined by using eight lectins and their ferritin conjugates: Concanavalin A (ConA); Lens culinaris (LCL); Lotus tetragonolobus (LTL); Ricinus communis agglutinins I and II (RCA I, RCA II); Soybean agglutinin (SBA); Ulex europeus lectin (UEL); and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Binding studies of iodinated lectins and lectin-ferritin conjugates both revealed one population of saturable, high-affinity receptor sites on the total cell population (approximately 95% acinar cells). Electron microscopy, however, revealed differences in lectin-ferritin binding to the plasmalemma of acinar, centroacinar, and endocrine cells. Whereas acinar cells bound heavily all lectin conjugates, endocrine and centroacinar cells were densely labeled only by ConA, LCL, WGA, and RCA I, and possessed few receptors for LTL, UEL, and SBA. Endocrine and centroacinar cells could be differentiated from each other by using RCA II, which binds to centroacinar cells but not to endocrine cells. Some RCA II receptors appeared to be glycolipids because they were extracted by ethanol and chloroform-methanol in contrast to WGA receptors which resisted solvent treatment but were partly removed by papain digestion. RCA I receptors were affected by neither treatment. The apparent absence of receptors for SBA on endocrine and centroacinar cells, and for RCA II on endocrine cells, was reversed by neuraminidase digestion, which suggested masking of lectin receptors by sialic acid. The absence of LTL and UEL receptors on endocrine and centroacinar cells was not reversed by neuraminidase. We suggest that the differential lectin- binding patterns observed on acinar, centroacinar, and endocrine cells from the adult pancreas surface-carbohydrate-developmental programs expressed during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of the gland.
PMCID: PMC2110295  PMID: 422654
25.  Lectin receptors as markers for Trypanosoma cruzi. Developmental stages and a study of the interaction of wheat germ agglutinin with sialic acid residues on epimastigote cells 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1980;152(5):1375-1392.
Trypanosoma cruzi at various stages of maturation and differentiation have been isolated by conventional cellular fractionation procedures and characterized by cell surface markers using 30 highly purified lectins encompassing all known sugar specificities. Cell surface carbohydrates of the various T. cruzi stages were analyzed by agglutination and lectin-binding assays. Specific receptors for wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Helix pomatia, Sophora japonica, and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin II were found only in culture epimastigotes, whereas peanut agglutinin (PNA) sites were present exclusively in amastigotes, those for Phaseolus vulgaris in bloodstream trypomastigotes and amastigotes, and for Wistaria floribunda hemagglutinin predominantly in culture forms of T. cruzi. The N- acetylgalactosamine (DGalNAc)-binding lectin from Bauhinia purpurea agglutinated and inhibited the movement of epimastigotes and bloodstream trypomastigotes, but it only inhibited--without agglutinating--culture trypomastigotes. Because both the agglutination and inhibition of movement were reversed by specific sugar haptens, Bauhinia purpurea sites were present in all the flagellated parasites. On the other hand, PNA sites were detectable on epimastigotes after the cells were treated with sialidase, whereas, at the same time, WGA receptors were completely removed and those for the other sialic acid- binding proteins, Aaptos papillata lectin II and Limulus polyphemus, were partially eliminated; moreover, the activity of Wistaria floribunda hemagglutinin, a DGalNAc-binding lectin, increased 4,000 times. Trypsinization and lyzozyme treatment of epimastigote cells did not significantly affect lectin agglutination or lectin binding. WGA reacted solely with sialic acid residues on epimastigote cell surface with an apparent association constant of 2 x 10(6) M-1, each epimastigote having an estimated average of 3 x 10(6) WGA sites, as determined by binding experiments and a minimum of 7.7 x 10(6) sialic acid residues, as calculated by colorimetric method after sialidase digestion. Evidences are presented that the sialyl residues are rapidly regenerated (in approximately 4 h) and that they, at least for the most part, are not adsorbed from the culture medium. The receptor for the D- mannose-binding lectins (concanavalin A [Con A] and Lens culinaris) must either be on the same carbohydrate moiety having the WGA site, or, if in a distinct molecule, both carrier molecules of Con A and WGA sites must be located close to each other in the plasma membrane of the parasite.
PMCID: PMC2185995  PMID: 7000967

Results 1-25 (967241)