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1.  Unusual presentation of peritonitis with persistent clear aspirate: a case report 
Introduction
Peritonitis is the most frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis. Diagnosis of peritonitis includes symptoms and signs of peritonitis with a cloudy aspirate of more than 100 WBC/ml, as well as positive cultures. Although sterile peritonitis has been reported in the literature, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of an unusual presentation of peritonitis without any white blood cells in the peritoneal aspirate despite multiple positive peritoneal cultures.
Case presentation
An 82-year-old Caucasian man who had been on continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis for 12 years was admitted to our hospital with general malaise, loss of appetite, weight loss and somnolence. He did not describe abdominal pain or fever. Even though his peritoneal fluid was consistently negative for leukocytes and clear, he had peritonitis with different organisms consecutively.
Conclusions
Our case report shows that any patient on peritoneal dialysis presenting with evidence of infection (fever, peripheral leukocytosis) without an obvious cause should have aspirate cultures done even if the aspirate is clear and abdominal pain is absent. Our case report may change the initial work-up and management of these patients. We believe this report is of interest to general medicine and emergency room physicians as well as nephrologists.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-383
PMCID: PMC3003677  PMID: 21110897
2.  An Extremely Uncommon Case of Parasitic Infection Presenting as Eosinophilic Ascites in a Young Patient 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2011;5(1):139-143.
We report the case of a 24-year-old male patient admitted for recent ascites and splenomegaly of unknown origin. The patient was referred to our institution with complaints of diarrhea, epigastric pain, abdominal cramping and weight loss over the past three weeks. The acute onset presented with colicky abdominal pain and peritoneal effusion. History revealed reduced appetite and weight gain of 7 kg over the last one month. His past medical history and family history was negative. He had no history of alcohol abuse or viral hepatitis infection. Laboratory data revealed normal transaminases and bilirubin levels, and alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyltransferase were within normal range. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed which showed free peritoneal fluid and normal abdominal viscera. Upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy performed a few days later revealed diffuse severe erythematous pangastritis and gastroduodenal gastric reflux. Duodenal biopsies showed chronic nonspecific duodenitis. Antrum and corpus biopsies showed chronic gastritis. The ascitic fluid was straw-colored and sterile with 80% eosinophils. Stool exam was negative for parasitic infection. Treatment with albendazole 400 mg twice daily for 5 days led to the disappearance of ascites and other signs and symptoms. Three months after albendazole treatment the eosinophilic cell count was normal. The final diagnosis was consistent with parasitic infection while the clinical, sonographic and histological findings suggested an eosinophilic ascites. We emphasize the importance of excluding parasitic infection in all patients with eosinophilic ascites. We chose an alternative way (albendazole treatment) to resolve this clinical picture. With our alternative way for excluding this parasitic infection, we treated the patient and then found the cause.
doi:10.1159/000326927
PMCID: PMC3088738  PMID: 21552435
Eosinophilic ascites; Parasitic infection; Albendazole
3.  Tuberculous peritonitis in a German patient with primary biliary cirrhosis: a case report 
Background
The number of cases of tuberculosis as a complication in people with immunodeficiency, people on immunosuppressive therapy and among the immigrant population is increasing in Germany. However, tuberculous peritonitis rarely occurs without these risks, particularly in Germans. The incidence of tuberculous peritonitis in Germany is very low; tuberculosis of the intestinal tract was found in approximately 0.8 % of tuberculosis cases in 2004. The diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis is often delayed on account of non-specific clinical symptoms. The absence of specific biological markers, long incubation times for cultures and non-specific radiographic or ultrasonographic signs increase the morbidity associated with this treatable condition.
Case presentation
We report a case of tuberculous peritonitis in a 73-year-old female German patient. Her medical history revealed primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) since 1992. On admission, she complained of abdominal pain, vomiting, ascites and peripheral edema. The patient has been in a seriously reduced general condition and had fever up to 39.6°C. A few weeks earlier, the patient was in another hospital with the same complaint. Inflammatory parameters were elevated, but the procalcitonin level was normal. Blood culture was always negative, as was the tuberculin test. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed massive ascites with multiple septa. The patient underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen which showed a thickened intestinal wall in the sigmoid colon and a pronounced enhancement of the peritoneum. Computed tomography scans of the lung showed only slight bilateral pleural effusion. Because of the anaesthetic and bleeding risk due to thrombocytopenia, laparoscopy was not immediately undertaken. The culture from ascites was positive for M.tuberculosis after three weeks.
Conclusion
In primary biliary cirrhosis patients with non-specific clinical symptoms, such as vomiting, abdominal pain, ascites, weight loss, and fever, tuberculous peritonitis must be considered in the initial differential diagnosis, although these symptoms may be attributed to cirrhosis of the liver with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Ultrasonographic and CT scab findings are not specific for tuberculous peritonitis, but an awareness of the ultrasonographic features and the features of the CT scan may help in the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis and avoid clinical mismanagement.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-32
PMCID: PMC2267201  PMID: 18237424
4.  Gangrenous appendicitis presenting as acute abdominal pain in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis: a case report 
Introduction
Presentations of abdominal pain in patients on peritoneal dialysis deserve maximal attention and careful differential diagnosis on admittance to medical care. In this case report a gangrenous appendicitis in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis is presented.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian man with end-stage renal disease who was on automated peritoneal dialysis and developed acute abdominal pain and cloudy peritoneal dialysate. Negative microbiological cultures of the peritoneal dialysis fluid and an abdominal ultrasonography misleadingly led to a diagnosis of culture negative peritonitis. It was decided to remove the peritoneal catheter but the clinical situation of the patient did not improve. An explorative laparotomy was then carried out; diffuse peritonitis and gangrenous appendicitis were found. An appendectomy was performed. Myocardial infarction and sepsis developed, and the outcome was fatal.
Conclusion
A peritoneal dialysis patient with abdominal pain that persists for more than 48 hours after the usual antibiotic protocol for peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis should immediately alert the physician to the possibility of peritonitis caused by intra-abdominal pathology. Not only peritoneal catheter removal is indicated in patients whose clinical features worsen or fail to resolve with the established intra-peritoneal antibiotic therapy but, after 72 hours, an early laparoscopy should be done and in a case of correct indication (intra-abdominal pathology) an early explorative laparotomy.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-309
PMCID: PMC3469333  PMID: 22989294
Abdominal pain; Appendicitis; Myocardial infarction; Peritoneal dialysis
5.  The role of ascitic fluid viscosity in the differential diagnosis of ascites 
BACKGROUND:
Ascites is defined as the pathological accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis, which is also the most common cause of ascites. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. Plasma viscosity is influenced by the concentration of plasma proteins and lipoproteins, with the major contribution from fibrinogen. To our knowledge, the viscosity of ascitic fluid has not yet been studied.
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the role of ascitic fluid viscosity in discriminating between ascites due to portal hypertension-related and nonportal hypertension-related causes, and to compare results with the serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG).
METHODS:
The present study involved 142 patients with ascites presenting with diverse medical problems. Serum total protein, albumin, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and complete blood count were obtained for all subjects. Paracentesis was performed routinely on admission and all ascitic fluid samples were evaluated by manual cell count with differential, ascitic fluid culture and biochemistry (total protein, albumin, glucose and LDH). Cultures of ascitic fluid were performed at bedside in all patients using blood culture bottles. Ascitic fluid viscosity was measured in a commercially available cone and plate viscometer.
RESULTS:
Of the 142 patients studied, 34 (24%) had an SAAG of 11 g/L or less, whereas 108 (76%) had an SAAG of greater than 11 g/L. Sex and mean age did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05). Serum total protein, albumin, glucose, LDH levels, leukocyte count, ascitic fluid glucose levels and ascitic fluid leukocyte counts were similar in both groups, with no statistically significant relationship detected (P>0.05). However, the mean (±SD) ascitic fluid total protein (0.0172±0.1104 g/L versus 0.043±0.011 g/L), albumin (0.0104±0.0064 g/L versus 0.0276±0.0069 g/L) and LDH (102.76±80.95 U/L versus 885.71±199.93 U/L) were found to be higher in patients with an SAAG of 11 g/L or less than in those with an SAAG of greater than 11 g/L (P<0.001). The mean ascitic fluid viscosities were 0.86±0.12 centipoise (cP) and 1.22±0.25 cP in patients with an SAAG greater than 11 g/L and an SAAG of 11 g/L or less, respectively (P<0.001). Although ascitic fluid infection was detected in 35 patients (24.6%) (19 patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, seven patients with culture-negative neutrocytic ascites, three patients with monobacterial non-neutrocytic bacterascites and six patients with secondary bacterial peritonitis), no significant effect on ascitic fluid viscosity was detected. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that ascitic fluid total protein, albumin and LDH levels were independent predictors of ascitic fluid viscosity (P<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ascitic fluid viscosity for the discrimination between ascites due to portal hypertension-related and nonportal hypertension-related causes according to the SAAG were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Regarding the cut-off value of 1.03 cP, ascitic fluid viscosity measurement had a high sensitivity, specificity (98% and 80%, respectively), and positive and negative predictive value (79% and 94%, respectively) for the etiological discrimination of ascites.
CONCLUSION:
The measurement of ascitic fluid viscosity correlates significantly with SAAG values. In view of its simplicity, low cost, small sample volume requirement and allowance for measurement in previously frozen samples, measurement of ascites viscosity could be useful for the accurate and rapid classification of ascites.
PMCID: PMC2864622  PMID: 20431815
Ascites; Serum-ascites albumin gradient; Viscosity
6.  T-Cell lymphoproliferative disorder of hand-mirror cell morphology presenting in an eosinophilic loculated peritoneal effusion, with omental "caking" 
CytoJournal  2006;3:13.
Background
Cells with "hand mirror" morphology have not, to the best of our knowledge, been described in a primary effusion sample. This paper describes a case of T-cell lymphoma with eosinophilia in a patient with suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. Rarely, a T-cell lymphoproliferative process may mimic primary peritoneal carcinomatosis, clinically suggested by a presentation in CT imaging of omental caking with bilateral massive loculated effusions in a patient without lymphadenopathy or splenomegaly.
Methods
A 60 year old caucasian male presented with vague abdominal discomfort and increasing abdominal girth. Computed tomography showed a two centimeter thick omental cake and a small loculated effusion. The clinical presentation and imaging findings were most consistent with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cytologic evaluation of the effusion was undertaken for diagnostic study.
Results
Rapid intraprocedural interpretation of the effusion sample showed a monomorphic population of cells with "hand-mirror" cell morphology exhibiting cytoplasmic extensions (uropodia) with 3–5 course dark cytoplasmic granules and a rim of vacuolated cytoplasm capping the opposing "mirror head" side. These cells were seen within a background of mature eosinophils. Flow cytometric evaluation of the ascites fluid demonstrated an atypical T-cell population with the following immunophenotype: CD2-, CD3+, CD4-, CD5-, CD7-, CD8+, CD56+. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement was positive for clonal TCR-gamma gene rearrangement, supporting the diagnosis of a T-lymphoprolifereative disorder.
Conclusion
A T-cell lymphoproliferative process may present with "hand mirror" morphology in an effusion sample. These cells may show polar cytoplasmic vacuolization and 3–5 course granules within the "handle" of these unique cells. Cytoplasm shows peripheral constriction around the nucleus.
doi:10.1186/1742-6413-3-13
PMCID: PMC1524978  PMID: 16681858
7.  Rheotaxis facilitates upstream navigation of mammalian sperm cells 
eLife  2014;3:e02403.
A major puzzle in biology is how mammalian sperm maintain the correct swimming direction during various phases of the sexual reproduction process. Whilst chemotaxis may dominate near the ovum, it is unclear which cues guide spermatozoa on their long journey towards the egg. Hypothesized mechanisms range from peristaltic pumping to temperature sensing and response to fluid flow variations (rheotaxis), but little is known quantitatively about them. We report the first quantitative study of mammalian sperm rheotaxis, using microfluidic devices to investigate systematically swimming of human and bull sperm over a range of physiologically relevant shear rates and viscosities. Our measurements show that the interplay of fluid shear, steric surface-interactions, and chirality of the flagellar beat leads to stable upstream spiralling motion of sperm cells, thus providing a generic and robust rectification mechanism to support mammalian fertilisation. A minimal mathematical model is presented that accounts quantitatively for the experimental observations.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02403.001
eLife digest
A sperm cell must complete a long and taxing journey to stand a chance of fertilising an egg cell. This quest covers a distance that is thousands of times longer than the length of a sperm cell. It also passes through the diverse environments of the cervix, the uterus and, finally, the oviduct, where there might be an egg to fertilise. How the sperm cells manage to stay on course over this distance is a mystery, although it has been suggested that many different factors, including chemical signals and fluid flow, are involved.
The fluids that the sperm cells travel through are not static. Evidence suggests that contractions of the cervix and uterus help to pump sperm cells along the first part of their journey. However, mucus flows out of the oviduct in the opposite direction to way the sperm cells need to go.
Sperm cells mostly move along the walls of the cervix, uterus, and oviduct. This means that sperm cells must contend with two properties of the fluids they travel through—the viscosity (or ‘thickness’) of the fluid, and the fact that different parts of the fluid will flow at different speeds, depending on how close it is to the wall (‘shear flow’).
Kantsler et al. have now used a technique called microfluidics—which involves forcing tiny amounts of liquid to flow through very narrow channels—to study how the movement of human and bull sperm cells along a surface is affected by the viscosity and flow rate of the fluid they are swimming through. The sperm cells were found to swim upstream, moving along the walls of the channels in a spiral movement. This is likely to help the sperm cells to find the egg, because spiralling around the oviduct will increase the chances of meeting the egg.
Kantsler et al. also built a mathematical model that describes how the sperm cells move. Although further work is needed to better understand the role played by chemical signals, understanding how fluid flow and viscosity influence sperm cells could lead to more effective artificial insemination techniques.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02403.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.02403
PMCID: PMC4031982  PMID: 24867640
sperm; rheotaxis; fertilization; human; other
8.  First report of Kocuria marina spontaneous peritonitis in a child 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):719.
Background
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a rare affection in the pediatric population. It usually occurs when concurrent conditions are present, such as nephrotic syndrome, peritoneal dialysis or liver disease. We report a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Kocuria marina in a 2-year-old child with no underlying risk factor. This is both the first description of an infection caused by this rare pathogen in a child and the first reported case of primary peritonitis caused by K. marina in a patient with no predisposing condition.
Case presentation
A 2 year-old boy presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with clinical signs of peritonitis. Laparoscopic surgical exploration confirmed purulent, generalized peritonitis without perforation. Culture of the peritoneal fluid revealed the presence of Kocuria marina, a Gram-positive coccoid environmental bacteria. After peritoneal lavage and appropriate antibiotic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged without sequel.
Conclusion
The present report illustrates the first clinical presentation of Kocuria marina SBP in a child with no underlying risk factor. Although never previously described in healthy patients, this pathogen may therefore be considered as a possible cause of SBP in a child. This unusual finding extends the spectrum of infectious diseases caused by Kocuria marina beyond the scope of the previously described susceptible population.
doi:10.1186/s12879-014-0719-5
PMCID: PMC4297396  PMID: 25547004
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Primary peritonitis; Pediatrics; Kocuria; Kocuria marina
9.  A Case of Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis in Which Gram Staining of Ascitic Fluid Was Useful for Diagnosis 
Case Reports in Surgery  2014;2014:417987.
An 85-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for steroid therapy for relapsing nephrotic syndrome. During hospitalization, she complained of sudden epigastric pain at night. Although there were signs of peritoneal irritation, CT showed a large amount of ascitic fluid, but no free intraperitoneal gas. Gram staining of ascitic fluid obtained by abdominal paracentesis showed Gram-negative rods, which raised a strong suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation and peritonitis. Therefore, emergency surgery was performed. Exploration of the colon showed multiple sigmoid diverticula, one of which was perforated. The patient underwent an emergency Hartmann's procedure. Imaging studies failed to reveal any evidence of gastrointestinal perforation, presenting a diagnostic challenge. However, a physician performed rapid Gram staining of ascitic fluid at night when laboratory technicians were absent, had a strong suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation, and performed emergency surgery. Gram staining is superior in rapidity, and ascitic fluid Gram staining can aid in diagnosis, suggesting that it should be actively performed. We report this case, with a review of the literature on the significance of rapid diagnosis by Gram staining.
doi:10.1155/2014/417987
PMCID: PMC3971547  PMID: 24716075
10.  Effect of alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis 
AIM: To evaluate effective alternative antibiotics in treatment of cefotaxime-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
METHODS: One hundred cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cell count (PMNLs) ≥ 250 cells/mm3 at admission] were empirically treated with cefotaxime sodium 2 g/12 h and volume expansion by intravenous human albumin. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete examination, laboratory tests (including a complete blood cell count, prothrombin time, biochemical tests of liver and kidney function, and fresh urine sediment), chest X-ray, a diagnostic abdominal paracentesis, and the sample subjected to total and differential cell count, chemical examination, aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Patients were divided after 2 d by a second ascitic PMNL count into group I; patients sensitive to cefotaxime (n = 81), group II (n = 19); cases resistant to cefotaxime (less than 25% decrease in ascitic PMNL count). Patients of group II were randomly assigned into meropenem (n = 11) or levofloxacin (n = 8) subgroups. All patients performed an end of treatment ascitic PMNL count. Patients were considered improved when: PMNLs decreased to < 250 cells/mm3, no growth in previously positive culture cases, and improved clinical manifestations with at least 5 d of antibiotic therapy.
RESULTS: Age, sex, and Child classes showed no significant difference between group I and group II. Fever and abdominal pain were the most frequent manifestations and were reported in 82.7% and 80.2% of patients in group I and in 94.7% and 84.2% of patients in group II, respectively. Patients in group II had a more severe ascitic inflammatory response than group I and this was demonstrated by more ascitic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [median: 540 IU/L (range: 150-1200 IU/L) vs median: 240 IU/L (range: 180-500 IU/L), P = 0.000] and PMNL [median: 15  000 cell/mm3 (range: 957-23  822 cell/mm3) vs 3400 cell/mm3 (range: 695-26  400 cell/mm3), P = 0.000] counts. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 32% of cases. Cefotaxime failed in 19% of patients; of these patients, 11 (100%) responded to meropenem and 6 (75%) responded to levofloxacin. Two patients with failed levofloxacin therapy were treated according to the in vitro culture and sensitivity (one case was treated with vancomycin and one case was treated with ampicillin/sulbactam). In group II the meropenem subgroup had higher LDH (range: 108-860 IU/L vs 120-491 IU/L, P = 0.042) and PMNL counts (range: 957-23  822 cell/mm3 vs 957-15  222 cell/mm3, P = 0.000) at initiation of the alternative antibiotic therapy; there was no significant difference in the studied parameters between patients responsive to meropenem and patients responsive to levofloxacin at the end of therapy (mean ± SD: 316.01 ± 104.03 PMNLs/mm3 vs 265.63 ± 69.61 PMNLs/mm3, P = 0.307). The isolated organisms found in group II were; enterococci, acinetobacter, expanded-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, β-lactamase producing Enterobacter and Staphylococcus aureus.
CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with cefotaxime is effective in 81% of cases; meropenem is effective in cefotaxime-resistant cases.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i8.1271
PMCID: PMC3587484  PMID: 23483064
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Cefotaxime; Ascitic polymorphonuclear count; Cirrhosis; Meropenem; Levofloxacin
11.  Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma presenting as recurrent adhesion obstruction in general surgery: a case report 
Introduction
Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a well-described entity in many reports in the literature in which it has been associated with asbestosis. However, there is no information describing the gross appearance and cardinal features seen during laparotomy, hence it is easy for the unwary surgeon to miss the diagnosis of this rare condition.
Case presentation
A 49-year-old man of African descent presented to our hospital with a three-month history of weight loss, anorexia, abdominal distension, and general signs of cachexia and ascites on second presentation. At first presentation one year prior to this, he had undergone a laparotomy at our institution by a different team for intestinal obstruction secondary to adhesions with no biopsy taken. The patient's condition subsequently progressively deteriorated, and investigations including upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopies and computed tomography of the abdomen were inconclusive, except for some free fluid in the peritoneal cavity and diffuse, mild thickening of the gut wall and mesentery. A second-look exploratory laparotomy revealed widespread nodular thickening of the visceral peritoneum with a striking, uniformly diffuse, erythematous, and velvety appearance. The peritoneal biopsy histology showed that the patient had malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. His condition deteriorated rapidly, and he died eight weeks after surgery.
Conclusion
Our report aims to increase the diagnosing clinician's awareness of the cardinal features of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and thus reduce diagnostic errors and delays in treatment.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-420
PMCID: PMC3180415  PMID: 21878098
peritoneal mesothelioma; clinical appearance
12.  Abscess of urachal remnants presenting with acute abdomen: a case series 
Introduction
Urachal diseases are rare and may develop from a congenital anomaly in which a persistent or partial reopening of the fetal communication between the bladder and the umbilicus persists. The most frequently reported urachal anomalies in adults are infected urachal cyst and urachal carcinoma. The diagnosis of this entity is not always easy because of the rarity of these diseases and the atypical symptoms at presentation. Imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography and computed tomography have a significant role in recognizing the presence of urachus-derived lesions.
Cases presentations
Case presentation 1: A 25-year-old Arab-Berber man presented with a 10-day history of progressive lower abdominal pain accompanied by fever, vomiting, and low urinary tract symptoms to our emergency department. Laboratory data revealed leucocytosis. The diagnosis of an acute peritonitis was made initially. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic tract from the umbilicus to the abdominal wall, and the diagnosis was rectified (infected urachal remnants). The patient was initially treated with intravenous antibiotics in combination with a percutaneous drainage. Afterwards an extraperitoneal excision of the urachal remnant including a cuff of bladder was performed. The histological analysis did not reveal a tumor of the urachal remnant. Follow-up examinations a few months later showed no abnormality.
Case presentation 2: A 35-year-old Arab-Berber man, without prior medical history with one week of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, associated with fever but without lower urinary tract symptoms visited our emergency department. Laboratory data revealed leucocytosis. Abdominal ultrasonography was not conclusive. Computed tomography of the abdomen was the key to the investigation and the diagnosis of an abscess of urachal remnants was made. The patient underwent the same choice of medical-surgical treatment as previously described for case one, with a good follow-up result.
Case presentation 3: A 22-year-old Arab-Berber man, with no relevant past medical history, presented to our emergency department because of suspected acute surgical abdomen. Physical examination revealed umbilical discharge with erythema and a tender umbilical mass. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis of infected urachal sinus. Initial management was intravenous antibiotics associated with a percutaneous drainage with a good post-operative result, but a few days later, he was readmitted with the same complaint and the decision was made for surgical treatment consisting of excision of the infected urachal sinus. The clinical course was uneventful. Histological examination did not reveal any signs of malignancy.
Conclusions
We describe our clinical observations and an analysis of the existing literature to present the various clinical, radiological, pathological and therapeutic aspects of an abscess of urachal remnants. To the best of our knowledge, this manuscript is an original case report because this atypical presentation is rarely reported in the literature and only a few cases have been described.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-226
PMCID: PMC3459711  PMID: 22846644
Urachus; Bladder; Neoplasms; Urachal cyst; Urachal remnant; Urachal sinus; Abcess
13.  Fungemia due to Lachancea fermentati: a case report 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:250.
Background
Lachancea fermentati is an environmental yeast that is also used in the fermentation of alcoholic drinks. It has not previously been described as a human pathogen although the closely related yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, can cause fungemia. Here we report a case of L. fermentati acting as a pathogen in a septic patient with cultures positive from blood, peritoneal fluid, bile, and sputum.
Case presentation
A 36 year-old Caucasian man was hospitalized with acute alcoholic hepatitis complicated by Escherichia coli spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Three days after admission, he developed new fevers with sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. He was found to have a bowel perforation. Cultures from blood, peritoneal fluid, and sputum grew a difficult-to-identify yeast. Micafungin was started empirically. On hospital day 43 the yeast was identified as L. fermentati with low minimum inhibitory concentrations (by Epsilometer test) to all antifungals tested. Micafungin was changed to fluconazole to complete a 3-month course of therapy. Serial peritoneal fluid cultures remained positive for 31 days. One year after his initial hospitalization the patient had ongoing cirrhosis but had recovered from fungemia.
Conclusion
This case demonstrates the need for clinicians to consider host factors when interpreting culture results with normally non-pathogenic organisms. In this immunocompromised host L. fermentati caused disseminated disease. We believe his hobby of brewing alcohol led to colonization with L. fermentati, which then resulted in invasive disease when the opportunity arose.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-250
PMCID: PMC4022786  PMID: 24884938
Lachancea fermentati; Fungemia; Opportunistic pathogen
14.  Vernix Caseosa Peritonitis After Vaginal Delivery 
Introduction
Vernix caseosa peritonitis (VCP) is a very unusual complication caused by inflammatory response to amniotic fluid spilled into the maternal peritoneal cavity. Twenty-seven cases have been reported, and all occurred after cesarean section.
Case presentation
We present a case of VCP following vaginal delivery; this may be the first case reported after vaginal delivery. Mrs. A, 28 years old, gravida 3, para 2, with one previous cesarean section, was admitted at 41 weeks gestation in active labor. Vacuum extraction was performed to deliver a healthy male baby, 4.410 kg, Apgar scores 7, 8. She developed fever, acute abdominal pain, and distension about 3 hours after delivery. A diagnosis of acute abdomen was made. Laparotomy was performed and it revealed neither uterine scar rupture nor other surgical emergencies, but 500 mL of turbid fluid and some cheesy material on the serosal surface of all viscera. Biopsies were taken. She had a course of antibiotics and her recovery was complete. Histology of the peritoneal fluid and tissue biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of VCP.
Conclusion
Clinical diagnosis of peritonitis due to vernix caseosa should be considered in patients presenting postpartum with an acute abdomen after vaginal delivery.
doi:10.4137/CCRep.S12771
PMCID: PMC3798294  PMID: 24151427
vernix caseosa peritonitis; vaginal delivery; laparotomy
15.  Peritoneal adhesion: it can be life-threatening, and life-saving 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:113.
Background
The inevitable post-inflammatory fibrosis and adhesion often compromises future treatment in peritoneal dialysis patients. Here, we describe a patient who experienced an unusual form of peritoneal adhesion that made her give up peritoneal dialysis. However, its unique pattern also saved her from infection caused by bowel perforation.
Case presentation
The female patient discontinued peritoneal dialysis due to gradual dialysis inadequacy. Two months after shifting to hemodialysis with generally improved sense of well-being and no sign of abdominal illness, she was admitted to remove the Tenckhoff catheter. The procedure was smooth, but fever and abdominal pain not at the site of operation developed the next day. Abdominal ultrasound showed the presence of ascites and aspiration revealed slimy, green-yellowish pus that gave a negative result on bacterial culture. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) with oral contrast medium was performed, but failed to demonstrate the suspected bowel perforation. The examination, however, did show accumulation of pus inside the abdomen but outside the peritoneal cavity. We drained the pus with two 14-F Pig-tail catheters and the total amount of drainage approached 4000 ml. The second CT was performed with double dose of the contrast medium and found a leak of the contrast from the jejunum. She then received laparotomy and had the perforation site closed.
Conclusions
In summary, this uremic patient suffered from pus accumulation inside her abdomen without obvious systemic toxic effect. The bowel perforation and pus formation might be caused by repeated peritonitis, but the peritoneal adhesion itself might also isolate her peritoneal cavity from the anticipated toxic injuries of bowel perforation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-113
PMCID: PMC3506508  PMID: 22992203
Peritoneal dialysis; Peritonitis; Ultrafiltration failure; Peritoneal adhesion; Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis
16.  Eosinophilic Ascites and Duodenal Obstruction in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis 
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of portions of the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophilic ascites is probably the most unusual and rare presentation of EG and is generally associated with the serosal form of EG. Hereby, we report a case of eosinophilic ascites with duodenal obstruction in a patient with liver cirrhosis. A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, and constipation. She had a history of laparotomy because of duodenal obstruction 2 years ago. Based on clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings, and given the excluding the other causes of peripheral eosinophilia, the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis along with liver cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was established. Based on the findings of the present case, it is highly recommended that, in the patients presented with liver cirrhosis associated with peripheral blood or ascitic fluid eosinophilia, performing gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy can probably reveal this rare disorder of EG.
doi:10.1155/2014/928496
PMCID: PMC3977568  PMID: 24772356
17.  Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction 
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is defined by a positive ascitic fluid bacterial culture and an elevated ascitic fluid absolute polymorphonuclear count (≥250 cells/mm3) without an evident intra-abdominal, surgically treatable source of infection. Transient ascites is well documented in patients with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction but spontaneous bacterial peritonitis complicating extrahepatic portal venous obstruction is extremely uncommon. The postulated reasons for the low incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction includes: lower incidence of ascites; intact hepatic reticuloendothelial system; and a relatively high ascitic fluid protein content. Here we report two cases of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis complicating extrahepatic portal venous obstruction.
PMCID: PMC3959491  PMID: 24714664
Extrahepatic portal venous obstruction; spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; ascites
18.  AB 75. Abdominal tuberculosis: presentation of two cases 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB75.
Background
The presentation of two cases with tuberculous enteritis and tuberculous peritonitis respectively.
Patients and methods: Cases 1
Α 53 year old immigrant male, with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis and previous treatment, presented with anorexia, fatigue, intermittent abdominal pain, hoarseness and loss of weight during the past month. Chest radiography showed fibrotic scars and volume loss of the left upper lobe, while laryngoscopy revealed ulceration and oedema at the left aryepiglottic fold. On day 2 of his hospitalization in ENT clinic, patient presented acute abdominal pain, requiring surgical intervention. Surgical findings were a perforation of the small intestine, an edematous and friable mucosa and a widespread of ulcers. Bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. Pathology results of the obtained biopsy samples from the small intestine and larynx revealed the presence of chronic caseating granuloma. Anti-tuberculous treatment with INH, RIF, PZ and EMB was administrated and patient improved gradually. Case 2. A 69 year old female with a medical history of end-stage renal disease treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, presented with fever, fatigue and abdominal pain during the past weeks. Chest radiography showed fibrotic scars of the upper lobes and CT of the abdomen was normal. The number of cells in peritoneal dialysis fluid was increased with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells. An initial diagnosis of bacterial peritonitis was made and broad-spectrum antibiotics were administrated, without improvement. The cultures of the peritoneal fluid were negative for common bacteria. Tuberculin sensitivity test was positive. The Ziehl-Neelsen stain of the peritoneal fluid was positive for acid-fast bacilli and culture identified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Αnti-tuberculous treatment with INH, RIF, PZ and EMB was started and patient responded promptly with resolution of abdominal pain and remission of fever.
Conclusions
A high index of suspicion must be maintained for abdominal tuberculosis in high-risk for tuberculosis patients who present with abdominal symptoms.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.s075
PMCID: PMC3537414
19.  Successful treatment of massive ascites due to lupus peritonitis with hydroxychloroquine in old- onset lupus erythematosus 
Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is an auto-immune disease with multiple organ involvements that occurs mainly in young women. Literature data suggest that serositis is more frequent in late-onset SLE. However, peritoneal serositis with massive ascites is an extremely rare manifestation. We report a case of old-onset lupus peritonitis treated successfully by Hydroxychloroquine. A 77-year-old Tunisian woman was hospitalized because of massive painful ascites. Her family history did not include any autoimmune disease. She was explored 4 years prior to admission for exudative pleuritis of the right lung without any established diagnosis. Physical examination showed only massive ascites. Laboratory investigations showed leucopenia: 3100/mm3, lymphopenia: 840/mm3 and trace protein (0.03g/24h). Ascitic fluid contained 170 cells mm3 (67% lymphocytes), 46 g/L protein, but no malignant cells. The main etiologies of exudative ascites were excluded. She had markedly elevated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) titer of 1/1600 and a significantly elevated titer of antibody to double-stranded DNA (83 IU/mL) with hypo-complementemia (C3 levl was at 67 mg/dL). Antibody against the Smith antigen was also positive. Relying on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with SLE and treated with Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg daily in combination with diuretics. One month later, there was no detectable ascitic fluid and no pleural effusions. Five months later she remained free from symptoms while continuing to take chloroquine. This case was characterized by old age of onset of SLE, the extremely rare initial presentation with lupus peritonitis and massive painful ascites with dramatic response to only hydroxychloroquine treatment.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2014.18.165.2080
PMCID: PMC4239444  PMID: 25422683
Ascites; systemic lupus erythematosus; Hydroxychloroquine; Old-onset
20.  Tuberculous peritonitis in children: Report of nine patients and review of the literature 
AIM: To present our experience with tuberculous peritonitis treated in our hospital from 2002-2007.
METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 9 children with tuberculous peritonitis.
RESULTS: Nine patients (5 boys, 4 girls) of mean age 14.2 years were diagnosed with peritoneal tuberculosis. All patients presented with abdominal distention. Abdominal pain was seen in 55.5% and fever in 44.4% of the patients. Four cases had coexisting pleural effusion and two had pulmonary tuberculosis with parenchymal consolidation. Ultrasonography found ascites with septation in 7 patients. Two patients had only ascites without septation. Ascitic fluid analysis of 8 patients yielded serum-ascite albumin gradients of less than 1.1 gr/dL. Laparoscopy and laparotomy showed that whitish tuberculi were the most common appearance. Adhesions were also seen in three cases. The diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis was confirmed histo-pathologically in 7 patients and microbiologically in two. Two patients had been diagnosed by ascitic fluid diagnostic features and a positive response to antituberculous treatment. All patients completed the antituberculous therapy without any complications.
CONCLUSION: Tuberculous peritonitis has to be clinically suspected in all patients with slowly progressive abdominal distension, particularly when it is accompanied by fever and pain. Laparoscopy and peritoneal biopsy are still the most reliable, quick and safe methods for the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.7235
PMCID: PMC2776883  PMID: 19084940
Child; Clinical presentation; Diagnosis; Tuberculous peritonitis
21.  Torsion of Meckel's diverticulum as a cause of small bowel obstruction: A case report 
Axial torsion and necrosis of Meckel’s diverticulum causing simultaneous mechanical small bowel obstruction are the rarest complications of this congenital anomaly. This kind of pathology has been reported only eleven times. Our case report presents this very unusual case of Meckel’s diverticulum. A 41-year-old man presented at the emergency department with complaints of crampy abdominal pain, nausea and retention of stool and gases. Clinical diagnosis was small bowel obstruction. Because the origin of obstruction was unknown, computer tomography was indicated. Computed tomography (CT)-scan revealed dilated small bowel loops with multiple air-fluid levels; the oral contrast medium had reached the jejunum and proximal parts of the ileum but not the distal small bowel loops or the large bowel; in the right mid-abdomen there was a 11 cm × 6.4 cm × 7.8 cm fluid containing cavity with thickened wall, which was considered a dilated bowel-loop or cyst or diverticulum. Initially the patient was treated conservatively. Because of persistent abdominal pain emergency laparotomy was indicated. Abdominal exploration revealed distended small bowel loops proximal to the obstruction, and a large (12 cm × 14 cm) Meckel’s diverticulum at the site of obstruction. Meckel’s diverticulum was axially rotated by 720°, which caused small bowel obstruction and diverticular necrosis. About 20 cm of the small bowel with Meckel’s diverticulum was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. We recommend CT-scan as the most useful diagnostic tool in bowel obstruction of unknown origin. In cases of Meckel’s diverticulum causing small bowel obstruction, prompt surgical treatment is indicated; delay in diagnosis and in adequate treatment may lead to bowel necrosis and peritonitis.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v6.i10.204
PMCID: PMC4208045  PMID: 25346803
Meckel’s diverticulum; Axial torsion; Gangrene; Bowel obstruction; Emergency surgery
22.  Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma as a rare cause of ascites in a young man: a case report 
Introduction
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma is a rare but distinct variant of fibrosarcoma that not only presents as a deep-seated mass on the limbs and neck but can also occur adjacent to the fascia or peritoneum, as well as the trunk and spine. We report the case of an intra-abdominal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, which to best of the authors' knowledge has not been described previously. The patient discussed here developed lung metastases but is still alive 1-year post-diagnosis.
Case presentation
A 29-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of progressive abdominal distension and pain and was found to have marked ascites. A full liver screen was unremarkable with abdominal and chest computed tomography scans only confirming ascites. After a diagnostic laparotomy, biopsies were taken from the greater omentum and peritoneal nodules. Histopathology revealed a malignant tumour composed of sheets and cords of small round cells set in collagenized stroma. After further molecular investigation at the Mayo Clinic, USA, the diagnosis of a high-grade sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma was confirmed.
Conclusion
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour, which is often difficult to diagnose and which few pathologists have encountered. This case is particularly unusual because of the intra-abdominal origin of the tumour. Owing to the rarity of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, there is no clear evidence regarding the prognosis of such a tumour, although sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma is able to metastasize many years post-presentation. It is important that physicians and pathologists are aware of this unusual tumour.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-248
PMCID: PMC2503998  PMID: 18657268
23.  Critical ventriculo-peritoneal shunt failure due to peritoneal tuberculosis: Case report and diagnostic suggestions for abdominal pseudocyst 
Background:
Tuberculous peritonitis (TBP) is a well-known complication of ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt treatment for hydrocephalus resulting from tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, a case of hydrocephalus unrelated to TBM resulting from VP shunt malfunction due to TBP has not been reported.
Case Description:
A 21-year-old male presented with nausea, abdominal pain, and headache. VP and cysto-peritoneal (CP) shunts had been inserted to treat hydrocephalus due to a suprasellar arachnoid cyst, replaced the VP and removed the CP in his childhood. Computed tomography demonstrated acute hydrocephalus and an abdominal pseudocyst surrounding the distal end of the peritoneal tube. Initial laboratory data showed elevated white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level, but no causative pathogen was identified. External drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and of the fluid in the peritoneal cyst was established, and empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated. Bacterial cultures eventually revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and TBP was diagnosed. The patient responded well to antituberculosis (anti-TB) agents and insertion of a ventriculo-pleural shunt.
Conclusion:
This case highlights the possibility of CSF shunt failure and concomitant neurological sequelae from TB infection even when the pathogen has not invaded the central nervous system, as in TBM. Moreover, TBP is rare in developed countries and therefore may be misdiagnosed because of nonspecific clinical features and low sensitivity of common TB screening methods.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.132583
PMCID: PMC4078457  PMID: 24991474
Abdominal complication; cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst; shunt malfunction; tuberculous peritonitis; ventriculo-peritoneal shunt
24.  Development of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis after Extended Hepatic Resection in a Patient without Evidence of Liver Cirrhosis 
Gut and Liver  2010;4(1):129-134.
Hilar cholangiocarcinomas are often treated with liver resections. Hepatic dysfunction and infection are common postoperative complications. Although secondary bacterial peritonitis due to abdominal abscess or perforation is common, we report herein the first case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis after hepatic resection. A 61-year-old male patient without underlying liver disease was diagnosed as having a Klatskin tumor, and a right trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy was performed. From postoperative days 18-28, the patient gained 4.1 kg as ascites developed, and showed evidence of hepatic insufficiency with prolonged prothrombin time and jaundice. Computed tomography, performed at postoperative day 28 when fever had developed, showed only ascites without bowel perforation or abscess. When paracentesis was performed, the serum-ascites albumin gradient was 2.3 g/dL, indicating portal hypertension, and the ascites' polymorphonuclear cell count was 1,156/mm3. Since the clinical, laboratory, and image findings were compatible with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, we started empirical antibiotics without additional intervention. Follow-up analysis of the ascites after 48 hours revealed that the polymorphonuclear cell count had decreased markedly to 108/mm3; the fever and leukocytosis had also improved. After 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment, the patient recovered well, and was discharged without any problem.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2010.4.1.129
PMCID: PMC2871612  PMID: 20479927
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Hepatic resection; Cholangiocarcinoma
25.  Ascitic fluid pH in alcoholic cirrhosis: a reevaluation of its use in the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. 
Gut  1985;26(4):332-335.
An ascitic fluid pH less than or equal to 7.31 has been advanced as being the best index in the early diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients. In order to test the validity of this criteria, 55 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and ascites were studied. In each patient, arterial blood and ascitic fluid samples were analysed for pH, PCO2, total CO2 and PO2, and the pH gradient between blood and ascites was calculated. White blood cell and polymorphonuclear cell counts were determined in ascitic fluid, and cultures of ascites were done under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Twelve patients had a culture proven spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Their mean ascitic fluid pH (+/- SD) was 7.38 +/- 0.09 (range 7.21-7.49) and differed significantly (p less than 0.05) from that found in patients without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: 7.44 +/- 0.06 (range 7.34-7.6.3). A marked overlap was observed, however, between the two groups, and only three out of the 12 patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis had an ascitic fluid pH less than or equal to 7.31. The pH gradient was 0.10 +/- 0.08 (range -0.01 to +0.28) in the spontaneous bacterial peritonitis group, as compared with 0.02 +/- 0.04 (range -0.09 to +0.12) in the sterile group (p less than 0.01), but a marked overlap was also noted between the two groups. In the spontaneous bacterial peritonitis group, the polymorphonuclear count was 3588 +/- 3849/microliter (range 60-11 776) versus 41 +/- 138/microliter (range 0-813) in the sterile group (p less than 0.0001). All but one patient in the spontaneous bacterial peritonitis group and only two patients in the sterile group had over 250 polymorphonuclear/ microliter. Thus, in our experience, neither the ascitic fluid pH nor the pH gradient values accurately discriminated the individual patients with and without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. A polymorphonuclear count less than 250/ microliter remained the best criteria for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients, before having the results of ascitic fluid cultures.
PMCID: PMC1432509  PMID: 3979905

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