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1.  Do Termites Avoid Carcasses? Behavioral Responses Depend on the Nature of the Carcasses 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e36375.
Background
Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses.
Methodology and Principal Findings
In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) (lower termites) and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites). We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses) and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1) the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2) the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3) only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature.
Conclusion
We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036375
PMCID: PMC3338677  PMID: 22558452
2.  Roles of Oxygen and the Intestinal Microflora in the Metabolism of Lignin-Derived Phenylpropanoids and Other Monoaromatic Compounds by Termites 
Prompted by our limited understanding of the degradation of lignin and lignin-derived aromatic metabolites in termites, we studied the metabolism of monoaromatic model compounds by termites and their gut microflora. Feeding trials performed with [ring-U-(sup14)C]benzoic acid and [ring-U-(sup14)C]cinnamic acid revealed the general ability of termites of the major feeding guilds (wood and soil feeders and fungus cultivators) to mineralize the aromatic nucleus. Up to 70% of the radioactive label was released as (sup14)CO(inf2); the remainder was more or less equally distributed among termite bodies, gut contents, and feces. Gut homogenates of the wood-feeding termites Nasutitermes lujae (Wasmann) and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) mineralized ring-labeled benzoic or cinnamic acid only if oxygen was present. In the absence of oxygen, benzoate was not attacked, and cinnamate was only reduced to phenylpropionate. Similar results were obtained with other, nonlabeled lignin-related phenylpropanoids (ferulic, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic, and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids), whose ring moieties underwent degradation only if oxygen was present. Under anoxic conditions, the substrates were merely modified (by side chain reduction and demethylation), and this modification occurred at the same time as a net accumulation of phenylpropanoids formed endogenously in the gut homogenate, a phenomenon not observed under oxic conditions. Enumeration by the most-probable-number technique revealed that each N. lujae gut contained about 10(sup5) bacteria that were capable of completely mineralizing aromatic substrates in the presence of oxygen (about 10(sup8) bacteria per ml). In the absence of oxygen, small numbers of ring-modifying microorganisms were found (<50 bacteria per gut), but none of these microorganisms were capable of ring cleavage. Similar results were obtained with gut homogenates of R. flavipes, except that a larger number of anaerobic ring-modifying microorganisms was present (>5 x 10(sup3) bacteria per gut). Neither inclusion of potential cosubstrates (H(inf2), pyruvate, lactate) nor inclusion of hydrogenotrophic partner organisms resulted in anoxic ring cleavage in most-probable-number tubes prepared with gut homogenates of either termite. The oxygen dependence of aromatic ring cleavage by the termite gut microbiota is consistent with the presence, and uptake by microbes, of O(inf2) in the peripheral region of otherwise anoxic gut lumina (as reported in the accompanying paper [A. Brune, D. Emerson, and J. A. Breznak, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:2681-2687, 1995]). Taken together, our results indicate that microbial degradation of plant aromatic compounds can occur in termite guts and may contribute to the carbon and energy requirement of the host.
PMCID: PMC1388495  PMID: 16535077
3.  The Antibacterial Protein Lysozyme Identified as the Termite Egg Recognition Pheromone 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(8):e813.
Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus ‘termite-ball’ and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP), which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence of pathogenic microbes on the evolution of social behaviour in termites.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000813
PMCID: PMC1950569  PMID: 17726543
4.  Caste- and development-associated gene expression in a lower termite 
Genome Biology  2003;4(10):R62.
Social insects such as termites express dramatic polyphenism (the occurrence of multiple forms in a species on the basis of differential gene expression) both in association with caste differentiation and between castes after differentiation. We have used cDNA macroarrays to compare gene expression between polyphenic castes and intermediary developmental stages of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.
Background
Social insects such as termites express dramatic polyphenism (the occurrence of multiple forms in a species on the basis of differential gene expression) both in association with caste differentiation and between castes after differentiation. We have used cDNA macroarrays to compare gene expression between polyphenic castes and intermediary developmental stages of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.
Results
We identified differentially expressed genes from nine ontogenic categories. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify precise differences in gene expression between castes and between intermediary developmental stages. We found worker and nymph-biased expression of transcripts encoding termite and endosymbiont cellulases; presoldier-biased expression of transcripts encoding the storage/hormone-binding protein vitellogenin; and soldier-biased expression of gene transcripts encoding two transcription/translation factors, two signal transduction factors and four cytoskeletal/muscle proteins. The two transcription/translation factors showed significant homology to the bicaudal and bric-a-brac developmental genes of Drosophila.
Conclusions
Our results show differential expression of regulatory, structural and enzyme-coding genes in association with termite castes and their developmental precursor stages. They also provide the first glimpse into how insect endosymbiont cellulase gene expression can vary in association with the caste of a host. These findings shed light on molecular processes associated with termite biology, polyphenism, caste differentiation and development and highlight potentially interesting variations in developmental themes between termites, other insects, and higher animals.
PMCID: PMC328451  PMID: 14519197
5.  Asexual queen succession in the subterranean termite Reticulitermes virginicus 
Termite colonies are founded by a pair of primary reproductives. In many species, including subterranean termites (family Rhinotermitidae), the primary king and queen can be succeeded by neotenic reproductives that are produced from workers or nymphs within the colony. It is generally believed that these neotenics inbreed within the colony, sometimes for many generations. Here, we show that primary queens of the North American subterranean termite, Reticulitermes virginicus, are replaced by numerous parthenogenetically produced female neotenics. We collected functional female neotenics from five colonies of R. virginicus in North Carolina and Texas, USA. Genetic analysis at eight microsatellite loci showed that 91–100% of the neotenics present within a colony were homozygous at all loci, indicating that they were produced through automictic parthenogenesis with terminal fusion. In contrast, workers, soldiers and alates were almost exclusively sexually produced by mating between the female neotenics and a single king. This is the second termite species shown to undergo asexual queen succession, a system first described in the Japanese species, Reticulitermes speratus. Thus, the conditional use of sexual and asexual reproduction to produce members of different castes may be widespread within Reticulitermes and possibly other subterranean termites.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1030
PMCID: PMC3248721  PMID: 21831899
parthenogenesis; inbreeding; caste differentiation; microsatellite; breeding system
6.  Multiple Levels of Synergistic Collaboration in Termite Lignocellulose Digestion 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e21709.
In addition to evolving eusocial lifestyles, two equally fascinating aspects of termite biology are their mutualistic relationships with gut symbionts and their use of lignocellulose as a primary nutrition source. Termites are also considered excellent model systems for studying the production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from 2nd generation (non-food) feedstocks. While the idea that gut symbionts are the sole contributors to termite lignocellulose digestion has remained popular and compelling, in recent years host contributions to the digestion process have become increasingly apparent. However, the degree to which host and symbiont, and host enzymes, collaborate in lignocellulose digestion remain poorly understood. Also, how digestive enzymes specifically collaborate (i.e., in additive or synergistic ways) is largely unknown. In the present study we undertook translational-genomic studies to gain unprecedented insights into digestion by the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its symbiotic gut flora. We used a combination of native gut tissue preparations and recombinant enzymes derived from the host gut transcriptome to identify synergistic collaborations between host and symbiont, and also among enzymes produced exclusively by the host termite. Our findings provide important new evidence of synergistic collaboration among enzymes in the release of fermentable monosaccharides from wood lignocellulose. These monosaccharides (glucose and pentoses) are highly relevant to 2nd-generation bioethanol production. We also show that, although significant digestion capabilities occur in host termite tissues, catalytic tradeoffs exist that apparently favor mutualism with symbiotic lignocellulose-digesting microbes. These findings contribute important new insights towards the development of termite-derived biofuel processing biotechnologies and shed new light on selective forces that likely favored symbiosis and, subsequently, group living in primitive termites and their cockroach ancestors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021709
PMCID: PMC3128603  PMID: 21747950
7.  Parallel metatranscriptome analyses of host and symbiont gene expression in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes 
Background
Termite lignocellulose digestion is achieved through a collaboration of host plus prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts. In the present work, we took a combined host and symbiont metatranscriptomic approach for investigating the digestive contributions of host and symbiont in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Our approach consisted of parallel high-throughput sequencing from (i) a host gut cDNA library and (ii) a hindgut symbiont cDNA library. Subsequently, we undertook functional analyses of newly identified phenoloxidases with potential importance as pretreatment enzymes in industrial lignocellulose processing.
Results
Over 10,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from the 2 libraries that aligned into 6,555 putative transcripts, including 171 putative lignocellulase genes. Sequence analyses provided insights in two areas. First, a non-overlapping complement of host and symbiont (prokaryotic plus protist) glycohydrolase gene families known to participate in cellulose, hemicellulose, alpha carbohydrate, and chitin degradation were identified. Of these, cellulases are contributed by host plus symbiont genomes, whereas hemicellulases are contributed exclusively by symbiont genomes. Second, a diverse complement of previously unknown genes that encode proteins with homology to lignase, antioxidant, and detoxification enzymes were identified exclusively from the host library (laccase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, carboxylesterase, cytochrome P450). Subsequently, functional analyses of phenoloxidase activity provided results that were strongly consistent with patterns of laccase gene expression. In particular, phenoloxidase activity and laccase gene expression are mostly restricted to symbiont-free foregut plus salivary gland tissues, and phenoloxidase activity is inducible by lignin feeding.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the first time that a dual host-symbiont transcriptome sequencing effort has been conducted in a single termite species. This sequence database represents an important new genomic resource for use in further studies of collaborative host-symbiont termite digestion, as well as development of coevolved host and symbiont-derived biocatalysts for use in industrial biomass-to-bioethanol applications. Additionally, this study demonstrates that: (i) phenoloxidase activities are prominent in the R. flavipes gut and are not symbiont derived, (ii) expands the known number of host and symbiont glycosyl hydrolase families in Reticulitermes, and (iii) supports previous models of lignin degradation and host-symbiont collaboration in cellulose/hemicellulose digestion in the termite gut. All sequences in this paper are available publicly with the accession numbers FL634956-FL640828 (Termite Gut library) and FL641015-FL645753 (Symbiont library).
doi:10.1186/1754-6834-2-25
PMCID: PMC2768689  PMID: 19832970
8.  Differential impacts of juvenile hormone, soldier head extract and alternate caste phenotypes on host and symbiont transcriptome composition in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:491.
Background
Termites are highly eusocial insects and show a division of labor whereby morphologically distinct individuals specialize in distinct tasks. In the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Rhinotermitidae), non-reproducing individuals form the worker and soldier castes, which specialize in helping (e.g., brood care, cleaning, foraging) and defense behaviors, respectively. Workers are totipotent juveniles that can either undergo status quo molts or develop into soldiers or neotenic reproductives. This caste differentiation can be regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) and primer pheromones contained in soldier head extracts (SHE). Here we offered worker termites a cellulose diet treated with JH or SHE for 24-hr, or held them with live soldiers (LS) or live neotenic reproductives (LR). We then determined gene expression profiles of the host termite gut and protozoan symbionts concurrently using custom cDNA oligo-microarrays containing 10,990 individual ESTs.
Results
JH was the most influential treatment (501 total ESTs affected), followed by LS (24 ESTs), LR (12 ESTs) and SHE treatments (6 ESTs). The majority of JH up- and downregulated ESTs were of host and symbiont origin, respectively; in contrast, SHE, LR and LS treatments had more uniform impacts on host and symbiont gene expression. Repeat “follow-up” bioassays investigating combined JH + SHE impacts in relation to individual JH and SHE treatments on a subset of array-positive genes revealed (i) JH and SHE treatments had opposite impacts on gene expression and (ii) JH + SHE impacts on gene expression were generally intermediate between JH and SHE.
Conclusions
Our results show that JH impacts hundreds of termite and symbiont genes within 24-hr, strongly suggesting a role for the termite gut in JH-dependent caste determination. Additionally, differential impacts of SHE and LS treatments were observed that are in strong agreement with previous studies that specifically investigated soldier caste regulation. However, it is likely that gene expression outside the gut may be of equal or greater importance than gut gene expression.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-491
PMCID: PMC3731027  PMID: 23870282
Metagenomics; Soldier head extract; Microarray; Caste differentiation; Live soldier; Live reproductive
9.  Disruption of the Termite Gut Microbiota and Its Prolonged Consequences for Fitness ▿ †  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2011;77(13):4303-4312.
The disruption of host-symbiont interactions through the use of antibiotics can help elucidate microbial functions that go beyond short-term nutritional value. Termite gut symbionts have been studied extensively, but little is known about their impact on the termite's reproductive output. Here we describe the effect that the antibiotic rifampin has not only on the gut microbial diversity but also on the longevity, fecundity, and weight of two termite species, Zootermopsis angusticollis and Reticulitermes flavipes. We report three key findings: (i) the antibiotic rifampin, when fed to primary reproductives during the incipient stages of colony foundation, causes a permanent reduction in the diversity of gut bacteria and a transitory effect on the density of the protozoan community; (ii) rifampin treatment reduces oviposition rates of queens, translating into delayed colony growth and ultimately reduced colony fitness; and (iii) the initial dosages of rifampin had severe long-term fitness effects on Z. angusticollis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the antibiotic-induced perturbation of the microbial community is associated with prolonged reductions in longevity and fecundity. A causal relationship between these changes in the gut microbial population structures and fitness is suggested by the acquisition of opportunistic pathogens and incompetence of the termites to restore a pretreatment, native microbiota. Our results indicate that antibiotic treatment significantly alters the termite's microbiota, reproduction, colony establishment, and ultimately colony growth and development. We discuss the implications for antimicrobials as a new application to the control of termite pest species.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01886-10
PMCID: PMC3127728  PMID: 21571887
10.  Cellulolytic Protist Numbers Rise and Fall Dramatically in Termite Queens and Kings during Colony Foundation 
Eukaryotic Cell  2013;12(4):545-550.
Among the best-known examples of mutualistic symbioses is that between lower termites and the cellulolytic flagellate protists in their hindguts. Although the symbiosis in worker termites has attracted much attention, there have been only a few studies of protists in other castes. We have performed the first examination of protist population dynamics in queens and kings during termite colony foundation. Protist numbers, as well as measurements of hindgut and reproductive tissue sizes, were undertaken at five time points over 400 days in incipient colonies of Reticulitermes speratus, as well as in other castes of mature colonies of this species. We found that protist numbers increased dramatically in both queens and kings during the first 50 days of colony foundation but began to decrease by day 100, eventually disappearing by day 400. Hindgut width followed a pattern similar to that of protist numbers, while ovary and testis widths increased significantly only at day 400. Kings were found to contain higher numbers of protists than queens in incipient colonies, which may be linked to higher levels of nutrient transfer from kings to queens than vice versa, as is known in some other termite species. Protists were found to be abundant in soldiers from mature colonies but absent in neotenics. This probably reflects feeding of soldiers by workers via proctodeal trophallaxis and of reproductives via stomodeal trophallaxis. The results reveal the dynamic nature of protist numbers during colony foundation and highlight the trade-offs that exist between reproduction and parental care during this critical phase of the termite life cycle.
doi:10.1128/EC.00286-12
PMCID: PMC3623431  PMID: 23376945
11.  Defining host-symbiont collaboration in termite lignocellulose digestion 
Termites have the unique ability to exploit lignocellulose as a primary nutrition source. Traditionally, termite lignocellulose digestion has been considered as a gut-symbiont-mediated process; however, in recent years the importance of host digestive capabilities have become apparent. Despite this growing understanding, how digestive enzymes from different origins specifically collaborate (i.e., additively or synergistically) has remained largely unknown. In a recent study, we undertook translational-genomic studies to address these questions in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and its symbiotic gut fauna. We used a combination of native gut tissue preparations and recombinant enzymes derived from the host gut transcriptome to identify synergistic collaborations between host and symbiont, and also among enzymes produced exclusively by the host termite. These findings provided important new evidence of synergistic collaboration among enzymes in the release of fermentable monosaccharides from wood lignocellulose, and laid a foundation for future integrative studies into termite digestion, symbiosis and eusociality.
PMCID: PMC3306353  PMID: 22446549
termite; lignocellulose; cellulose; laccase; symbiosis; microbiome; end-product inhibition; functional genomics
12.  “Endomicrobia”: Cytoplasmic Symbionts of Termite Gut Protozoa Form a Separate Phylum of Prokaryotes 
Lignocellulose digestion by wood-feeding termites depends on the mutualistic interaction of unusual, flagellate protists located in their hindgut. Most of the flagellates harbor numerous prokaryotic endosymbionts of so-far-unknown identity and function. Using a full-cycle molecular approach, we show here that the endosymbionts of the larger gut flagellates of Reticulitermes santonensis belong to the so-called termite group 1 (TG-1) bacteria, a group of clones previously obtained exclusively from gut homogenates of Reticulitermes speratus that are only distantly related to other bacteria and are considered a novel bacterial phylum based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with specifically designed oligonucleotide probes confirmed that TG-1 bacteria are indeed located within the flagellate cells and demonstrated that Trichonympha agilis (Hypermastigida) and Pyrsonympha vertens (Oxymonadida) harbor phylogenetically distinct populations of symbionts (<95% sequence similarity). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the symbionts are small, spindle-shaped cells (0.6 μm in length and 0.3 μm in diameter) surrounded by two membranes and located within the cytoplasm of their hosts. The symbionts of the two flagellates are described as candidate species in the candidate genus “Endomicrobium.” Moreover, we provide evidence that the members of the TG-1 phylum, for which we propose the candidate name “Endomicrobia,” are phylogenetically extremely diverse and are present in and also restricted to the guts of all lower termites and wood-feeding cockroaches of the genus Cryptocercus, the only insects that are in an exclusive, obligately mutualistic association with such unique cellulose-fermenting protists.
doi:10.1128/AEM.71.3.1473-1479.2005
PMCID: PMC1065190  PMID: 15746350
13.  Queen pheromone regulates egg production in a termite 
Biology Letters  2011;7(5):727-729.
In social insects, resource allocation is a key factor that influences colony survival and growth. Optimal allocation to queens and brood is essential for maximum colony productivity, requiring colony members to have information on the total reproductive power in colonies. However, the mechanisms regulating egg production relative to the current labour force for brood care remain poorly known. Recently, a volatile chemical was identified as a termite queen pheromone that inhibits the differentiation of new neotenic reproductives (secondary reproductives developed from nymphs or workers) in Reticulitermes speratus. The same volatile chemical is also emitted by eggs. This queen pheromone would therefore be expected to act as an honest message of the reproductive power about queens. In this study, we examined how the queen pheromone influences the reproductive rate of queens in R. speratus. We compared the number of eggs produced by each queen between groups with and without exposure to artificial queen pheromone. Exposure to the pheromone resulted in a significant decrease in egg production in both single-queen and multiple-queen groups. This is the first report supporting the role of queen pheromones as a signal regulating colony-level egg production, using synthetically derived compounds in a termite.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0353
PMCID: PMC3169079  PMID: 21543395
queen pheromone; egg production; termites; resource allocation
14.  In situ morphology of the gut microbiota of wood-eating termites [Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki]. 
Light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the in situ morphology of the gut microbiota of Reticulitermes flavipes and Caoptotermes formosanus. Laboratory-maintained termites were used and, for R. flavipes, specimens were also prepared immediately after collection from a natural infestation. The latter endeavor enabled a study of different castes and developmental stages of R. flavipes and revealed differences in the microbiota of field versus laboratory specimens. The termite paunch microbiota consisted of an abundance of morphologically diverse bacteria and protozoa. Thirteen bacterial morphotypes in the paunch were described in detail: seven were observed only in R. flavipes, three were observed only in C. formosanus, and three were common to both termite species. The paunch epithelium was densely colonized by bacteria, many of which possessed holdfast elements that secured them tightly to this tissue and to other bacterial cells. Besides bacteria, the protozoan Pyrsonympha vertens adhered to the paunch epithelium of R. flavipes by means of an attachment organelle. Cuplike indentations were present on the paunch epithelial surface and were sites of bacterial aggregation. Ultrastructural features of cups suggested their involvement in ion absorption. In addition to the paunch, the midgut was also colonized by bacteria that were situated between epithelial microvilli. Results suggest that bacteria are an integral part of the gut ecosystem.
Images
PMCID: PMC170698  PMID: 848959
15.  The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2011;6(1):427.
Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-427
PMCID: PMC3211844  PMID: 21711491
16.  Differential undertaking response of a lower termite to congeneric and conspecific corpses 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1650.
Undertaking behaviour is an essential activity in social insects. Corpses are often recognized by a postmortem change in a chemical signature. Reticulitermes flavipes responded to corpses within minutes of death. This undertaking behaviour did not change with longer postmortem time (24 h); however, R. flavipes exhibited distinctively different behaviours toward dead termites from various origins. Corpses of the congeneric species, Reticulitermes virginicus, were buried onsite by workers with a large group of soldiers guarding the burial site due to the risk of interspecific competition; while dead conspecifics, regardless of colony origin, were pulled back into the holding chamber for nutrient recycling and hygienic purposes. The burial task associated with congeneric corpses was coupled with colony defence and involved ten times more termites than retrieval of conspecific corpses. Our findings suggest elicitation of undertaking behaviour depends on the origin of corpses which is associated with different types of risk.
doi:10.1038/srep01650
PMCID: PMC3629736  PMID: 23598990
17.  Disease Resistance in the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes schwarzi: Does Nesting Ecology Affect Immunocompetence? 
Termites live in nests that can differ in microbial load and thus vary in degree of disease risk. It was hypothesized that termite investment in immune response would differ in species living in nest environments that vary in the richness and abundance of microbes. Using the drywood termite, Incisitermes schwarzi Banks (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae), as a model for species having low nest and cuticular microbial loads, the susceptibility of individuals and groups to conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), was examined. The survivorship of I. schwarzi was compared to that of the dampwood termite, Zootermopsis angusticollis Hagen (Termopsidae), a species with comparatively high microbial loads. The results indicated that I. schwarzi derives similar benefits from group living as Z. angusticollis: isolated termites had 5.5 times the hazard ratio of death relative to termites nesting in groups of 25 while termites in groups of 10 did not differ significantly from the groups of 25. The results also indicated, after controlling for the influence of group size and conidia exposure on survivorship, that Z. angusticollis was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than I. schwarzi, the former having 1.6 times the hazard ratio of death relative to drywood termites. Thus, disease susceptibility and individual investment in immunocompetence may not be dependent on interspecific variation in microbial pressures. The data validate prior studies indicating that sociality has benefits in infection control and suggest that social mechanisms of disease resistance, rather than individual physiological and immunological adaptations, may have been the principle target of selection related to variation in infection risk from microbes in the nest environment of different termite species.
doi:10.1673/031.010.4401
PMCID: PMC3014820  PMID: 20572790
ecological immunology; entomopathogenic fungus; herd immunity; infection control; microbial load
18.  A Constraint Condition for Foraging Strategy in Subterranean Termites 
Previous studies have explored the relationship between termite branch tunnel geometry and foraging efficiency in a model simulation in which foraging efficiency, γ, for two termite species, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), was investigated in response to two variables, the probability of tunnel branching (Pbranch) and the probability of tunnel branch termination (Pterm). It was found that simulated tunnel patterns based on empirical data did not have maximum foraging efficiency. We hypothesized that termites could increase their foraging efficiency in response to landscape heterogeneity. The present study investigated how termites could control the two variables, Pbranch and Pterm, in response to the external environment in terms of tunnel network connectivity. It was found that the best simulated strategy for C. formosanus and R. flavipes termites would occur if both Pbranch and Pterm were increased together. This study provides possible mechanisms for foraging strategies in subterranean termites and a baseline for future empirical work.
doi:10.1673/031.010.14106
PMCID: PMC3016880  PMID: 21070178
Subterranean termite; foraging efficiency; network connectivity; foraging strategy
19.  Diversity of Nitrogen Fixation Genes in the Symbiotic Intestinal Microflora of the Termite Reticulitermes speratus 
The diversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms in the symbiotic intestinal microflora of a lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, was investigated without culturing the resident microorganisms. Fragments of the nifH gene, which encodes the dinitrogenase reductase, were directly amplified from the DNA of the mixed microbial population in the termite gut and were clonally isolated. The phylogenetic analysis of the nifH product amino acid sequences showed that there was a remarkable diversity of nitrogenase genes in the termite gut. A large number of the termite nifH sequences were most closely related to those of a firmicute, Clostridium pasteurianum, with a few being most closely related to either the (gamma) subclass of the proteobacteria or a sequence of Desulfovibrio gigas. Some of the others were distantly related to those of the bacteria and were seemingly derived from the domain Archaea. The phylogenetic positions of these nifH sequences corresponded to those of genera found during a previous determination of rRNA-based phylogeny of the termite intestinal microbial community, of which a majority consisted of new, yet-uncultivated species. The results revealed that we have little knowledge of the organisms responsible for nitrogen fixation in termites.
PMCID: PMC1388910  PMID: 16535372
20.  Intra- and Interspecific Comparisons of Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure Support Coevolution of Gut Microbiota and Termite Host†  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2005;71(11):6590-6599.
We investigated the bacterial gut microbiota from 32 colonies of wood-feeding termites, comprising four Microcerotermes species (Termitidae) and four Reticulitermes species (Rhinotermitidae), using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and clonal analysis of 16S rRNA. The obtained molecular community profiles were compared statistically between individuals, colonies, locations, and species of termites. Both analyses revealed that the bacterial community structure was remarkably similar within each termite genus, with small but significant differences between sampling sites and/or termite species. In contrast, considerable differences were found between the two termite genera. Only one bacterial phylotype (defined with 97% sequence identity) was shared between the two termite genera, while 18% and 50% of the phylotypes were shared between two congeneric species in the genera Microcerotermes and Reticulitermes, respectively. Nevertheless, a phylogenetic analysis of 228 phylotypes from Microcerotermes spp. and 367 phylotypes from Reticulitermes spp. with other termite gut clones available in public databases demonstrated the monophyly of many phylotypes from distantly related termites. The monophyletic “termite clusters” comprised of phylotypes from more than one termite species were distributed among 15 bacterial phyla, including the novel candidate phyla TG2 and TG3. These termite clusters accounted for 95% of the 960 clones analyzed in this study. Moreover, the clusters in 12 phyla comprised phylotypes from more than one termite (sub)family, accounting for 75% of the analyzed clones. Our results suggest that the majority of gut bacteria are not allochthonous but are specific symbionts that have coevolved with termites and that their community structure is basically consistent within a genus of termites.
doi:10.1128/AEM.71.11.6590-6599.2005
PMCID: PMC1287746  PMID: 16269686
21.  Termites eavesdrop to avoid competitors 
Competition exclusion, when a single species dominates resources due to superior competitiveness, is seldom observed in nature. Termites compete for resources with deadly consequences, yet more than one species can be found feeding in the same wooden resource. This is especially surprising when drywood species, with colonies of a few hundred, are found cohabiting with subterranean species, with colonies of millions. Termites communicate vibro-acoustically and, as these signals can travel over long distances, they are vulnerable to eavesdropping. We investigated whether drywood termites could eavesdrop on vibration cues from subterranean species. We show, using choice experiments and recordings, that the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus can distinguish its own species from the dominant competitor in the environment, the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis. The drywood termite was attracted to its own vibration cues, but was repelled by those of the subterranean species. This response increased with decreasing wood size, corresponding with both increased risk and strength of the cue. The drywood termites appear to avoid confrontation by eavesdropping on the subterranean termites; these results provide further evidence that vibro-acoustic cues are important for termite sensory perception and communication.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1147
PMCID: PMC2825779  PMID: 19710058
aggression; competition; communication; eavesdropping; Isoptera; social information
22.  Fungistatic Activity of Freshly Killed Termite, Nasutitermes acajutlae, Soldiers in the Caribbean 
Termites may have high exposure to both pathogenic and competitive fungal species. Previous studies have shown anti-fungal properties of the primary components (α-pinene and limonene) of Nasutitermes frontal glands that are present on soldiers. In this study, the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae (Isoptera: Termitidae) was used to examine if the growth of naturally occurring fungi was inhibited by soldiers, as compared to workers that do not have frontal glands. Soldiers and workers were killed, surface sterilized, and placed on nutrient agar either singly or in combinations with other termites. Time until appearance of fungus and growth of visible fungal colonies was determined. Fungus appeared significantly earlier in cultures with single workers than with single soldiers (P < 0.001). Once fungus appeared, there were no significant differences in growth rate. When worker and/or soldier fluids were combined in one culture, fungal growth appeared later in cultures containing soldiers; growth was significantly slower in colonies with 5 workers and 5 soldiers than in cultures with 5 workers alone; P < 0.001. Finally, growth appeared later in cultures with 5 soldiers than in cultures with one soldier, suggesting a dose-response. Fungi that grew from termites were mostly non-pathogenic, suggesting the anti-fungal properties of soldiers may inhibit both pathogens and competitors.
doi:10.1673/031.007.1401
PMCID: PMC2999423  PMID: 20307241
Termite; parasitism; competition
23.  Volatile Fatty Acid Production by the Hindgut Microbiota of Xylophagous Termites † 
Acetate dominated the extracellular pool of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the hindgut fluid of Reticulitermes flavipes, Zootermopsis angusticollis, and Incisitermes schwarzi, where it occurred at concentrations of 57.9 to 80.6 mM and accounted for 94 to 98 mol% of all VFAs. Small amounts of C3 to C5 VFAs were also observed. Acetate was also the major VFA in hindgut homogenates of Schedorhinotermes lamanianus, Prorhinotermes simplex, Coptotermes formosanus, and Nasutitermes corniger. Estimates of in situ acetogenesis by the hindgut microbiota of R. flavipes (20.2 to 43.3 nmol · termite−1 · h−1) revealed that this activity could support 77 to 100% of the respiratory requirements of the termite (51.6 to 63.6 nmol of O2 · termite−1 · h−1). This conclusion was buttressed by the demonstration of acetate in R. flavipes hemolymph (at 9.0 to 11.6 mM), but not in feces, and by the ability of termite tissues to readily oxidize acetate to CO2. About 85% of the acetate produced by the hindgut microbiota was derived from cellulose C; the remainder was derived from hemicellulose C. Selective removal of major groups of microbes from the hindgut of R. flavipes indicated that protozoa were primarily responsible for acetogenesis but that bacteria also functioned in this capacity. H2 and CH4 were evolved by R. flavipes (usually about 0.4 nmol · termite−1 · h−1), but these compounds represented a minor fate of electrons derived from wood dissimilation within R. flavipes. A working model is proposed for symbiotic wood polysaccharide degradation in R. flavipes, and the possible roles of individual gut microbes, including CO2-reducing acetogenic bacteria, are discussed.
PMCID: PMC242507  PMID: 16346296
24.  A Novel Strain of Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) Possesses Superior Virulence to Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(2):91-95.
Subterranean termites are major global pests of wood structures and wood products. Among the most economically important subterranean termite species in the US are Heterotermes aureus, Reticulitermes flavipes, and Coptotermes formosanus. In prior studies, the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema riobrave strain 355, exhibited a high level of virulence to H. aureus compared with other nematode species. However, S. riobrave 355 was reported to be poorly or only moderately virulent to R. flavipes and C. formosanus, respectively. We hypothesized that other strains of S. riobrave may possess a high level of virulence to all three termite species. Under laboratory conditions we compared three novel strains of S. riobrave (3-8b, 7-12, and TP) with the 355 strain for virulence to H. aureus, R. flavipes, and C. formosanus workers. H. aureus was very susceptible to all the S. riobrave strains, and termites in all nematode treatments were dead after 4 d. The TP strain of S. riobrave caused greater mortality in R. flavipes and C. formosanus compared to the other nematode strains. Specifically, the TP strain caused 75% and 91% mortality in R. flavipes and C. formosanus, respectively, which was more than 300% and 70% higher than the mortality caused by other strains. Additional studies are warranted to determine the ability of S. riobrave (TP) to control the targeted termite species under field conditions.
PMCID: PMC3380470  PMID: 22736844
Coptotermes formosanus; entomopathogenic nematode; Heterotermes aureus; Reticulitermes flavipes; Steinernema riobrave; termite; biological control
25.  Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites? 
The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance colonization may have been severely constrained by the obligate interaction of the termites with fungal symbionts and the need to acquire these symbionts secondarily from the environment for most species (horizontal symbiont transmission). Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that all extant species of fungus-growing termites of Madagascar are the result of a single colonization event of termites belonging to one of the only two groups with vertical symbiont transmission, and we date this event at approximately 13 Mya (Middle/Upper Miocene). Vertical symbiont transmission may therefore have facilitated long-distance dispersal since both partners disperse together. In contrast to their termite hosts, the fungal symbionts have colonized Madagascar multiple times, suggesting that the presence of fungus-growing termites may have facilitated secondary colonizations of the symbiont. Our findings indicate that the absence of the right symbionts in a new environment can prevent long-distance dispersal of symbioses relying on horizontal symbiont acquisition.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1373
PMCID: PMC2842641  PMID: 19828546
symbiont transmission mode; long-distance dispersal; mutualism; Microtermes; Termitomyces

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