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1.  Imaging Findings of Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma of the Breast 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(1):57-64.
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to evaluate imaging and histopathologic findings including the immunohistochemical characteristics of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast.
Methods
Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with IMPC were included in the present study. Mammographic, sonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were analyzed retrospectively according to the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings were also evaluated. Microscopic slides of surgical specimens were reviewed in consensus by two pathologists with a specialty in breast pathology.
Results
Most IMPCs presented as a high density irregular mass with a non-circumscribed margin associated with microcalcifications on mammography, as an irregular hypoechoic mass with a spiculated margin on ultrasound, and as irregular spiculated masses with washout patterns on MRI. PET-CT showed a high maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) (mean, 11.2). Axillary nodal metastases were identified in 65.5% of the patients. Immunohistochemical studies showed high positivities for estrogen receptor and c-erbB-2 (93.1% and 51.7µ, respectively).
Conclusion
Even though the imaging characteristics of IMPCs are not distinguishable from typical invasive ductal carcinomas, this tumor type frequently results in nodal metastases and high positivities for both estrogen receptor and c-erbB-2. The high SUVmax value that is apparent on PET-CT might be helpful in the diagnosis of IMPC.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2012.15.1.57
PMCID: PMC3318175  PMID: 22493629
Breast; Carcinoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Mammography; Ultrasound
2.  Invasive ductolobular carcinoma of the breast: spectrum of mammographic, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated with proportion of the lobular component 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:621.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to describe the imaging features of patients with invasive ductolobular carcinoma of the breast in comparison with the proportion of the lobular component.
Materials and methods
We retrospectively reviewed mammographic, sonographic and MRI records of 113 patients with proven ductolobular carcinoma diagnosed between January 2008 and October 2012 according to the BI-RADS ® lexicon, and correlated these to the proportion of the lobular component.
Results
At mammography the most common finding (62.9%) for invasive ductolobular carcinoma was an irregular, spiculated and isodense mass. On ultrasound an irregular and hypoechoic mass, with spiculated margins and posterior acoustic shadowing was observed in 46.8% of cases. Isolated mass and mass associated with non-mass like enhancement (NMLE) were the most common findings by MRI (89.4%). Washout pattern in delayed phase was seen in 61.2% and plateau curve was more frequently observed in patients with larger lobular component. Additional malignant findings (multifocality, multicentricity and contralateral disease) did not correlate significantly with the proportion of the lobular component.
Conclusion
Invasive ductolobular carcinoma mainly presents as an irregular, spiculated mass, isodense on mammography and hypoechoic with posterior acoustic shadowing. On MRI it is usually seen as an isolated mass or as a dominant mass surrounded by smaller masses or NMLE. Washout is the most ordinary kinetic pattern of these tumors. In general, the imaging characteristics did not vary significantly with the proportion of the lobular component.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-621
PMCID: PMC3858590  PMID: 24340243
Breast carcinoma; Lobular; Ductal; Mammography; Ultrasonography; Magnetic resonance imaging
3.  The Role of Sonography in Patients with Breast Cancer Presenting as an Axillary Mass 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2002;3(3):189-193.
Objective
To compare sonography and mammography in terms of their diagnostic value in breast cancer cases which initially presented as an axillary mass without a palpable mass or other clinical symptoms.
Materials and Methods
Seven patients with enlarged axillary lymph nodes who first presented with no evidence of palpable breast lesions and who underwent both mammography and sonography were enrolled in this study. In six of the seven, the presence of metastatic adenocarcinoma was confirmed preoperatively by axillary needle aspiration biopsy; in four, subsequent sonographically-guided breast core biopsy performed after careful examination of the primary site indicated that primary breast cancer was present. In each case, the radiologic findings were evaluated by both breast sonography and mammography.
Results
Breast lesions were detected mammographically in four of seven cases (57%); in three of the four, the lesion presented as a mass, and in one as microcalcification. In three of these four detected cases, fatty or scattered fibroglandular breast parenchyma was present; in one, the parenchyma was dense. In the three cases in which lesions were not detected, mammography revealed the presence of heterogeneously dense parenchyma. Breast sonography showed that lesions were present in six of seven cases (86%); in the remaining patient, malignant microcalcification was detected at mammography. Final pathologic examination indicated that all breast lesions except one, which was a ductal carcinoma in situ, with microinvasion, were infiltrating ductal carcinomas whose size ranged from microscopic to greater than 3 cm. At the time of this study, all seven patients were alive and well, having been disease free for up to 61 months after surgery.
Conclusion
In women with a palpable axillary mass confirmed as metastatic adenocarcinoma, breast sonography may be a valuable adjunct to mammography.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2002.3.3.189
PMCID: PMC2713883  PMID: 12271164
Breast neoplasms, diagnosis; Breast neoplasms, radiography; Breast neoplasms, US
4.  Pure and Mixed Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast: Mammographic and Sonographic Differential Features 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2007;8(2):103-110.
Objective
We wanted to evaluate the mammographic and sonographic differential features between pure (PT) and mixed tubular carcinoma (MT) of the breast.
Materials and Methods
Between January 1998 and May 2004, 17 PTs and 14 MTs were pathologically confirmed at our institution. The preoperative mammography (n = 26) and sonography (n = 28) were analyzed by three radiologists according to BI-RADS.
Results
On mammography, a mass was not detected in eight patients with PT and in one patient with MT (57% vs. 8%, respectively, p = 0.021), which was statistically different. The other findings on mammography and sonography showed no statistical differences between the PT and MT, although the numerical values were different. When the lesions were detected mammographically, an irregularly shaped mass with a spiculated margin was more frequently found in the MT than in the PT (100% vs. 83%, respectively, p = 0.353). On sonography, all 28 patients presented with a mass and most lesions showed as not being circumscribed, hypoechoic masses with an echogenic halo. Surrounding tissue changes and posterior shadowing were more frequently found in the MT than in the PT (75% vs. 50%, respectively, p = 0.253, 58% vs. 19%, respectively, p = 1.000). An oval shaped mass was more frequently found in the PT than in the MT (44% vs. 25%, respectively; p = 0.434).
Conclusion
PT and MT cannot be precisely differentiated on mammography and sonography. However, the absence of a mass on mammography or the presence of an oval shaped mass would favor the diagnosis of PT. An irregularly shaped mass with surrounding tissue change and posterior shadowing on sonography would favor the diagnosis of MT and also a less favorable prognosis.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2007.8.2.103
PMCID: PMC2626773  PMID: 17420627
Breast neoplasms, diagnosis; Breast, US; Breast, mammography; Breast, biopsy
5.  Cotton-ball granuloma mimicking axillary lymphadenopathy in a breast cancer patient 
Foreign body granuloma is a reaction to either a biodegradable substance or inert material. In a breast cancer patient who had undergone an excision or mastectomy with axillary clearance, a foreign body granuloma in the axilla may be misinterpreted as an axillary lymph node. We report our experience with a case of cotton-ball granuloma of the axilla in a breast cancer patient, which mimics a lymph node radiologically from the CT scan, mammogram and ultrasonography. Following biopsy and excision, the mass was diagnosed histologically as a foreign body granuloma.
doi:10.2349/biij.7.3.e19
PMCID: PMC3265191  PMID: 22279496
Foreign body granuloma; cotton-ball; axillary lymphadenopathy; breast cancer
6.  Breast cancer imaging: Mammography among women of up to 45 years 
Polish Journal of Radiology  2010;75(1):37-42.
Summary
Background:
Among women under the age of 40, screening mammography examinations are not performed routinely. An ultrasonography scan is considered to be a basic breast imaging examination among younger women. The purpose of this study was to analyze mammography images, as well as to evaluate the usefulness and role of mammography in breast cancer diagnostic processes in women of up to 45 years, based on own experience.
Material/Methods:
A retrospective analysis of mammography images, including 144 cases of breast cancer diagnosed in the group of 140 women of 45 years of age. All the patients underwent pre-treatment mammography and surgery procedure. The images were evaluated in accordance to BIRADS criteria. Lesions detectable in mammography were grouped as follows: • spiculated mass; • non-microcalcified oval/round mass; • microcalcified mass (regardless of shape); • microcalcifications; • architectural distortion; • breast tissue asymmetry.
Results:
The most common mammographic symptom was solid tumor (41%), followed by microcalcified tumors (20.8%). Clusters of microcalcifications constituted 17.4% of mammography findings. In 4.9% of mammography scans, examination did not reveal any pathological lesions.
Conclusions:
Breast cancer mammograms of women aged up to 45 years do not differ from diagnostic pictures of breast cancer in older women.
The diagnostic appearance of breast cancer in 1/3 of the patients involved microcalcifications detectable only on mammograms.
All the women with suspicion of breast cancer should have their mammography examinations performed, irrespective of ultrasonography scans.
PMCID: PMC3389859  PMID: 22802759
breast cancer; mammography; young women; microcalcifications
7.  Solid neuroendocrine breast carcinoma: mammographic and sonographic features in thirteen cases 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2012;31(11):549-556.
This study aimed to determine and quantitate the mammographic and sonographic characteristics in 13 cases of solid neuroendocrine breast carcinoma (NEBC) and to analyze the association of radiological findings with the clinical and histopathologic findings. The clinical data and imaging findings of 13 female patients with histologically confirmed solid NEBC were reviewed. Imaging data were evaluated by two radiologists for a consensual diagnosis. All patients presented with one palpable mass; only 1 experienced occasional breast pain, and 5 complained of fluid discharge. In 7 patients, the masses were firm and mobile. Regional lymph node metastasis was noted in only 1 patient. For the 10 patients who underwent mammography, 6 had a mass, 1 had clustered small nodules with clustered punctuate microcalcifications, 2 had asymmetric focal density, and 1 had solitary punctuate calcification. Most of the masses had irregular shape with indistinct or microlobulated margins. For the 9 patients who underwent ultrasonography (US), 9 masses were depicted, all of which were hypoechoic, mostly with irregular shape and without acoustic phenomena. Different types of acoustic phenomena were also identified. One patient had developed distant metastases during follow-up. NEBC has a variety of presentations, but it is mostly observed on mammograms as a dense, irregular mass with indistinct or microlobulated margins. Sonographically, it typically presents as an irregular, heterogeneously hypoechoic mass with normal sound transmission. Histories of nipple discharge and calcification observed using imaging are not rare.
doi:10.5732/cjc.011.10370
PMCID: PMC3777518  PMID: 22640624
Solid neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast; mammography; sonography
8.  Postoperative Aseptic Intracranial Granuloma: The Possible Influence of Fluid Hemostatics 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:614321.
Background. Numerous reports have demonstrated how postoperative intracranial granulomas can often mimic neoplasm clinically, radiologically, and even macroscopically. Herein we present an unusual case of postsurgical intracranial aseptic granuloma secondary to a chronic inflammatory reaction without any identifiable retained foreign body. Case Description. A 71-year-old patient started complaining of severe headache seven months after surgical excision of WHO Grade I right frontal falx meningioma. CT and MRI scans disclosed a contrast-enhanced lesion with diffuse mass effect in the previous surgical site. The lesion was resected; intraoperative finding and histological specimens led to the diagnosis of postoperative granuloma, likely expression of a glial reaction to the fluid absorbable hemostatics applied in the surgical site after meningioma excision. The possible granuloma-inducing materials and the timing of granuloma formation are discussed. Conclusion. A comprehensive analysis of clinical and neuroradiological data, as well as results of blood tests including positive and negative acute phase proteins, is mandatory to raise the suspicion of postoperative granuloma. The treatment options should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, with a conservative attitude being the one of choice only for patients without progressive neurological deficit. Alternatively, aggressive surgical treatment and histopathological examination should be advocated.
doi:10.1155/2012/614321
PMCID: PMC3423776  PMID: 22924150
9.  Supplementary Screening Sonography in Mammographically Dense Breast: Pros and Cons 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2010;11(6):589-593.
Sonography is an attractive supplement to mammography in breast cancer screening because it is relatively inexpensive, requires no contrast-medium injection, is well tolerated by patients, and is widely available for equipment as compared with MRI. Sonography has been especially valuable for women with mammographically dense breast because it has consistently been able to detect a substantial number of cancers at an early stage. Despite these findings, breast sonography has known limitations as a screening tool; operator-dependence, the shortage of skilled operators, the inability to detect microcalcifications, and substantially higher false-positive rates than mammography. Further study of screening sonography is still ongoing and is expected to help establish the role of screening sonography.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2010.11.6.589
PMCID: PMC2974219  PMID: 21076583
Breast screening; Screening ultrasound; Breast cancer
10.  Correlation between mammographic and sonographic findings and prognostic factors in patients with node-negative invasive breast cancer 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(997):19-30.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to correlate sonographic and mammographic findings with prognostic factors in patients with node-negative invasive breast cancer.
Methods
Sonographic and mammographic findings in 710 consecutive patients (age range 21–81 years; mean age 49 years) with 715 node-negative invasive breast cancers were retrospectively evaluated. Pathology reports relating to tumour size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), extensive intraductal component (EIC), oestrogen receptor (ER) status and HER-2/neu status were reviewed and correlated with the imaging findings. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
Results
On mammography, non-spiculated masses with calcifications were associated with all poor prognostic factors: high histological grade, positive LVI, EIC, HER-2/neu status and negative ER. Other lesions were associated with none of these poor prognostic factors. Hyperdense masses on mammography, the presence of mixed echogenicity, posterior enhancement, calcifications in-or-out of masses and diffusely increased vascularity on sonography were associated with high histological grade and negative ER. Associated calcifications on both mammograms and sonograms were correlated with EIC and HER-2/neu overexpression. The ICC value for the disease extent was 0.60 on mammography and 0.70 on sonography.
Conclusion
Several sonographic and mammographic features can have a prognostic value in the subsequent treatment of patients with node-negative invasive breast cancer. Radiologists should pay more attention to masses that are associated with calcifications because on both mammography and sonography associated calcifications were predictors of positive EIC and HER-2/neu overexpression.
doi:10.1259/bjr/92960562
PMCID: PMC3473801  PMID: 20682592
11.  A Radial Sclerosing Lesion Mimicking Breast Cancer on Mammography in a Young Woman 
Case Reports in Oncology  2012;5(1):99-103.
A spiculated mass on a mammogram is highly suggestive of malignancy. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a radial sclerosing lesion that mimicked breast cancer on mammography. She visited her physician after palpating a lump in her left breast. Mammography showed architectural distortion in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Ultrasonography showed a low echoic area with an ambiguous boundary. Core needle biopsy was performed because of the suspicion of malignancy. Histological examination did not reveal any malignant cells. After 6 months, the breast lump became larger and the patient was referred to our hospital. Mammography performed in our hospital showed a spiculated mass, and therefore mammotome biopsy was performed. Histological examination revealed dense fibroelastic stroma with a wide variety of mastopathic changes, leading to a diagnosis of a radial sclerosing lesion. One year after the biopsy, the lump on her left breast had disappeared and mammography showed no spiculated mass.
doi:10.1159/000337024
PMCID: PMC3337735  PMID: 22539921
Breast cancer; Radial sclerosing lesion; Mammography; Young women
12.  A Case of Foreign-Body Granuloma of the Glabella due to Polyacrylamide Filler and an Intractable Ulcer after Skin Biopsy: An Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Inflammatory Changes 
Case Reports in Dermatology  2013;5(2):181-185.
Introduction
Polyacrylamide hydrogel has been considered a safe and biocompatible soft tissue filler, and it has been widely used in cosmetic procedures. However, recent studies have revealed some complications with polyacrylamide filler injections.
Case Report
We present the case of foreign-body granulomas of the glabella, which subsequently formed an infectious ulcer 3 years after a polyacrylamide injection. An immunohistochemical evaluation of the foreign-body granulomas was performed in order to study the relationship between foreign-body granulomas and immune response.
Conclusion
We believe that our analysis of foreign-body granulomas 1 and 3 years after a filler injection may contribute to revealing the mechanism of chronic and intractable infections after filler injections.
doi:10.1159/000353346
PMCID: PMC3712820  PMID: 23874295
Foreign-body granuloma; Immunohistochemical evaluation; Inflammatory change; Polyacrylamide filler
13.  Gastric foreign body granuloma caused by an embedded fishbone: A case report 
Fishbones are the most commonly ingested foreign bodies that cause gastrointestinal tract penetration. However, fishbones embedded in the gastrointestinal tract that lead to foreign body granulomas that mimic submucosal tumors are rare. Herein, we describe a 56-year-old woman who presented with a 20-day-history of upper abdominal pain. Endoscopy revealed an elevated lesion in the gastric antrum. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a mass in the gastric antrum and a linear calcified lesion in the mass. An endoscopic ultrasonography examination revealed a 3.9 cm × 2.2 cm, irregular, hypoechoic mass with indistinct margins in the muscularis propria layer. The patient was initially diagnosed as having a submucosal tumor, and subsequent surgical resection showed that the lesion was a foreign body granuloma caused by an embedded fishbone. Our case indicated that the differential diagnosis of a foreign body granuloma should be considered in cases of elevated lesions in the gastrointestinal tract.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i12.3388
PMCID: PMC3964412  PMID: 24696619
Gastric; Foreign body granuloma; Fishbone; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Computed tomography
14.  Carcinoma of the breast in men 
Male breast cancer is an uncommon disease of uncertain etiology. We describe a 66-year-old man who presented with a palpable mass in the left breast with associated nipple inversion. Mammographic images demonstrated a spiculated mass within the subareolar left breast at the palpable area of concern. Sonographic evaluation demonstrated a hypoechoic mass within the subareolar left breast at the location of the mammographic abnormality. The patient underwent an excisional biopsy and was subsequently diagnosed with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, the most common histologic type of carcinoma identified in men.
PMCID: PMC3448581  PMID: 23077390
15.  Automated Detection of Breast Mass Spiculation Levels and Evaluation of Scheme Performance 
Academic radiology  2008;15(12):1534-1544.
Rationale and Objectives
Although spiculation level of breast mass boundary is a primary sign of malignancy for the mass detected on mammograms, developing an automated computer scheme to detect mass spiculation level and quantitatively evaluating the performance of the scheme is a difficult task. The objective of this study is to (1) develop and test a new scheme to improve mass segmentation and detect mass boundary spiculation level, and (2) assess the scheme performance using a relatively large image dataset.
Materials and Methods
This fully-automated scheme includes three image processing steps. The first step applies the maximum entropy principle in the selected region of interest (ROI) after correcting the background-trend to enhance the initial outlines of the masses. The second step uses an active contour model to refine the initial outlines. The third step detects and identifies spiculated lines connected to the mass boundary using a special line detector. A quantitative spiculation index is computed to assess the degree of spiculation levels. To develop and evaluate this automated scheme, we selected 211 ROIs depicting masses that were extracted from a publicly available image database. Among these ROIs, 106 depict “circumscribed” mass regions and 105 involve “spiculated” mass regions. The scheme performance was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis method.
Results
The computed area under ROC curve when applying the scheme to the dataset is 0.701 ± 0.027. By setting up a threshold at spiculation index = 5.0, the scheme achieves the overall classification accuracy of 66.4% with 54.3% sensitivity and 78.3% specificity, respectively.
Conclusions
We developed a new computer scheme with a number of unique characteristics to detect spiculated mass regions and applied a simple spiculation index to quantify mass spiculation levels. Although this quantitative index can be used to classify between the spiculated and circumscribed masses, the results also suggest that automated detection of mass spiculation levels remains a technical challenge.
doi:10.1016/j.acra.2008.07.015
PMCID: PMC2857703  PMID: 19000870
Computer-aided diagnosis; mammography; mass segmentation; mass spiculations
16.  Retrieval Rate and Accuracy of Ultrasound-Guided 14-G Semi-Automated Core Needle Biopsy of Breast Microcalcifications 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(1):12-19.
Objective
To evaluate the retrieval rate and accuracy of ultrasound (US)-guided 14-G semi-automated core needle biopsy (CNB) for microcalcifications in the breast.
Materials and Methods
US-guided 14-G semi-automated CNB procedures and specimen radiography were performed for 33 cases of suspicious microcalcifications apparent on sonography. The accuracy of 14-G semi-automated CNB and radiology-pathology concordance were analyzed and the microcalcification characteristics between groups with successful and failed retrieval were compared.
Results
Thirty lesions were successfully retrieved and the microcalcification retrieval rate was 90.9% (30/33). Thirty lesions were successfully retrieved. Twenty five were finally diagnosed as malignant (10 invasive ductal carcinoma, 15 ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]) and five as benign. After surgery and mammographic follow-up, the 25 malignant lesions comprised 12 invasive ductal carcinoma and 13 DCIS. Three lesions in the failed retrieval group (one DCIS and two benign) were finally diagnosed as two DCIS and one benign after surgery. The accuracy of 14-G semi-automated CNB was 90.9% (30/33) because of two DCIS underestimates and one false-negative diagnosis. The discordance rate was significantly higher in the failed retrieval group than in the successful retrieval group (66.7% vs. 6.7%; p < 0.05). Punctate calcifications were significantly more common in the failed retrieval group than in the successful retrieval group (66.7% vs. 3.7%; p < 0.05).
Conclusion
US-guided 14-G semi-automated CNB could be a useful procedure for suspicious microcalcifications in the breast those are apparent on sonography.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.1.12
PMCID: PMC3909843  PMID: 24497787
Breast biopsy; Breast ultrasound; Breast neoplasms, microcalcifications
17.  Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(1):20-28.
Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.1.20
PMCID: PMC3909857  PMID: 24497788
Breast; Extramammary; Metastasis; Ultrasound
18.  Lymphoma Affecting the Breast: A Pictorial Review of Multimodal Imaging Findings 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2013;16(3):254-265.
Hematological malignancies rarely affect the breast, and the majority of those that do are lymphomas. In this review, we describe the clinical aspects and multimodal imaging findings of breast lymphoma. We also illustrate the key clinical and radiological findings that allow it to be distinguished from various other malignant and benign diseases of the breast. Breast lymphoma manifests as a breast mass, a change in the subcutaneous tissue or the skin, or enlargement of the associated lymph node on radiological examination. Radiological findings associated with other breast malignancies, such as calcifications, spiculations, or architectural distortions are extremely rare. Skin and subcutaneous changes frequently accompany T-cell lymphoma. Multimodal breast imaging characteristics may aid in the diagnosis of breast lymphoma.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2013.16.3.254
PMCID: PMC3800721  PMID: 24155754
Breast; Computed tomography; Lymphoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Ultrasonography
19.  Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma 
Objective
The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinations
Materials and methods
This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinoma. All patients had undergone diagnostic sonomammography. The imaging findings were identified by experienced breast imagers. Final surgical pathology results were used as the reference standard.
Results
Thirty-two women ranging in age from 42 to 63 years old (mean age, 53 years), All had biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinomas. Common features on mammogram included dense mass followed by architectural distortion; three cases showed breast asymmetry and one case was reported as normal. On ultrasound, common features included solid mass with spiculated margins, posterior shadowing, and perpendicular to the skin.
Conclusion
Although no specific features could be linked to invasive lobular carcinoma, care should be directed to subtle signs such as architectural distortion and breast asymmetry in order not to miss any lesions. The combination of mammographic and sonographic helps to decrease the relatively high false negative diagnosis of this type of breast cancer.
Video abstract
doi:10.2147/BCTT.S34655
PMCID: PMC3846710  PMID: 24367199
mammography; ultrasound; cancer; breast
20.  Petrous apex cholesterol granuloma: pictorial review of radiological considerations in diagnosis and surgical histopathology 
Background
Petrous apex cholesterol granulomas are expansile, cystic lesions containing cholesterol crystals surrounded by foreign body giant cells, fibrous tissue reaction and chronic inflammation. Appropriate treatment relies on an accurate radiological diagnosis and an understanding of the distinguishing radiological features of relevant entities in the differential diagnosis of this condition.
Methods
Firstly, this paper presents a pictorial review of the relevant radiological features of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, and highlights unique features relevant to the differential diagnosis. Secondly, it reviews the histopathological and radiological findings associated with surgical drainage of these lesions.
Results
Radiological features relevant to the differential diagnosis of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma are reviewed, together with radiological and histopathological features relevant to surgical management. Following surgical management, histopathological and radiological evidence demonstrates that the patency of the surgical drainage pathway is maintained.
Conclusion
Accurate diagnosis of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma is essential in order to instigate appropriate treatment. Placement of a stent in the drainage pathway may help to maintain patency and decrease the likelihood of symptomatic recurrence.
doi:10.1017/S0022215113000091
PMCID: PMC3763740  PMID: 23442366
Granuloma; Otologic Surgical Procedures; Stents; Petrous Apicitis; Temporal Bone
21.  Evaluation and Treatment of Surgical Management of Silicone Mastitis 
Injected liquid silicone continues to be employed by unscrupulous practitioners in many parts of the world for the purpose of breast augmentation. Complications vary; however, inflammation, foreign body reaction, and granuloma formation often lead to painful and disfigured breasts. Furthermore, migrations of silicone to remote tissues cause additional problems. We present a review of cases and propose an updated algorithm for the diagnosis and management silicone mastitis. We describe two representative cases of mastitis cause by injected liquid silicone. Patients uniformly developed inflammation and granuloma formation causing painful and disfigured breasts. Each patient required bilateral mastectomy and breast reconstruction. Although injection of liquid silicone has been condemned by the legitimate medical community for the purpose of breast augmentation, it continues to be illicitly performed and there exists a sizable patient population suffering from the complications of this procedure. Accurate identification requires a high index of suspicion in patients presenting with firm and painful breasts. An aggressive management strategy is recommended in the setting of silicone mastitis due to the risk of obscuring malignancy.
doi:10.4103/0974-2077.101380
PMCID: PMC3483577  PMID: 23112516
Foreign body; granuloma; mastitis; silicone
22.  A Mysterious Pacemaker Suture: An Uncommon Foreign Body Reaction 
Surgical suture material is usually inert and nontoxic and causes minimal inflammation of tissue. However, foreign body reactions to various suture types can lead to granuloma, abscess, or even sinus formation. We report an elderly female who was incidentally detected to have a mass protruding from the incision site which was confirmed histopathologically a chronic granulomatous reaction to non absorbable suture. The foreign body granulomatous reaction to suture material in the setting of pacemaker implantation has not been described in the literature. We also discuss the existing literature on this underrecognised entity.
PMCID: PMC3065747  PMID: 21468277
permanent pacemaker; surgical suture; foreign body reaction
23.  Rare lymphoid malignancies of the breast: report of two cases illustrating potential diagnostic techniques 
Two cases of lymphoid malignancy involving the breast are herein presented. Both patients were admitted with a palpable breast mass. Ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic, ill-defined lesions of the breast in both patients; mammogram also showed spiculated breast densities. Both patients underwent core biopsy, which revealed lymphomatous cells. Total-body evaluation was also performed by computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealing no other fluorodeoxyglucose-avid foci in the first case and supra and subdiaphragmatic disease in the second one.
doi:10.3941/jrcr.v6i12.1194
PMCID: PMC3557124  PMID: 23365702
Breast; lymphoma; primary breast lymphoma; secondary breast lymphoma
24.  Imaging features of foreign body granuloma in the lower extremities mimicking a soft tissue neoplasm 
Foreign body granuloma is a tissue reaction for retained foreign bodies after skin-penetrating trauma. Detection of retained foreign bodies can be extremely difficult when the patients present with non-specific symptoms such as pain and/or swelling without recognizing a previous trauma. We report three patients of foreign body granulomas in the lower extremities with emphasis placed on their unique clinical and radiological features. The involved sites were the foot, posterior thigh, and posterior lower leg, with wooden splinters in two patients and a fragment of tile in one. Plain radiographs could not reveal the existence of foreign bodies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed foreign bodies as low intensities on both T1- and T2-weighted images in two patients, and the surrounding reactive lesion as low to iso intensities on T1- and high intensities on T2-weighted images in all the patients. The peripheral areas of the lesion were strongly enhanced after gadolinium injection. Ultrasound sonography could clearly visualize a foreign body as an echogenic area with posterior acoustic shadowing in one patient. The surrounding ring-like reactive lesion is easily mistaken for a soft tissue neoplasm when foreign bodies are not identified. The key to arriving at the correct diagnosis is to clarify the previous trauma and to identify foreign bodies with low signal intensities on both T1- and T2-weighted images and/or the characteristic ring-like enhancement on MRI. It is also necessary to rule out a foreign body granuloma whenever we see patients with a soft tissue tumor in the extremities, irrespective of their previous trauma history.
doi:10.1080/03009730802602455
PMCID: PMC2852748  PMID: 19242872
Extremities; foreign body; granuloma; MRI; wooden splinter
25.  Non-opaque soft tissue foreign body: sonographic findings 
BMC Medical Imaging  2011;11:9.
Background
Soft tissue foreign bodies are a common cause of orthopedic consultation in emergency departments. It is difficult to confirm their existence because conventional radiology only detects radio-opaque foreign bodies. Sonography can be a useful diagnostic method. The aim of this study is to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of sonography in detection and localization of non-opaque foreign bodies.
Methods
We evaluated 47 patients with suspected foreign body retention in soft tissues by 10 MHz linear array transducer. A single radiologist performed all examinations with 6 years' experience in musculoskeletal Sonography. We detected and localized the presence of the foreign body in the soft tissue as guidance for facilitating the surgery.
Results
We detected soft tissue foreign body in 45 cases as hyperechoic foci. Posterior acoustic shadowing was seen in 36 cases and halo sign was seen in 5 cases due to abscess or granulation tissue formation. Surgery was performed in 39 patients and 44 foreign bodies were removed.
Conclusion
Sonography is a useful modality in detection and localization of radiolucent foreign bodies in soft tissue which can avoid misdiagnosis during primary emergency evaluation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2342-11-9
PMCID: PMC3079678  PMID: 21477360

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