AIM: To evaluate the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for choledocholithiasis in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
METHODS: Two hundred and twenty four patients (144 male, 80 female; mean age, 22.4 years; range, 5-70 years) with SCA underwent ERCP as part of their evaluation for cholestatic jaundice (CJ). The indications for ERCP were: CJ only in 97, CJ and dilated bile ducts on ultrasound in 103, and CJ and common bile duct (CBD) stones on ultrasound in 42.
RESULTS: In total, CBD stones were found in 88 (39.3%) patients and there was evidence of recent stone passage in 16. Fifteen were post-LC patients. These had endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. The remaining 73 had endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction followed by LC without an intraoperative cholangiogram.
CONCLUSION: In patients with SCA and cholelithiasis, ERCP is valuable whether preoperative or postoperative, and in none was there a need to perform intraoperative cholangiography. Sequential endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction followed by LC is beneficial in these patients. Endoscopic sphincterotomy may also prove to be useful in these patients as it may prevent the future development of biliary sludge and bile duct stones.
Sickle cell anemia; Cholelithiasis; Choledocholithiasis; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Cholangiography; Endoscopic retrogradecholangiopancreatography
The value of serum liver function tests and abdominal ultrasound as screening tests of the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was determined in patients with unexplained abdominal pain without associated jaundice. In 1989 and 1990 1005 ERCPs were undertaken, of which 138 (14%) were for this indication. The duct or ducts of interest were delineated by ERCP in 95% of patients. The lesions found were bile duct stones in 10 patients, chronic pancreatitis in five, pancreatic carcinoma in one, peptic ulcer or duodenitis in four. A satisfactory ultrasound examination had been performed in 94% of patients. For chronic pancreatitis, its sensitivity was 60% and specificity 95%. For choledocholithiasis, the ultrasonic detection of duct dilatation or stones had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 86%. Of the liver function tests, the alkaline phosphatase was more sensitive (67%) than the transaminases (44%) in indicating the presence of bile duct stones and had a high specificity (95%). None of the 10 patients with duct stones had normal ultrasound and normal alkaline phosphatase. Thus it was found that demonstration of a normal common bile duct by abdominal ultrasound and normal serum alkaline phosphatase together have 100% specificity in excluding bile duct stones. Using such knowledge over the two year period of this study would have spared 36 patients the need for ERCP.
Options for managing the common bile duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy include routine peroperative cholangiography and selected preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The use of these methods was reviewed in 350 patients with symptomatic gall stones referred for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Unit A (n = 114) performed routine cystic duct cholangiography but undertook preoperative ERCP in patients at very high risk of duct stones only; unit B (n = 236) performed selected preoperative ERCP on the basis of known risk factors for duct stones. The detection rate for common bile duct stones was similar for units A and B (16% v 20%). In unit A, five of seven patients who had preoperative ERCP had duct stones. Operative cholangiography was technically successful in 90% of patients and duct stones were confidently identified in 13, one of whom went on to immediate open duct exploration. Postoperative ERCP identified duct stones in only four patients, indicating spontaneous passage in eight. In unit B, preoperative ERCP was undertaken in 76 of 236 (32%) patients and duct stones were identified in 47 (20%). Duct clearance was successful in 42 (18%) but failed in five (2%), necessitating elective open duct exploration. Both protocols for imaging the common bile duct worked well and yielded satisfactory short term results.
The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with laparoscopic surgery in children with sickle cell disease.
A retrospective chart review was performed to analyze the indication for surgery, perioperative management, surgical technique, complications, duration of hospitalization, and outcome. One pediatric surgeon performed all procedures.
Thirteen children underwent laparoscopic surgery for the following indications: symptomatic cholelithiasis/cholecystitis in 9; recurrent splenic sequestration in 3; and hypersplenism/symptomatic cholelithiasis in 1. The 7 boys and 6 girls had a median age of 7.8 years. Patients undergoing splenectomy only were younger than those undergoing cholecystectomy (median age, 3.6 years versus 11.5 years, respectively). Four children underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and sphincterotomy because of common bile duct dilatation and stones. Twelve patients received packed red blood cell transfusions prior to surgery. The median operative time was 150 minutes, and the median hospitalization was 3 days. Four patients suffered postoperative complications (2 with acute chest syndrome, 1 with recurrent abdominal pain, and 1 with priapism). The patient with abdominal pain was found to have a retained stone in the common bile duct, which was retrieved via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy. All complications resolved with medical management.
Laparoscopic surgery is safe in children with sickle cell disease. Meticulous attention to perioperative management, transfusion guidelines, and pulmonary care may decrease the incidence of acute chest syndrome.
Sickle cell anemia; Laparoscopic surgery; Child; Adolescence
Since the advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there has been controversy about the investigation of the bile ducts and the management of common bile duct stones. Routine peroperative cholangiography (POC) in all cases has been recommended. We have adopted a policy of not performing routine POC, and the results of 700 cases are reported.
Since 1990, all patients have undergone pre-operative ultrasound scan. We have performed selective preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) because of a clinical history of jaundice and/or pancreatitis, abnormal liver function tests and ultra-sound evidence of dilated bile ducts (N=78, 11.1%). The remaining 622 patients did not have a routine POC, but selective peroperative cholangiogram (POC) was per-formed only in 42 patients (6%) because of unsuccessful ERCP or mild alteration in the criteria for the presence of bile duct stones. The remaining 580 patients did not undergo POC. Careful dissection of Calot's triangle was performed in all cases to reduce the risk of bile duct injuries.
The overall operative complications, postoperative morbidity and mortality was 1.71%, 2.14% and 0.43%, respectively. Bile duct injuries occurred in two patients (0.26%) and both were recognized during the operation and repaired. There was a single incidence of retained stone in this series of 700 cases (0.14%), which required postoperative ERCP.
This policy of selective preoperative ERCP, and not routine peroperative cholangiogram, is cost effective and not associated with significant incidence of retained stones or bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Cholecystectomy; Laparoscopic; Cholangiography; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography; Common bile duct calculi
AIM: To present our experience with pregnant patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) without using radiation, and to evaluate the acceptability of this alternative therapeutic pathway for ERCP during pregnancy.
METHODS: Between 2000 and 2008, six pregnant women underwent seven ERCP procedures. ERCP was performed under mild sedoanalgesia induced with pethidine HCl and midazolam. The bile duct was cannulated with a guidewire through the papilla. A catheter was slid over the guidewire and bile aspiration and/or visualization of the bile oozing around the guidewire was used to confirm correct cannulation. Following sphincterotomy, the bile duct was cleared by balloon sweeping. When indicated, stents were placed. Confirmation of successful biliary cannulation and stone extraction was made by laboratory, radiological and clinical improvement. Neither fluoroscopy nor spot radiography was used during the procedure.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 28 years (range, 21-33 years). The mean gestational age for the fetus was 23 wk (range, 14-34 wk). Five patients underwent ERCP because of choledocholithiasis and/or choledocholithiasis-induced acute cholangitis. In one case, a stone was extracted after precut papillotomy with a needle-knife, since the stone was impacted. One patient had ERCP because of persistent biliary fistula after hepatic hydatid disease surgery. Following sphincterotomy, scoleces were removed from the common bile duct. Two weeks later, because of the absence of fistula closure, repeat ERCP was performed and a stent was placed. The fistula was closed after stent placement. Neither post-ERCP complications nor premature birth or abortion was seen.
CONCLUSION: Non-radiation ERCP in experienced hands can be performed during pregnancy. Stent placement should be considered in cases for which complete common bile duct clearance is dubious because of a lack of visualization of the biliary tree.
Cholangitis; Choledocholithiasis; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Jaundice; Pregnancy
We describe a 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 1 Mirizzi syndrome diagnosed on endoscopic ultrasound. He presented with acute onset of jaundice, malaise, dark urine over 3–4 days, and was found to have obstructive jaundice on lab testing. CT scan of the abdomen showed intrahepatic biliary ductal dilation, a 1.5 cm common bile duct (CBD) above the pancreas, and possible stones in the CBD, but no masses. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) by a community gastroenterologist failed to cannulate the CBD. At the University Center, type 1 Mirizzi syndrome was noted on endoscopic ultrasound with narrowing of the CBD with extrinsic compression from cystic duct stone. During repeat ERCP, the CBD could be cannulated over the pancreatic duct wire. A mid CBD narrowing, distal CBD stones, proximal CBD and extrahepatic duct dilation were noted, and biliary sphincterotomy was performed. A small stone in the distal CBD was removed with an extraction balloon. The cystic duct stone was moved with the biliary balloon into the CBD, mechanical basket lithotripsy was performed and stone fragments were delivered out with an extraction balloon. The patient was seen 7 weeks later in the clinic. Skin and scleral icterus had cleared up and he is scheduled for an elective cholecystectomy. Mirizzi syndrome refers to biliary obstruction resulting from impacted stone in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder and commonly presents with obstructive jaundice. Type 1 does not have cholecystocholedochal fistulas, but they present in types 2, 3 and 4. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Endoscopic treatment is effective and can also be used as a temporizing measure or definitive treatment in poor surgical risk candidates.
Mirizzi syndrome; Gallstone; Endoscopic ultrasound; Obstructive jaundice
The acute angulation of Roux-en-Y (R-Y) limb precludes endoscopic access for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) even using a balloon enteroscopy. Here, we describe a case of successful single balloon enteroscopy (SBE)-assisted ERCP using a rendezvous technique in a patient with sharply angulated R-Y limb in a 79-year-old woman who had bile duct stones. Method. At first, a guidewire was passed antegradely through the major papilla after the needle puncture using percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage technique. A hydrophilic guidewire with an ERCP catheter was antegradely advanced beyond the Roux limb. After a guidewire was firmly grasped by a snare forceps, it was pulled out of the body, resulting that the enteroscope could advance to the papilla. After papillary dilation, complete removal of bile duct stones was achieved without any procedure-related complication. In conclusion, although further study is needed, SBE-assisted ERCP using a rendezvous technique may have a potential for selected patients.
AIM: To investigate the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in cases of suspected spontaneous passage of stones into the common bile duct.
METHODS: Thirty-six patients with gallbladder stones were clinically suspected of spontaneous passage of stones into the common bile duct because they presented with clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain and fever, and showed signs of inflammatory reaction and marked rise of hepatobiliary enzymes. These symptoms resolved and they showed normalized values of blood biochemical parameters after conservative treatment without evidence of stones in the common bile duct on MRCP. All these patients were subjected to ERCP within 3 d of MRCP to check for the presence of stones.
RESULTS: No stones were detected by ERCP in any patient, confirming the results of MRCP.
CONCLUSION: When clinical symptoms improve, blood biochemical parameters have normalized, and MRCP shows there are no stones in the common bile duct, it can be considered the stone has spontaneously passed and thus ERCP is not necessary.
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Spontaneous passage of bile duct stones; Bile duct stones; Pancreatitis
Twelve of 178 (7%) liver transplant patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) after transplantation. The indications for ERCP were persistent or late onset cholestasis, recurrent cholangitis, and suspected biliary leaks or strictures. The time between transplantation and ERCP ranged from 44 to 330 days (median 153 days). Biliary complications diagnosed by ERCP included biliary sludge in the form of casts, calculi, or debris (n = 7); bile leaks (n = 2); a biliary stricture (n = 1), and complete biliary obstruction (n = 1). One patient had a normal cholangiogram after transplantation. Biliary sludge was detected by ultrasound before ERCP in only one of six patients. Eight patients underwent endoscopic papillotomy, followed by clearance of biliary sludge in four and dilatation of a biliary stricture in one. Two patients bled after papillotomy but neither required surgical intervention. At a median follow up of 1.2 years (range 0.5-2.8 years), nine patients are well and three have died. ERCP provides both accurate diagnosis of biliary complications after liver transplantation and treatment that obviates the need for additional surgery in selected patients.
Less than 67% of patients with intermediate risk for common bile duct (CBD) stones require therapeutic intervention. It is important to have an accurate, safe, and reliable method for the definitive diagnosis of CBD stones before initiating therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Few publications detail the diagnostic efficacy of linear echoendoscopy (EUS) for CBD stones.
30 patients with biliary colic, pancreatitis, unexplained derangement of liver function tests, and/or dilated CBD without an identifiable cause were enrolled in the study. When a CBD stone was disclosed by linear EUS, ERCP with stone extraction was performed. Patients who failed ERCP were referred for surgical intervention. If no stone was found by EUS, ERCP would not be performed and patients were followed-up for possible biliary symptoms for up to three months.
The major reason for enrollment was acute pancreatitis. The mean predicted risk for CBD stones was 47% (28–61). Of the 12 patients who were positive for CBD stones by EUS, nine had successful ERCP, one failed ERCP (later treated successfully by surgical intervention) and two were false-positive cases. No procedure-related adverse events were noted. For those 18 patients without evidence of CBD stones by EUS, no false-negative case was noted during the three-month follow-up period. Linear EUS had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted values for the detection of CBD stones of 1, 0.9, 0.8 and 1, respectively.
Linear EUS is safe and efficacious for the diagnosis of occult CBD stones in patients with intermediate risk for the disease.
Linear echoendoscope; Occult common bile duct stones
Common bile duct (CBD) stones are a potentially life-threatening medical condition. Patients with proven CBD stones should undergo stone extraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether performing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for symptomatic CBD stones in a single session reduces complications related to postponing treatment due to separate EUS and ERCP sessions, and to assess the safety in both options.
A total of 151 patients with EUS-proven CBD stones, with subsequent ERCP, treated in our department between January 2005 and December 2011 were included. Complications related to the procedures or sedation and complications due to the CBD stones when EUS and ERCP were not performed in a single session were assessed and compared to complications when the two procedures were performed in one session.
In total, 149 patients of the 151 (98.7 %) had a successful ERCP. Four (5 %) patients in the separate-session group (B) had a major complication compared to none in the single-session group (A) (p > 0.05). Group B received 14 % more midazolam during ERCP than group A (p < 0.05). No sedation-related complications were noted in either group. Eleven of the 80 patients in group B (13.8 %) experienced complications while waiting for ERCP compared to none in group A (p = 0.001, OR = 2.17, CI = 1.06–4.
EUS and ERCP done in a single session proved to be safe, with no increase in sedation- or procedure-related complications. Postponing treatment for symptomatic CBD stones exposes the patient to biliary complications, especially cholangitis.
EUS; ERCP; CBD; Choledocholithiasis
AIM: To address endoscopic outcomes of post-Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients diagnosed with a “redundant bile duct” (RBD).
METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent OLT at the Liver Transplant Center, University Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Texas were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with suspected biliary tract complications (BTC) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). All ERCP were performed by experienced biliary endoscopist. RBD was defined as a looped, sigmoid-shaped bile duct on cholangiogram with associated cholestatic liver biomarkers. Patients with biliary T-tube placement, biliary anastomotic strictures, bile leaks, bile-duct stones-sludge and suspected sphincter of oddi dysfunction were excluded. Therapy included single or multiple biliary stents with or without sphincterotomy. The incidence of RBD, the number of ERCP corrective sessions, and the type of endoscopic interventions were recorded. Successful response to endoscopic therapy was defined as resolution of RBD with normalization of associated cholestasis. Laboratory data and pertinent radiographic imaging noted included the pre-ERCP period and a follow up period of 6-12 mo after the last ERCP intervention.
RESULTS: One thousand two hundred and eighty-two patient records who received OLT from 1992 through 2011 were reviewed. Two hundred and twenty-four patients underwent ERCP for suspected BTC. RBD was reported in each of the initial cholangiograms. Twenty-one out of 1282 (1.6%) were identified as having RBD. There were 12 men and 9 women, average age of 59.6 years. Primary indication for ERCP was cholestatic pattern of liver associated biomarkers. Nineteen out of 21 patients underwent endoscopic therapy and 2/21 required immediate surgical intervention. In the endoscopically managed group: 65 ERCP procedures were performed with an average of 3.4 per patient and 1.1 stent per session. Fifteen out of 19 (78.9%) patients were successfully managed with biliary stenting. All stents were plastic. Selection of stent size and length were based upon endoscopist preference. Stent size ranged from 7 to 11.5 Fr (average stent size 10 Fr); Stent length ranged from 6 to 15 cm (average length 9 cm). Concurrent biliary sphincterotomy was performed in 10/19 patients. Single ERCP session was sufficient in 6/15 (40.0%) patients, whereas 4/15 (26.7%) patients needed two ERCP sessions and 5/15 (33.3%) patients required more than two (average of 5.4 ERCP procedures). Single biliary stent was sufficient in 5 patients; the remaining patients required an average of 4.9 stents. Four out of 19 (21.1%) patients failed endotherapy (lack of resolution of RBD and recurrent cholestasis in the absence of biliary stent) and required either choledocojejunostomy (2/4) or percutaneous biliary drainage (2/4). Endoscopic complications included: 2/65 (3%) post-ERCP pancreatitis and 2/10 (20%) non-complicated post-sphincterotomy bleeding. No endoscopic related mortality was found. The medical records of the 15 successful endoscopically managed patients were reviewed for a period of one year after removal of all biliary stents. Eleven patients had continued resolution of cholestatic biomarkers (73%). One patient had recurrent hepatitis C, 2 patients suffered septic shock which was not associated with ERCP and 1 patient was transferred care to an outside provider and records were not available for our review.
CONCLUSION: Although surgical biliary reconstruction techniques have improved, RBD represents a post-OLT complication. This entity is rare however, endoscopic management of RBD represents a reasonable initial approach.
Redundant bile duct; Orthotopic liver transplantation; Biliary complications; Biliary stent; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Biliary extraction baskets are a commonly used instrument for the removal of choledocholithiasis in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Impaction of the extraction basket is a recognized complication of ERCP, and is usually the result of discrepancy between the size of bile duct stone and the diameter of the distal bile duct. Whilst mechanical lithotriptors can be used to crush the stone or break the wires of the basket to allow its release, failure of the lithotriptor device can occur. We describe the case of a 59-year-old gentleman who had an ERCP performed for choledocholithiasis. Basket impaction was encountered, and the mechanical lithotriptor failed to dislodge the stone/basket complex. A two-step technique involving balloon dilatation and forceps manipulation of the basket was applied to successfully dislodge the impacted basket. We believe this simple and safe technique should be adopted to rescue impacted biliary extraction baskets to avoid the need for potential surgical removal.
Background. Although periampullary diverticulum is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally in patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it may lead to post-ERCP morbidity. We compared baseline characteristics and clinical data as well as ERCP results in patients with and without periampullary diverticulum.
Methods. Clinical, laboratory, and ERCP data of 780 patients referred to the Taleghani Hospital, as a great referral endoscopy center, in Iran were prospectively analyzed.
Results. The periampullary diverticulum was identified in 44 patients (5.6%). Cannulation of common bile duct was more failed in patients with diverticulum compared to others (35.5% versus 11.5, P < 0.001). Patients with diverticulum had eight times more often common bile duct stone compared to patients without diverticulum (54.5% versus 12.2%, P < 0.001). Post-ERCP complications were observed in 2.3% and 4.2% of patients with and without diverticulum, respectively, which did not significantly differ in both groups.
Conclusion. Because of more failure cannulation in the presence of periampullary diverticulum, ERCP requires more skills in these patients. Prevalence of common bile duct stone was notably higher in patients with diverticulum; therefore, more assessment of bile stone and its complications in these patients is persistently recommended.
Failed ERCP appears to decrease the success rate of a laparoscopic approach for common bile duct exploration.
To compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
This is a descriptive, comparative study. Patients with an indication of common bile duct exploration between February 2005 and October 2008 were included. We studied 2 groups: Group A: patients with failed ERCP who underwent LCBDE plus LC. Group B: patients with common bile duct stones managed with the 1-step approach (LCBDE + LC) with no prior ERCP.
Twenty-five patients were included. Group A: 9 patients, group B: 16 patients. Success rate, operative time, and hospital stay were as follows: group A 66% vs group B 87.5%; group A 187 minutes vs 106 minutes; group A 4.5 days vs 2.3 days; respectively.
Patients with failed ERCP should be considered as high-complex cases in which the laparoscopic procedure success rate decreases, and the conversion rate increases considerably.
Choledocholithiasis; Laparoscopy; Endoscopic retrograde; Cholangiopancreatography
To investigate the efficacy of early scheduled follow-up endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) after common bile duct (CBD) stone removal.
Patients who underwent endoscopic CBD stone removal and who had at least one risk factor for stone recurrence were enrolled. Six months after complete clearance of the CBD, patients underwent follow-up ERCP at an ambulatory care center, irrespective of symptoms.
The incidence of symptoms and cholangitis at follow-up ERCP was significantly lower in Group A (ERCP at 6 months after stone removal) than that in Group B (ERCP at >6 months) (14.3% vs 71.4%, p=0.00; 9.5% vs 33.3%, p=0.02, respectively). However, the recurrence rates of CBD stones were not different between Groups A and B (33.3% vs 47.6%). When comparing the subgroups, Group AR (stone recurrence in Group A) displayed significantly fewer symptoms and lesser cholangitis and spent fewer days in the hospital than did Group BR (stone recurrence in Group B) (21.4% vs 70%, p=0.02; 14.3% vs 60%, p=0.02; 2.43±1.87 vs 6.10±3.35, p=0.00, respectively).
Our data suggest that, irrespective of symptoms, early scheduled follow-up ERCP for patients who are at a high risk of recurrence is effective and safe.
Risk factor; Recurrence; Common bile duct stone; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Cholangitis
Removal of bile duct stones during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) usually includes papillotomy. Papillotomy is associated with occasional complications and in addition, the longterm sequelae of papillotomy in young patients having laparoscopic cholecystectomy remain unclear. As an alternative to papillotomy, this study prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic balloon sphincteroplasty to facilitate bile duct clearance. Of 32 patients with bile duct stones (diameter 3-30 mm) at ERCP, sphincteroplasty was considered inappropriate in four patients because of stone size (> 20 mm) necessitating papillotomy for bile duct clearance. Sphincteroplasty was performed in the remaining 28 patients to permit duct clearance by dormier basket, balloon or mechanical lithotripsy. The bile duct was cleared in 22 patients (79%) while additional measures including papillotomy or stent insertion were required in the remaining six patients (21%) because of stone size or technical difficulties. There was no associated papillary haemorrhage. Pancreatitis was seen in one patient (4%) but resolved within 24 hours. Our preliminary experience suggests that sphincteroplasty is a safe and effective sphincter preservation technique that significantly reduces the necessity for papillotomy in the management of bile duct stones.
The major papilla of Vater is usually located in the second portion of the duodenum, to the posterior medial wall. Sometimes the mouth of the biliary duct is located in other areas. Drainage of the common bile duct into the pylorus is extremely rare. A 73-year old man, with a history of duodenal ulcer, was admitted to hospital with the diagnosis of cholangitis. Dilatation of the extrahepatic biliary duct was observed by abdominal ultrasonography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed. No area suggesting the presence of the papilla of Vater was found within the second duodenal portion. Finally the major papilla was located in the theoretical pyloric duct. Cholangiography was performed and choledocholithiasis was found in the biliary tree. The patient underwent dilatation of the papilla with a balloon tyre and removal of a 7 mm stone using a Dormia basket, which solved the problem without further complications. This anomaly increased the difficulty of performing therapeutic interventions during ERCP. This alteration in anatomy may increase the risk of complications during papillotomy, with a theoretically higher risk of perforation. Dilatation using a balloon was the chosen therapeutic technique both in our case and in the literature, due to its low rate of complications.
Ectopic common bile duct; Endoscopic dilatation; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Papilla of Vater; Papillotomy; Pyloric drainage
The aim of this study was the assessment of patient outcome, peri-operative complications, length of stay and duration of operation after laparoscopic primary closure of the common bile duct (CBD) compared with choledochotomy with T-tube drainage and trans-cystic exploration.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Analysis of prospectively collected data on 71 explorations of the common bile duct between July 2001 and March 2006.
A total of 71 patients had exploration of the CBD. Within this group, 12 were referred after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The methods of exploration included trans-cystic (9 cases), choledochotomy with Ttube (12), and choledochotomy with primary closure (50). CBD stones were found in 66 patients. In the remaining cases, we found a stricture in 1, debris in 2, and dilatation of the CBD without a stone in 2. There were 5 conversions to open technique and 3 patients required postoperative ERCP (1 with permanent stenting). Peri-operative complications included T-tube (3), primary closure group (9), and trans-cystic (0). There was no statistical significant difference (Chi-square test, P = 0.296) between the groups. There was a trend towards a shorter length of stay in the primary closure group as compared with the trans-cystic and T-tube groups of 4.16, 4.44, and 6.33 days, respectively. However, it did not reach statistical significance (one-way analysis of variance with Boneferroni correction, mean difference between groups 1.89, 0.28, 2,17, statistical significance at P < 0.05). The shortest operating time was in the primary closure group (95.92 min) which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). We did not use a biliary drain in the last 48 patients.
Primary laparoscopic closure of the CBD is safe and results in a reduction in operating time. Choledochoscopy ensures clearance of the CBD and eliminates the need for T-tube.
Common bile duct; Primary closure; T-tube drainage; Trans-cystic exploration
Background: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) carries a substantial risk of recurrent choledocholithiasis but retreatment with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is safe and feasible. However, long term results of repeat ERCP and risk factors for late complications are largely unknown.
Aims: To investigate the long term outcome of repeat ERCP for recurrent bile duct stones after ES and to identify risk factors predicting late choledochal complications.
Methods: Eighty four patients underwent repeat ERCP, combined with ES in 69, for post-ES recurrent choledocholithiasis. Long term outcomes of repeat ERCP were retrospectively investigated and factors predicting late complications were assessed by multivariate analysis.
Results: Complete stone clearance was achieved in all patients. Forty nine patients had no visible evidence of prior sphincterotomy. Two patients experienced early complications. During a follow up period of 2.2–26.0 years (median 10.9 years), 31 patients (37%) developed late complications, including stone recurrence (n = 26), acute acalculous cholangitis(n = 4), and acute cholecystitis (n = 1). There were neither biliary malignancies nor deaths attributable to biliary disease. Multivariate analysis identified three independent risk factors for choledochal complications: interval between initial ES and repeat ERCP ⩽5 years, bile duct diameter ⩾15 mm, and periampullary diverticulum. Choledochal complications were successfully treated with repeat ERCP in 29 patients.
Conclusions: Choledochal complications after repeat ERCP are relatively frequent but are endoscopically manageable. Careful follow up is necessary, particularly for patients with a dilated bile duct, periampullary diverticulum, or early recurrence. Repeat ERCP is a reasonable treatment even for recurrent choledocholithiasis after ES.
endoscopic sphincterotomy; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; recurrent choledocholithiasis; bile duct stones
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) in the diagnosis of non-opaque, common bile duct stones.
METHODS: A total of 183 patients (102 males, mean age 73 years; 81 females, mean age 70 years) with suspected common bile duct stones diagnosed through abdominal computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and abdominal Type-B ultrasound were included in the study. The diagnosis was confirmed through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by IDUS.
RESULTS: A total of 183 patients with suspected common bile duct (CBD) stones were included in the study as follows: 36 patients with high-density CBD stones, 68 patients with sand-like stones, 44 patients with low-density stones, 21 patients with ampullary cancer, and 14 patients with pancreatic cancer. Conventional imaging revealed 124 cases of choledochectasia, and only 36 cases of suspected CBD stones; ERCP revealed 145 cases of CBD stones with three missed diagnoses. IDUS revealed 148 cases of CBD stones, 21 cases of ampullary tumors, and 14 cases of pancreatic cancer.
CONCLUSION: IDUS was more effective in the diagnosis of bile duct stones than ERCP, upper abdominal CT or upper abdominal MRI.
Biliary intraductal ultrasonography; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Common bile duct stones; Non-opaque stones; Sand-like stones
The introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, improvements in ultrasound technology and the success of endoscopic sphincterotomy have raised new questions regarding the role of intraoperative cholangiography. Our aim was to analyse the ability of preoperative clinical and ultrasound assessments to detect common duct stones in 86 patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis who then underwent cholangiography after percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Six patients gave a history suggestive of common duct stones (either jaundice, cholangitis or pancreatitis). Ultrasound showed a dilated common duct in four patients (normal < 6 mm), and one of these had a stone demonstrated in the duct. The latter patient and one other with a dilated common duct had stones on cholangiography (which were extracted at ERCP), no stones were demonstrated in the other two. Ultrasound correctly identified common duct stones in two and excluded common duct stones in four others with a history suggesting the presence of stones. For patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy we would advocate the use of preoperative ultrasound instead of intraoperative cholangiography, and that endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is performed in the small number of patients shown to have a dilated duct or common duct stone.
We report a rare case of granulocytic sarcoma infiltrating the bile duct in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. A 23-year-old man presented with jaundice and weight loss. A peripheral blood smear revealed blast cells, and the results of an examination of bone marrow aspirate were consistent with acute myeloid leukemia. The bilirubin level increased gradually after induction chemotherapy with cytarabine. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts and smooth tapering off at the level of the common hepatic bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) also revealed diffuse narrowing of the proximal common hepatic bile duct. Obstructive jaundice resolved after endoscopic nasobiliary drainage. Remission induction chemotherapy with cytarabine and idarubicin was administered, and the patient remained complete hematological remission with normal liver function tests.
Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute; Jaundice, Obstructive; Bile ducts; Retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) performed for common bile duct (CBD) stones.
METHODS: From a computer database, we retrospectively analyzed the data relating to EBD performed in patients at the gastrointestinal unit of the Sandro Pertini Hospital of Rome (small center with low case volume) who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for CBD from January 1, 2010 to February 29, 2012. All patients had a proven diagnosis of CBD stones studied with echography, RMN-cholangiography and, when necessary, with computed tomography of the abdomen (for example, in cases with pace-makers). Prophylactic therapies, with gabexate mesilate 24 h before the procedure and with an antibiotic (ceftriaxone 2 g) 1 h before, were administered in all patients. The duodenum was intubated with a side-viewing endoscope under deep sedation with intravenous midazolam and propofol. The patients were placed in the supine position in almost all cases. EBD of the ampulla was performed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance with a balloon through the scope (Hercules, wireguided balloon®, Cook Ireland Ltd. and CRE®, Microvasive, Boston Scientific Co., Natick, MA, United States).
RESULTS: A total of 14 patients (9 female, 5 male; mean age of 73 years; range 57-82 years) were enrolled in the study, in whom a total of 15 EBDs were performed. All patients underwent minor endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) prior to the EBD. The size of balloon insufflation depended on stone size and CBD dilation and this was performed until it reached 16 mm in diameter. EBD was performed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. The balloon was gradually filled with diluted contrast agent and was maintained inflated in position for 45 to 60 s before deflation and removal. The need for precutting the major papilla was 21.4%. In one patient (an 81-year-old), EBD was performed in a Billroth II. Periampullary diverticula were found only in a 74-year-old female. The adverse event related to the procedures (ERCP + ES) was only an intra procedural bleeding (6.6%) that occurred after ES and was treated immediately with adrenaline sclerotherapy. No postoperative complications were reported.
CONCLUSION: With the current endoscopic techniques, very few patients with choledocholithiasis require surgery. EBD is an efficacious and safe procedure.
Choledocholithiasis; Endoscopic balloon dilation; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Endoscopic sphincterotomy; Mechanical lithotripsy