Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and induces more aggressive biologic characteristics. Survival in young women has been widely studied in developed countries. Less favorable prognosis and low survival were found.
In Morocco, this study is the first investigation of clinical features, treatment and prognosis associated with breast cancer in young women.
Four hundred and nine women aged 35 years or less were included in this study. All these women were diagnosed as having breast cancer at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco between 2003 and 2007. The relation between clinical and therapeutic characteristics and event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Cox regression analysis.
The median age of the patients was 32 years. Fifty three patients (13%) have metastatic disease at diagnosis and 356 patients (87%) had localised disease. In 57.9% of the cases, the estrogen receptors status was positive. The median follow-up was 32.2 months. After 3 years the survival rate was 80.6%. In the case of localised disease, OS and EFS at 3 years were 83.2% and 62.5%, respectively. OS and EFS at 3 years was higher in patients with stage I than patients with stage II and stage III (p = 0.001). Positive estrogen receptors was significantly associated to OS and EFS at 3 years compared to negative estrogen receptors (p = 0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant hormone therapy were associated with net benefit in OS and EFS at 3 years. Cox regression analysis showed that negative ER was significantly associated with poorer OS (HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.25 - 4.66, p < 0.009) and poorer EFS (HR = 1.73, 95%CI = 1.05 - 2.86, p = 0.03). Stage III disease were associated to poorer EFS (HR = 5.35, 95%CI = 1.60 -17.84, p = 0.006).
In Morocco, young women with breast cancer had less favorable prognosis. Multivariate analysis showed that negative hormone receptor status was associated with lower EFS and OS. Clinical trials should be launched to improve the survival of these young women with breast cancer.
Alcohol consumption has been comprehensively investigated as an etiologic risk factor for breast cancer but has received little attention in terms of its impact on prognosis after breast cancer, particularly for young women.
1286 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at or before 45 years of age from two population-based case-control studies in the Seattle-Puget Sound region were followed from their diagnosis of breast cancer (between January 1983 and December 1992) for survival through June 2002, during which time 364 women had died. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to assess the effect of pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption on the risk of dying.
After adjusting for age and diagnosis year, compared to non-drinkers, women who consumed alcohol in the 5 years prior to diagnosis had a decreased risk of death [>0 to <3 drinks per week: HR(hazard ratio) = 0.7 (95% CI: 0.6–0.95); 3 to <7 drinks per week: RR = 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4–0.8); ≥ 7 drinks per week: RR = 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5–0.9)]. This association was unchanged upon additional adjustment for potential confounders including most notably treatment, stage at diagnosis, and mammogram history.
These results suggest that women who consume alcohol prior to a diagnosis of breast cancer have improved survival which does not appear to be attributable to differences in stage, screening or treatment.
breast cancer; survival; alcohol consumption; wine; modifiable risk factor
Node-negative breast cancers from 2 cm to 5 cm in size are classified as stage ii, and smaller cancers, as stage i. We sought to determine if the prognosis of women with a breast cancer exactly 2 cm in size more closely resembles that of women with a stage i or a stage ii breast cancer.
Using a cohort of 4265 young women with breast cancer, we compared the 10-year breast cancer mortality rates for women who had a tumour 0.1–1.9 cm, exactly 2.0 cm, and 2.1–2.9 cm.
In the first 3 years after diagnosis, the survival pattern of women with a 2.0-cm breast cancer was nearly identical to that of women with a larger cancer (2.1–3.0 cm). From year 3 to year 10, the relative survival of women with a 2.0-cm breast cancer was improved and nearly identical to that of women with a smaller cancer. The 10-year survival rate was 89.3% for women with tumours less than 20 mm, 86.1% for women with tumours equal to 20 mm, and 81.2% for women with 21-mm to 29-mm tumours.
For young women with small breast cancers, the relative mortality from breast cancer is dynamic with increasing tumour size and varies with time from diagnosis.
Breast cancer; stage; survival
The long term prognosis of women with breast cancer was studied by analysing retrospectively the 30 year survival of 2019 women with histologically proved breast cancer recorded at the National Cancer Registry in New Zealand between 1950 and 1954. Excess mortality rates for successive five year survival cohorts were calculated from the survival data. From the total cohort the excess mortality rate fell rapidly during the first 10 years and then became low after 20 years. There were no significant differences in excess mortality for the age cohorts. Most of the excess mortality for 20 years was due to deaths from breast cancer. In this study the prognosis for women with breast cancer approached normal after 20 years and the improvement in prognosis resulted from decreasing death rates from breast cancer.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is an uncommon type of breast cancer. There are limited data about its epidemiology, tumor characteristics, and outcomes. Using a large, population-based database, this study aims to identify specific characteristics of patients with adenoid cystic breast cancer, investigate its natural history, and determine its long-term prognosis.
The California Cancer Registry (CCR), a population-based registry, was reviewed from the years 1988 to 2006. The data were analyzed with relation to patient age, tumor size and stage, and overall survival. Relative cumulative actuarial survival was determined using the Berkson-Gage life table method.
A total of 244 cases of invasive adenoid cystic cancer were identified in women during this time period. The patients’ median age was 61.9 years. Most cases were diagnosed in non-Hispanic White women (82%, n=200), followed by African-American (6%, n=15), Asian/Pacific-Islander (5.7%, n=14) and Hispanic women (4.4%, n=12). The remainder of the patients was of unknown or other ethnicity. Tumors were between 1 and 140 mm in size. At the time of diagnosis, 92% (n=225) of patients had localized disease, 5% (n=12) of patients had regional disease, and even fewer (n=7) had either distant or unknown staged disease. Lymph node involvement was not present in any tumors smaller than 1.4 cm. The relative cumulative survival of patients with adenoid cystic breast carcinoma was 95.6% at 5 years and 94.9% at 10 years.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare disease with an overall good prognosis. Knowing that this cancer usually presents as localized disease, with lymph node involvement seen only with larger tumors, can help clinicians plan the operative management of these tumors.
Adenoid Cystic Breast Carcinoma; Incidence; Prognosis; Survival; Treatment
The difference in breast cancer incidence and prognosis between ethnic groups seeks an explanation. We have recently shown that Swedish women are two to three times more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer compared with Singaporean women. In the present paper, we compare breast cancer survival in the two countries.
We compared the survival of 10,287 Singaporean women and 17,090 Swedish women with breast cancer. Relative survival ratios were used to describe the prognosis in the two populations. A Poisson regression model was used to calculate relative risks for different follow-up periods, age groups, time of diagnosis and disease stages.
The majority of the Swedish women had local cancer (80%) compared with Singaporean women (51%). The overall 5-year relative survival of the Swedish women appeared better (80%) than that of the Singaporean women (70%). A similar survival pattern was observed, however, between the two countries in a stage-by-stage comparison. Survival improved for all women in Singapore over the two decades, but only in the premenopausal women in Stockholm. In 1980 to 1989, premenopausal Singaporean women had 27% increased risk of death compared with Swedish women, adjusted for stage and year of follow-up, while the postmenopausal women had 48% increased risk. In 1990 to 1999, this risk decreased by 19% and 22% for the premenopausal and postmenopausal Singaporean women compared with the Swedish women.
The stage-dependent prognosis was similar for Singaporean women and for Swedish women. Singaporean women, both premenopausal and postmenopausal, had pronounced improvement in prognosis over the calendar periods, probably contributed by marked economic improvement, leading to better medical facilities and management with increased awareness of patients to diagnosis and treatment, as well as improved treatment options. Improvement seen only in the premenopausal women in Stockholm was probably due to improved treatment options.
Objective To compare the prognosis in women with interval breast cancer (cancer detected after a normal screening mammogram and before the next scheduled mammogram) with breast cancer detected among women not yet invited to mammography screening (non-screened).
Design Population based observational study.
Setting Norwegian breast cancer screening programme, implemented in different counties from 1996 to 2005.
Participants 7116 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer at age 50 to 72 years; 1816 had interval breast cancer and 5300 had a diagnosis of breast cancer but had not yet been invited to screening.
Main outcome measures Characteristics of the breast tumours, and survival of the women using Kaplan Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models.
Results Although interval cancers on average were slightly larger than the cancers in women not invited to screening, the histological type or status of axilliary lymph nodes did not differ noticeably between the two groups. Among interval cancers, there were no appreciable trends in size, nodal status, grade, or hormone receptor positivity associated with time since the last normal mammogram as a marker of growth rate. After 10 years of follow-up, the survival rates were 79.1% (95% confidence interval 75.4% to 82.3%) among women with interval cancers and 76.8% (75.3% to 78.2%) among women in the non-screened cancer group (hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.15; P=0.53). Analyses stratified by time since last normal mammogram, age at diagnosis, or screening round showed similar results.
Conclusion The prognosis of women with interval breast cancers was the same as that of women with breast cancers diagnosed without mammography screening.
For the first time the incidence and mortality of breast cancer were estimated in French Guiana, an overseas French Territory of South America. A certified cancer registry collected exhaustive data on breast cancer between 2003 and 2005. The age-standardized rate of breast cancer was 47.1 per 100 000 women. The age-standardized death rate was 11.0 per 100 000 women. Although the standardized incidence and death rates were lower than in metropolitan France and South America, the ratio between incidence and mortality showed that the prognosis of breast cancer in French Guiana was worse than in metropolitan France (23 deaths per 100 incident cases versus 17 deaths per 100 incident cases, respectively). The demographics of French Guiana, suggests that mass organized screening may benefit from lowering the age of its target population.
Breast cancer; French Guiana Registry; Cancer incidence; Cancer in South America
Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive with a poorer prognosis and overall survival compared to older women diagnosed with the disease. Despite recent research, the underlying biology and molecular alterations that drive the aggressive nature of breast tumors associated with breast cancer in young women have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed transcriptomic profile and network analyses of breast tumors arising in Middle Eastern women to identify age-specific gene signatures. Moreover, we studied molecular alterations associated with cancer progression in young women using cross-species comparative genomics approach coupled with copy number alterations (CNA) associated with breast cancers from independent studies. We identified 63 genes specific to tumors in young women that showed alterations distinct from two age cohorts of older women. The network analyses revealed potential critical regulatory roles for Myc, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and IL-1 in disease characteristics of breast tumors arising in young women. Cross-species comparative genomics analysis of progression from pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) revealed 16 genes with concomitant genomic alterations, CCNB2, UBE2C, TOP2A, CEP55, TPX2, BIRC5, KIAA0101, SHCBP1, UBE2T, PTTG1, NUSAP1, DEPDC1, HELLS, CCNB1, KIF4A, and RRM2, that may be involved in tumorigenesis and in the processes of invasion and progression of disease. Array findings were validated using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and extensive in silico analyses of independently performed microarray datasets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive genomic analysis of breast cancer in Middle Eastern women in age-specific cohorts and potential markers for cancer progression in young women. Our data demonstrate that cancer appearing in young women contain distinct biological characteristics and deregulated signaling pathways. Moreover, our integrative genomic and cross-species analysis may provide robust biomarkers for the detection of disease progression in young women, and lead to more effective treatment strategies.
The relative survival of breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1995–2005 from the Netherlands Cancer Registry was examined and stratified by age group. In contrast to younger patients and in spite of similarly intensified treatment, the relative survival of elderly patients showed no improvement over this time period.
The number of elderly women with breast cancer is increasing and will become a major health concern. However, little is known about the optimal treatment for this age group. The aim of this study was to describe time trends for the overall Dutch breast cancer cohort with an emphasis on differences between young and elderly patients.
All adult female patients diagnosed in 1995–2005 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Relative excess risks for death (adjusted for stage, histology, treatment, and grade) were estimated using a multivariate generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution, based on collapsed relative survival data, using exact survival times.
Overall, 127,805 patients were included. Treatment of patients aged ≥75 years changed significantly over time: they received less surgery, more adjuvant hormonal treatment and chemotherapy, and more hormonal treatment without surgery. In contrast to younger patients, the relative survival did not improve significantly over time for elderly patients. With increasing age, the observed–expected death ratio decreased to almost 1.0.
Survival for elderly patients with breast cancer did not improve significantly. Observed–expected death ratios in the elderly are close to 1, indicating that excess mortality is low. Elderly patients with breast cancer have a higher risk for overtreatment and undertreatment, with a delicate therapeutic balance between breast cancer survival gain and potential toxicities. To improve breast cancer survival in the elderly, a critical reappraisal is needed of costs and benefits of hormonal as well as other treatments, and better selection of patients who can benefit from available therapies is warranted.
Breast cancer; Elderly; Relative survival; Population based
As it is unclear if hereditary factors affect breast cancer survival, this was compared using fertility and cancer registry data, among all women so diagnosed during 1961–1999 in Sweden, having a child with childhood cancer (⩽20 years of age; n=254) and with that of other women (n=74 781). Those having a child with a childhood malignancy had a significantly worse survival than other women, relative risk (RR)=1.25, 95% CI 1.02–1.55, P<0.04, adjusted for age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, parity and time since last pregnancy. Childhood sarcomas or acute myeloid leukaemia seemed to be most associated with a worse survival in the mother (RR=1.38 and 1.69, respectively). The lower survival of the mother was present for breast cancer diagnosed both before and after 50 years of age. The Li–Fraumeni syndrome and possibly other genetic disorders may lower breast cancer survival.
breast cancer; childhood cancer; familial cancer; hereditary syndrome; prognosis
Comorbid diseases can affect breast cancer prognosis. We conducted a population-based study of Danish women diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer from 1995 to 2005 (n=9300), using hospital discharge registry data to quantify comorbidities by Charlson score. We examined the influence of comorbidities on survival, and quantified their impact on relative mortality rates. The prevalence of patients with a Charlson score=‘0' fell from 86 to 81%, with an increase in those with Charlson score=‘1–2' from 13 to 16%, and score=‘3+' from 1 to 2%. One- and five-year survival for patients with Charlson score=‘0' and ‘1–2' was better for those diagnosed in 1998–2000 than in 1995–1997. Overall, patients diagnosed in 2001–2004 (mortality ratio (MR)=0.80, 95% CI=0.68–0.95) and 1998–2000 (MR=0.92, 95% CI=0.78–1.09) had lower 1-year age-adjusted mortality compared to those diagnosed in 1995–1997 (reference period). Patients with Charlson scores ‘1–2' and ‘3+' had higher age-adjusted 1-year mortality than those with a Charlson score=‘0' in each time period (2001–2004: MR‘1–2'=1.76, 95% CI=1.35–2.30, and MR‘3+'=3.78, 95% CI=2.51–5.68; and 1998–2000: MR‘1–2'=1.60, 95% CI=1.36–1.88 and MR‘3+'=2.34, 95% CI=1.65–3.33). Similar findings were observed for 5-year age-adjusted mortality. Additional analyses, adjusted for stage, indicated that confounding by stage could not explain these findings. Despite continued improvements in breast cancer survival, we found a trend of poorer survival among breast cancer patients with severe comorbidities even after adjusting for age and stage. Such poorer survival is an important public health concern and can be expected to worsen as the population ages.
breast cancer; survival; Charlson comorbidity score; population-based
To investigate, among women with breast cancer, how postdiagnosis diet quality and the combination of diet quality and recreational physical activity are associated with prognosis.
This multiethnic, prospective observational cohort included 670 women diagnosed with local or regional breast cancer. Thirty months after diagnosis, women completed self-report assessments on diet and physical activity and were followed for 6 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for death from any cause and breast cancer death.
Women consuming better-quality diets, as defined by higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, had a 60% reduced risk of death from any cause (HRQ4:Q1: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.94) and an 88% reduced risk of death from breast cancer (HRQ4:Q1: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.99). Compared with inactive survivors consuming poor-quality diets, survivors engaging in any recreational physical activity and consuming better-quality diets had an 89% reduced risk of death from any cause (HR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.36) and a 91% reduced risk of death from breast cancer (HR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.89). Associations observed were independent of obesity status.
Women diagnosed with localized or regional breast cancer may improve prognosis by adopting better-quality dietary patterns and regular recreational physical activity. Lifestyle interventions emphasizing postdiagnosis behavior changes are advisable in breast cancer survivors.
Diet; Exercise; Breast neoplasm; Prognosis
To understand the impact of breast cancer on older women's survival, we compared survival of older women diagnosed with breast cancer with matched controls.
Using the linked 1992 to 2003 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) -Medicare data set, we identified women age 67 years or older who were newly diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or breast cancer. We identified women not diagnosed with breast cancer from the 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries residing in SEER areas. We matched patient cases to controls by birth year and registry (99% or 66,039 patient cases matched successfully). We assigned the start of follow-up for controls as the patient cases' date of diagnosis. Mortality data were available through 2006. We compared survival of women with breast cancer by stage with survival of controls using multivariable proportional hazards models adjusting for age at diagnosis, comorbidity, prior mammography use, and sociodemographics. We repeated these analyses stratifying by age.
Median follow-up time was 7.7 years. Differences between patient cases and controls in sociodemographics and comorbidities were small (< 4%). Women diagnosed with DCIS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.7 to 0.7) or stage I disease (aHR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.8 to 0.8) had slightly lower mortality than controls. Women diagnosed with stage II disease or higher had greater mortality than controls (stage II disease: aHR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.2). The association of a breast cancer diagnosis with mortality declined with age among women with advanced disease.
Compared with matched controls, a diagnosis of DCIS or stage I breast cancer in older women is associated with better survival, whereas a diagnosis of stage II or higher breast cancer is associated with worse survival.
Little is known about long-term outcomes following a second breast cancer diagnosis. We describe the epidemiology, characteristics and prognosis of second breast cancers in an Italian cohort. We identified women with two breast cancer diagnoses from 24 278 histology records at a Tuscan breast cancer service between 1980 and 2005, and determined their survival status. Disease-specific survival from second diagnosis was examined using Cox regression analyses. Second cancers were identified in 1044 women with a median age of 60 years. In all 455 were ipsilateral relapses and 589 were contralateral cancers. Median time between first and second diagnosis was 63.4 months. The majority of second cancers was small invasive or in situ tumours. Estimated 10-year survival from a second cancer diagnosis was 78%. Survival was poorest when the second cancer was large (HR=2.26) or node-positive (HR=3.43), when the time between the two diagnoses was <5 years (HR=1.45), or when the diagnosis was in an earlier epoch (HR=2.20). Second tumours were more likely to be large or node-positive if the first breast cancer had these features. Prognosis following a second breast cancer in this cohort was generally good. However, large or node-positive second tumours, and shorter intervals between diagnoses were indicators of poorer survival.
breast cancer; contralateral cancer; disease-specific survival; ipsilateral breast relapse; prognosis
Recent studies suggest trends toward more mastectomies for primary breast cancer treatment. We assessed survival after mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation for early-stage breast cancer among non-selected populations of women and among women similar to those in clinical trials. Using population-based data from Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries linked with Medicare administrative data from 1992 to 2005, we conducted propensity score analysis of survival following primary therapy for early-stage breast cancer, including BCS with radiation, BCS without radiation, mastectomy with radiation, and mastectomy without radiation. Adjusted survival was greatest among women who had BCS with radiation (median survival = 10.98 years). Compared with this group, mortality was higher among women who had mastectomy without radiation (median survival 10.04 years, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.23), mastectomy with radiation (median survival 10.02 years, HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.14–1.27), and BCS without radiation (median survival 7.63 years, HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.70–1.92). Among women representative of those eligible for clinical trials (age ≤70 years, Charlson comorbidity score = 0/1, and stage 1 tumors), there were no differences in survival for women who underwent BCS with radiation or mastectomy. In conclusion, after careful adjustment for differences in patient, physician, and hospital characteristics, we found better survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among older early-stage breast cancer patients, with no difference in survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among women representative of those in clinical trials. These findings are reassuring in light of recent trends towards more aggressive primary breast cancer therapy.
Breast cancer; Surgery; Outcomes; Mastectomy; Breast conservation
Many women who survive breast cancer die of causes unrelated to their cancer diagnosis. This study was undertaken to assess factors that are related to breast cancer mortality versus mortality from other causes and to describe the leading causes of death among older women diagnosed with breast cancer.
Women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 66 or older between 1992 and 2000 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database and followed through the end of 2005.
A total of 63,566 women diagnosed with breast cancer met the inclusion criteria and were followed for a median of approximately nine years. Almost one-half (48.7%) were alive at the end of follow-up. Ages and comorbidities at the time of diagnosis had the largest effects on mortality from other causes, while tumor stage, tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, age and comorbidities at the time of diagnosis all had effects on breast cancer-specific mortality. Fully adjusted relative hazards of the effects of comorbidities on breast cancer-specific mortality were 1.24 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13 to 1.26) for cardiovascular disease, 1.13 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.26) for previous cancer, 1.13 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.22) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1.10 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.16) for diabetes. Among the total study population, cardiovascular disease was the primary cause of death in the study population (15.9% (95% CI 15.6 to 16.2)), followed closely by breast cancer (15.1% (95% CI 14.8 to 15.4)).
Comorbid conditions contribute importantly to both total mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality among breast cancer survivors. Attention to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease should be a priority for the long-term care of women following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.
The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort.
Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade.
The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044) and stage (p = 0.046), a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p < 0.001), higher estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001) and higher HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002); there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477). There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026), invasion (p = 0.026) and histological type (p = 0.027), PR (p = 0.031) and HER2 (p = 0.002) status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS
Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population.
A study from Wales of 132 women with cancer of the lung admitted consecutively during the five years 1964-68, and of 13 other women submitted to surgery at an earlier period, showed that the prognosis for women was worse than for men. Every woman except one was followed up for more than five years. Of the 132 women in the consecutive series only five survived for five years, while the five-year survival rate after resection in 35 women was less than one-half of that of men. The cause of the worse prognosis for women in Wales appears to be due to some sex-linked factor. It cannot be explained by the age of the patient or by the histology, location, early or resectability of the growth. The prognosis of cancer of the lung in English, French, and American women is considered. The relative incidence of the disease in women and men is discussed. Sex and nationality appear to be of importance, but the influence of tobacco and other atmospheric carcinogens is obscure.
Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, but little is known about the underlying factors. The aim of this study was to compare women with a history of pHPT and a reference population in terms of standard factors predictive of prognosis and response to therapy for breast cancer.
We analyzed data collected from the National Swedish Cancer Register and from two regional oncologic center registries. Seventy-one women with breast cancer and a history of parathyroid adenomectomy were compared with 338 matched controls with breast cancer only. Tumor size, stage, hormone receptor status, lymph node status, cause of death, and cumulative survival were analyzed.
The mean age was 69 ± 11 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68–70) in both groups and the mean time interval between the parathyroid surgery and breast cancer diagnosis was 91 ± 68 months (95% CI: 72–111). There were no differences between the two groups regarding size, stage, lymph node metastases, or survival, but none of the cases with a history of pHPT were found in Stage III or IV.
In conclusion, factors predictive of prognosis and response to therapy in women with a history of pHPT and breast cancer are similar to those in breast cancer patients without pHPT.
breast cancer; primary hyperparathyroidism; prognostic factors
Approximately 7% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40 years, and this disease accounts for more than 40% of all cancer in women in this age group. Survival rates are worse when compared to those in older women, and multivariate analysis has shown younger age to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Inherited syndromes, specifically BRCA1 and BRCA2, must be considered when developing treatment algorithms for younger women. Chemotherapy, endocrine, and local therapies have the potential to significantly impact both the physiologic health—including future fertility, premature menopause, and bone health—and the psychological health of young women as they face a diagnosis of breast cancer.
Breast-conserving surgery combined with axillary lymph node dissection and radiotherapy or mastectomy are definitive treatments for women with early-stage breast cancer. Little is known about breast cancer treatment for women with disabilities.
To compare initial treatment for early-stage breast cancer between women with and without disabilities and to examine the association of treatment differences and survival.
Retrospective cohort study.
11 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program tumor registries.
100 311 women who received a diagnosis of stage I to IIIA breast cancer at 21 to 64 years of age from 1988 to 1999. Women who qualified for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Medicare at breast cancer diagnosis were considered disabled.
Receipt of breast-conserving surgery versus mastectomy. For women who had breast-conserving surgery (n = 49 166), the authors examined receipt of radiotherapy and axillary lymph node dissection. Survival was measured from diagnosis until death or until 31 December 2001.
Women with SSDI and Medicare coverage had lower rates of breast-conserving surgery than other women (43.2% vs. 49.2%; adjusted relative risk, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.76 to 0.84]). Among women who had breast-conserving surgery, women with SSDI and Medicare coverage were less likely than other women to receive radiotherapy (adjusted relative risk, 0.83 [CI, 0.77 to 0.90]) and axillary lymph node dissection (adjusted relative risk, 0.81 [CI, 0.74 to 0.90]). Women with SSDI and Medicare coverage had lower survival rates than those of other women in all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.02 [CI, 1.88 to 2.16]) and breast cancer–specific mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31 [CI, 1.18 to 1.45]). Results were similar after adjustment for treatment differences.
Findings are limited to women who qualified for SSDI and Medicare. No data on adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy were available, and details about the underlying disability were lacking.
Women with disabilities had higher breast cancer mortality rates and were less likely to undergo standard therapy after breast-conserving surgery than other women. Differences in treatment did not explain the differences in breast cancer mortality rates.
Lung cancer has now surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths in American women. In 1986, 49,000 women were diagnosed as having lung cancer; only 16 percent of them will survive 5 years or more. Cigarette smoking is unquestionably the leading contributing factor. Large numbers of women took up cigarette smoking during and after World War II. The grim aftermath has taken 20 years to surface--between 1950 and 1985, lung cancer deaths in women increased 500 percent. Even worse, statistics to the end of this century will show no improvement because of the large number of teenage girls and young women now smoking. Unfortunately, efforts at early diagnosis have usually been ineffective. By the time a chest X-ray reveals an abnormality, the patient is usually incurable. Surgery is currently the primary treatment, but is applicable only to those few women in whom the cancer has not spread and who are otherwise acceptable surgical candidates. Scientists are studying chemotherapy and immunotherapy for treatment, as well as exploring the possible preventive effects of various vitamins and minerals. The results of these latter studies will not be available for many years. It is estimated that people who stop smoking must allow 15 years for their risk to return to that of nonsmokers, but if every American woman gave up smoking today, by 2017 lung cancer in women might once again be a medical rarity.
Intracystic papillary carcinoma (IPC) is an uncommon breast neoplasm. There are limited data about its epidemiology and only small studies focusing on outcomes. Using a large, population-based database, this study aims to identify specific characteristics of patients with IPC, investigate its natural history, and determine its long-term prognosis.
Materials and Methods
The California Cancer Registry (CCR), a population-based registry, was reviewed from the years 1988 to 2005. The data were analyzed with relation to patient gender, age at presentation, tumor stage, and overall survival. Cumulative relative actuarial survival was determined using a Berkson-Gage life table method. The CCR classifies IPC as either in-situ (CIS) or invasive, as determined by the local pathologist.
A total of 917 cases of IPC were identified. Forty-seven percent of cases (n=427) were CIS while 53% of cases had invasion (n=490). Most of the invasive cases were localized at the time of diagnosis (89.6%, n=439). At 10 years, patients with CIS and invasive disease had a similar relative cumulative survival (96.8% and 94.4%, P=0.18).
Intracystic papillary carcinoma is a rare disease. There is no significant difference in the long-term survival of patients in the two histologically-derived subgroups of IPC. There is an excellent prognosis for patients diagnosed with IPC regardless of whether the tumor is diagnosed as in-situ or invasive. Clinicians should keep this in mind when planning surgical and adjuvant treatments. Sentinal lymph node biopsy may be a prudent way to evaluate axillary involvement in patients with IPC
intracystic papillary carcinoma; breast cancer; California Cancer Registry
Common variants that alter breast cancer risk are being discovered. Here, we determine how these variants influence breast cancer prognosis, risk and tumour characteristics.
We selected 1,001 women with early onset nonfamilial invasive breast cancer from the Prospective study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH) cohort and genotyped 206 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 30 candidate genes. After quality control, 899 cases and 133 SNPs remained. Survival analyses were used to identify SNPs associated with prognosis and determine their interdependency with recognized prognostic factors. To identify SNPs that alter breast cancer risk, association tests were used to compare cases with controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. To search for SNPs affecting tumour biology, cases were stratified into subgroups according to oestrogen receptor (ER) status and grade and tested for association.
We confirmed previous associations between increased breast cancer risk and SNPs in CASP8, TOX3 (previously known as TNRC9) and ESR1. Analysis of prognosis identified eight SNPs in six genes (MAP3K1, DAPK1, LSP1, MMP7, TOX3 and ESR1) and one region without genes on 8q24 that are associated with survival. For MMP7, TOX3 and MAP3K1 the effects on survival are independent of the main recognized clinical prognostic factors. The SNP in 8q24 is more weakly associated with independent effects on survival. Once grade and pathological nodal status (pN stage) were taken into account, SNPs in ESR1 and LSP1 showed no independent survival difference, whereas the effects of the DAPK1 SNP were removed when correcting for ER status. Interestingly, effects on survival for SNPs in ESR1 were most significant when only ER-positive tumours were examined. Stratifying POSH cases by tumour characteristics identified SNPs in FGFR2 and TOX3 associated with ER-positive disease and SNPs in ATM associated with ER-negative disease.
We have demonstrated that several SNPs are associated with survival. In some cases this appears to be due to an effect on tumour characteristics known to have a bearing on prognosis; in other cases the effect appears to be independent of these prognostic factors. These findings require validatation by further studies in similar patient groups.