As students at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, the student authors were given the opportunity to develop their own creative projects which would be used to teach future medical students. They chose their own topics, planned and researched their projects, and then implemented the projects in interactive digital Adobe Flash files. In the first project they created interactive case-based radiology teaching files. In the second project they integrated photographic images into the existing illustrative anatomy files. Students in subsequent years have learned from these files on computers both at home and in the school's anatomy lab. The experience of creating the files served as an opportunity for hands-on learning for the student authors, both of the material and of the practice of teaching. In this paper they describe why they undertook these projects, what exactly they did, and the impact their creation had on them. The projects demonstrate that student-driven educational materials are both possible and beneficial. Furthermore, their experience has allowed them to conclude that faculty at other medical schools should consider providing students with opportunities to develop their own creative projects that contribute to the curriculum.
creative project; teaching; anatomy; radiology; medical school curriculum
In keeping with a long-standing tradition, Yale Medical and Physician Associate students gather at a ceremony each year after the completion of the anatomy course. The ceremony is a chance to reflect and to give thanks. It gives students the opportunity to articulate their gratitude to the selfless individuals who donated their bodies for the benefit of education. Many family members of the donors attend the ceremony. By reading poetry, performing musical pieces, and presenting works of art, the students and their teachers express some of the emotions and thoughts that the anatomy course has evoked. The following are some of the contributions presented at this year's ceremony.
Objective: In order to acquire the academic title “doctor” in Germany, it is essential to complete a dissertation. A high number of publications at German universities are based on medical dissertations. The reasons why some dissertations are successfully accomplished and why some are not completed – despite far-reaching consequences – have been barely investigated to date.
Methods: 467 students in the ninth semester at five German universities participated in this study in 2003. A questionnaire (return rate 93.5%) was used, asking details about the circumstances of a current or completed dissertation (Group A), an abandoned doctoral project (Group B), or one which was never started (Group C).
Results: Students in Group A referred significantly more often to their supervisor as being essential for choosing the topic of their dissertation project. Furthermore, students in Group A worked together with other students in self-organized support groups to debate methodological questions. They also discussed their project more frequently with a statistician. Students in Group C gave “interference with undergraduate studies” and “no time” as the most common reasons for not starting a dissertation.
Conclusions: As the supervisor seems to play an important role for the successful completion of dissertations, universities should think about professional programs that would prepare supervisors for this educational task. Courses for doctoral candidates in scientific research methodology could also be a helpful tool toward successfully accomplishing a doctoral thesis or scientific projects in general.
medical research; scientific work; medical dissertation; medical education
To implement a medication education project and assess the competencies students learned and implemented in professional practice after graduation.
Fourth-year pharmacy students planned, carried out, and reported on a real-life project during 1 study year. Outside experts and 2 faculty members facilitated the work. The aim of the medication education project was to create material that schoolteachers could use to teach children about rational use of medicines.
All students who had participated in the medication education program during its 3 years were contacted (n = 31). A questionnaire was sent to the 21 students who had graduated (18 responded), and a focus group was conducted with the 10 students completing their final year of pharmacy school (9 participants). The competencies that the students reported learning most were teamwork and social interaction skills. They considered the project motivating but also found it challenging and the deadlines frustrating.
Through participation in a medication education project, students learned interpersonal skills, time management, conflict resolution, and other skills that many of them already were finding valuable in their professional practice.
competencies; project-based learning; team; assessment; social science
In 2002 the University of Michigan Medical School created a one-month course in advanced medical therapeutics (AMT). All senior medical students were required to complete the course. To provide some flexibility for students who were interviewing for residency positions the AMT course was created using a distance-learning model, and in the 2008–2009 academic year it was offered in a fully online format. The components of the course are weekly case-based modules, a weekly online seminar, quizzes based on modules and seminars, and a research project based on a therapeutic question. The paper discusses the development and components of the AMT course, a survey of fourth-year medical students who participated in the course between 2007 and 2010, and how the course evolved over three years.
medical students; online course
Professionalism is a difficult construct to define in medical students but aspects of this concept may be important in predicting the risk of postgraduate misconduct. For this reason attempts are being made to evaluate medical students' professionalism. This study investigated the psychometric properties of Selected Response Questions (SRQs) relating to the theme of professional conduct and ethics comparing them with two sets of control items: those testing pure knowledge of anatomy, and; items evaluating the ability to integrate and apply knowledge ("skills"). The performance of students on the SRQs was also compared with two external measures estimating aspects of professionalism in students; peer ratings of professionalism and their Conscientiousness Index, an objective measure of behaviours at medical school.
Item Response Theory (IRT) was used to analyse both question and student performance for SRQs relating to knowledge of professionalism, pure anatomy and skills. The relative difficulties, discrimination and 'guessabilities' of each theme of question were compared with each other using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Student performance on each topic was compared with the measures of conscientiousness and professionalism using parametric and non-parametric tests as appropriate. A post-hoc analysis of power for the IRT modelling was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation.
Professionalism items were less difficult compared to the anatomy and skills SRQs, poorer at discriminating between candidates and more erratically answered when compared to anatomy questions. Moreover professionalism item performance was uncorrelated with the standardised Conscientiousness Index scores (rho = 0.009, p = 0.90). In contrast there were modest but significant correlations between standardised Conscientiousness Index scores and performance at anatomy items (rho = 0.20, p = 0.006) though not skills (rho = .11, p = .1). Likewise, students with high peer ratings for professionalism had superior performance on anatomy SRQs but not professionalism themed questions. A trend of borderline significance (p = .07) was observed for performance on skills SRQs and professionalism nomination status.
SRQs related to professionalism are likely to have relatively poor psychometric properties and lack associations with other constructs associated with undergraduate professional behaviour. The findings suggest that such questions should not be included in undergraduate examinations and may raise issues with the introduction of Situational Judgement Tests into Foundation Years selection.
Objective. To implement peer-led team learning in an online course on controversial issues surrounding medications and the US healthcare system.
Design. The course was delivered completely online using a learning management system. Students participated in weekly small-group discussions in online forums, completed 3 reflective writing assignments, and collaborated on a peer-reviewed grant proposal project.
Assessment. In a post-course survey, students reported that the course was challenging but meaningful. Final projects and peer-reviewed assignments demonstrated that primary learning goals for the course were achieved and students were empowered to engage in the healthcare debate.
Conclusions. A peer-led team-learning is an effective strategy for an online course offered to a wide variety of student learners. By shifting some of the learning and grading responsibility to students, the instructor workload for the course was rendered more manageable.
peer-led team learning; online learning; interprofessional education; healthcare system
This paper discusses the influence that decisions about data cleaning and violations of statistical assumptions can have on drawing valid conclusions to research studies. The datasets provided in this paper were collected as part of a National Science Foundation grant to design online games and associated labs for use in undergraduate and graduate statistics courses that can effectively illustrate issues not always addressed in traditional instruction. Students play the role of a researcher by selecting from a wide variety of independent variables to explain why some students complete games faster than others. Typical project data sets are “messy,” with many outliers (usually from some students taking much longer than others) and distributions that do not appear normal. Classroom testing of the games over several semesters has produced evidence of their efficacy in statistics education. The projects tend to be engaging for students and they make the impact of data cleaning and violations of model assumptions more relevant. We discuss the use of one of the games and associated guided lab in introducing students to issues prevalent in real data and the challenges involved in data cleaning and dangers when model assumptions are violated.
Guided Interdisciplinary Statistics Games and Labs; messy data; model assumptions
Since 2004, medical students at the University of Bristol have been required as part of their core curriculum to submit creative works for assessment. This requirement, which we term, ironically, compulsory creativity, may be unique within medical education where arts-based modules are typically elective. Such courses often harness the insights of established artists and writers in the illumination of medical themes. Less commonly students are called upon to link their own creative work with clinical and other life experience. Occasions for students to develop such an interpretative voice are generally sparse but the benefits can be argued theoretically and practically. In this paper we explore the rationale for the inclusion of such opportunities, the ways in which we have woven creativity into the curriculum and the sorts of artistic outputs we have witnessed. Contextualised links to a wide range of original student works from the www.outofourheads.net website are provided, as is a range of student reflection on the creative process ranging from the bemused to the ecstatic. The paper provides a model and a guide for educationalists interested in developing artistic creativity within the medical curriculum.
creativity; arts; personal development
An earlier study at Nottingham suggested that 10-15% of the medical student intake was likely to fail completely or have substantial problems on the course. This is a problem for the students, the Faculty, and society as a whole. If struggling students could be identified early in the course and additional pastoral resources offered, some of this wastage might be avoided. An exploratory case study was conducted to determine whether there were common indicators in the early years, over and above academic failure, that might aid the identification of students potentially at risk.
The study group was drawn from five successive cohorts. Students who had experienced difficulties were identified in any of four ways: from Minutes of the Academic Progress Committee; by scanning examination lists at key stages (end of the first two years, and finals at the end of the clinical course); from lists of students flagged to the Postgraduate Deanery as in need of extra monitoring or support; and from progress files of those who had left the course prematurely. Relevant data were extracted from each student's course progress file into a customised database.
1188 students were admitted over the five years. 162 (14%) were identified for the study, 75 of whom had failed to complete the course by October 2010. In the 87 who did graduate, a combination of markers in Years 1 and 2 identified over half of those who would subsequently have the most severe problems throughout the course. This 'toolkit' comprised failure of 3 or more examinations per year, an overall average of <50%, health or social difficulties, failure to complete Hepatitis B vaccination on time, and remarks noted about poor attitude or behaviour.
A simple toolkit of academic and non-academic markers could be used routinely to help identify potential strugglers at an early stage, enabling additional support and guidance to be given to these students.
Objective. To determine the impact of performing critical-thinking and reflection assignments within interdisciplinary learning teams in a biochemistry course on pharmacy students’ and prospective health professions students’ collaboration scores.
Design. Pharmacy students and prospective medical, dental, and other health professions students enrolled in a sequence of 2 required biochemistry courses. They were randomly assigned to interdisciplinary learning teams in which they were required to complete case assignments, thinking and reflection exercises, and a team service-learning project.
Assessment. Students were asked to complete the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration prior to the first course, following the first course, and following the second course. The physician-pharmacist collaboration scores of prospective health professions students increased significantly (p<0.001).
Conclusions. Having prospective health professions students work in teams with pharmacy students to think and reflect in and outside the classroom improves their attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration.
interprofessional education; interdisciplinary education; health profession students; pharmacy students; medical students; dental students; empathy; service learning; biochemistry
The last two decades of medical education have been marked by a persistent push towards curricular reform. Anatomy as a discipline, the unshakable foundation of medical teaching for hundreds of years, has been at the centre of this development. Although it is widely agreed that for doctors to be competent, they need an adequate knowledge of anatomy underpinning medicine, there is much less agreement over the quantity required, and who should decide and define it. Many clinicians feel medical students are being under-trained in this basic medical science before reaching the clinical stages. Professional accreditation boards advocate the reduction of factual information in undergraduate medical courses. Anatomists complain of a progressive erosion of the time allocated to the subject. Caught in the midst of this controversy is the student of anatomy who is left bewildered and confused about what is required from him to become a safe and competent health professional. The way forward might, first, be for medical schools to facilitate discussions between students, anatomy professors, and clinicians to bring these divergent perspectives into alignment. Second, the anatomists need to re-invent themselves in two principal frameworks: first, to present the subject in the context within which it will be utilised by the student, and second to employ the overwhelming learning tool of today, i.e. technology, in their teaching and assessment of the subject.
Anatomy; Curriculum; Undergraduate; Medical education
Objective: The integration of scientific research into medical education is a widely discussed topic. Most research training programs are offered on a voluntary basis. In Germany, it is mandatory to complete a doctoral thesis to obtain the academic title “doctor”. The reasons why students start a dissertation project and the influence of this project on their undergraduate studies and later career choices are not well known.
Method: This study was conducted at five German universities in 2003, with a total of 437 fifth-year students participating in it. A standardised questionnaire was used to ask participants about their current or finished dissertation (group A), a dissertation they had discontinued (group B) or why they had never started a dissertation project (group C).
Results: The two most important reasons for students from group A to start a dissertation were “interest in the topic” and “advantage for job applications”. Compared with group B, they mentioned “improved ability to critically appraise scientific studies” and “doing scientific work independently” significantly more often as a result of working on their dissertation. Starting a dissertation project early during undergraduate studies was correlated with a less successful outcome. Moreover, working on a dissertation significantly reduced time spent on undergraduate studies. Students from group C named the "workload of undergraduate studies" and “no time” most frequently as reasons for not having started a dissertation.
Conclusion: Students who have been working successfully on a dissertation rate items regarding the acquisition of scientific research skills significantly more positively, and participation in undergraduate studies seems to be negatively affected by working on a dissertation project. Therefore, basic training in scientific research methodology should become an integrated part of the medical undergraduate curriculum, while special programs should be offered for students with a particular interest in scientific research programs or an academic career.
medical research; scientific work; medical education; dissertation; doctorate
Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate team-based root cause analysis projects as part of a required medication safety course for second-year pharmacy students.
Design. Lectures, in-class activities, and out-of-class reading assignments were used to develop students’ medication safety skills and introduce them to the culture of medication safety. Students applied these skills within teams by evaluating cases of medication errors using root cause analyses. Teams also developed error prevention strategies and formally presented their findings.
Assessment. Student performance was assessed using a medication errors evaluation rubric. Of the 211 students who completed the course, the majority performed well on root cause analysis assignments and rated them favorably on course evaluations.
Conclusion. Medication error evaluation and prevention was successfully introduced in a medication safety course using team-based root cause analysis projects.
medication safety; root cause analysis; pharmacy education
Over two-thirds of UK medical schools are augmenting their selection procedures for medical students by using the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), which employs tests of cognitive and non-cognitive personal qualities, but clear evidence of the tests’ predictive validity is lacking. This study explores whether academic performance and professional behaviours that are important in a health professional context can be predicted by these measures, when taken before or very early in the medical course.
This prospective cohort study follows the progress of the entire student cohort who entered Hull York Medical School in September 2007, having taken the UKCAT cognitive tests in 2006 and the non-cognitive tests a year later. This paper reports on the students’ first and second academic years of study. The main outcome measures were regular, repeated tutor assessment of individual students’ interpersonal skills and professional behaviour, and annual examination performance in the three domains of recall and application of knowledge, evaluation of data, and communication and practical clinical skills. The relationships between non-cognitive test scores, cognitive test scores, tutor assessments and examination results were explored using the Pearson product–moment correlations for each group of data; the data for students obtaining the top and bottom 20% of the summative examination results were compared using Analysis of Variance.
Personal qualities measured by non-cognitive tests showed a number of statistically significant relationships with ratings of behaviour made by tutors, with performance in each year’s objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and with themed written summative examination marks in each year. Cognitive ability scores were also significantly related to each year’s examination results, but seldom to professional behaviours. The top 20% of examination achievers could be differentiated from the bottom 20% on both non-cognitive and cognitive measures.
This study shows numerous significant relationships between both cognitive and non-cognitive test scores, academic examination scores and indicators of professional behaviours in medical students. This suggests that measurement of non-cognitive personal qualities in applicants to medical school could make a useful contribution to selection and admission decisions. Further research is required in larger representative groups, and with more refined predictor measures and behavioural assessment methods, to establish beyond doubt the incremental validity of such measures over conventional cognitive assessments.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is still a controversial teaching method. A study of the effectiveness of PBL compared to traditional teaching in gross anatomy courses of first year medical students was evaluated by comparing the examination performances and student’s responses to the questionnaires. It was hypothesised that the PBL method would result in improved scores and satisfaction for students. A total of 89 first year medical students at Tabriz Medical University, Iran were taught gross anatomy with traditional teaching for one half of a semester and PBL for the other one half. Examination scores from both methods and an assessment of completed questionnaires were evaluated by the present study. The PBL method resulted in better examination scores than did traditional teaching for the same students. Students were more satisfied with PBL and believed that this method increased their problem solving abilities. Our study found that PBL was more successful than traditional teaching of gross anatomy.
anatomy; methods; instruction; medical student
Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.
In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.
The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions.
Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used.
Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students.
In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator perspectives. The students experienced the course as providing them with a valuable introduction to the physician's professional role in clinical practice. In contrast, course facilitators often experienced a heavy workload and lack of support, despite thorough preparatory education. A possible conflict between the clinical facilitator's task as educator and member of the workplace is suggested. More research is needed on how doctors combine their professional tasks with work as facilitators.
The Medical Library Association's fifth annual survey of recent health sciences library building projects identified twenty-five libraries planning, expanding, or constructing new library facilities. None of the fifteen new library projects are free standing structures; however, several occupy a major portion of the project space. Ten projects involve renovation of or addition to existing space. Information regarding size, cost of project, type of construction, completion date, and other factual data was provided for twelve projects. The remaining identified projects are in pre-design or early-design stages, or are awaiting funding approval. Library building projects for three hospital libraries, three academic medical libraries, and an association library are described. Each illustrates how considerations of economics and technology are changing the traditional library model from a centrally stored information depository housing a wide range of information under one roof where users come to the information, into an electronic model gradually shifting from investment in the physical presence of resources to investment in creating work space for creditible information specialists who help in-house and distanced users to obtain information electronically from any place and at any time. This new model includes a highly skilled library team to manage, filter, and package the information to users trained by these resident experts.
Objective. To determine whether “flipping” a traditional basic pharmaceutics course delivered synchronously to 2 satellite campuses would improve student academic performance, engagement, and perception.
Design. In 2012, the basic pharmaceutics course was flipped and delivered to 22 satellite students on 2 different campuses. Twenty-five condensed, recorded course lectures were placed on the course Web site for students to watch prior to class. Scheduled class periods were dedicated to participating in active-learning exercises. Students also completed 2 course projects, 3 midterm examinations, 8 graded quizzes, and a cumulative and comprehensive final examination.
Assessment. Results of a survey administered at the beginning and end of the flipped course in 2012 revealed an increase in students’ support for learning content prior to class and using class time for more applied learning (p=0.01) and in the belief that learning key foundational content prior to coming to class greatly enhanced in-class learning (p=0.001). Significantly more students preferred the flipped classroom format after completing the course (89.5%) than before completing the course (34.6%). Course evaluation responses and final examination performance did not differ significantly for 2011 when the course was taught using a traditional format and the 2012 flipped-course format. Qualitative findings suggested that the flipped classroom promoted student empowerment, development, and engagement.
Conclusion. The flipped pharmacy classroom can enhance the quality of satellite students’ experiences in a basic pharmaceutics course through thoughtful course design, enriched dialogue, and promotion of learner autonomy.
pharmaceutics; flipped classroom; distance learning
Dissatisfaction with the restrictions of the health care system, diminished reliance on the word of health care professionals, increased costs of medical care, and access to information online have increased consumers’ interest in their own health care as well as their thirst for medical literacy. Mini-Med programs run by medical schools offer a more reliable method of learning about disease and disorders than does the indiscriminate surfing of the Internet. This article describes the efforts of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey – the largest public university of the health sciences in the nation – to run and maintain such a program. The Mini-Med course provides lay students with insight into what a student undergoes while studying medicine and guides them through complex topics that range from anatomy and basic life support to the latest in stem cell research. It also provides early guidance for potential medical students, addresses patients’ concerns, and gives some insight into the levels of comprehension of current medical students.
Mini-Med program; medical education; consumer education; health literacy
While teaching is the major focus of academia, research and professional publications frequently determine faculty eligibility for promotion and tenure. In universities where funded research is scarce, faculty need creative means to accomplish research goals. Research is an essential part of baccalaureate nursing education. The goal of research education at the baccalaureate level is to prepare knowledgeable consumers of nursing research. The purpose of this article is to describe an undergraduate nursing research course that provide students with hands on experience in the conduct of nursing research and provide faculty with assistance in moving their research agenda forward. Faculty members were solicited to work with 5-10 students in a research project that was either in the planning stages or actively in progress. After one year of program implementation, faculty and students were involved in presenting poster and oral presentations at state, regional, and international research conferences. Manuscripts as well as proposals for funding are in the process of submission.
To implement a required capstone experience in research for pharmacy students, assess course outcomes, and solicit mentors' and students' opinions regarding the structure and efficacy of the course.
Fourth-year pharmacy students chose a research project, selected a mentor, and completed a 5-week capstone advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE), during which they wrote a research paper and presented their research at a poster session.
Eighty students completed the capstone experience in 2008-2009 and 56 faculty and non-faculty pharmacists served as mentors. Based on their responses on a course evaluation, the students' experience with their mentor and course instructor were positive. Thirty-one mentors completed a survey on which they indicated their overall support of the capstone project, but wanted their role to be better defined and felt the students needed to have additional training in statistics, survey question design, and the IRB process before completing the APPE.
The capstone APPE was perceived by students and mentors as a positive learning experience that allowed the student to take information from the curriculum and apply it to a real-world situation. Additional research is needed to determine whether pharmacy students will use the research skills acquired in their future careers.
advanced pharmacy practice experience; research; curriculum
The skill set required of biomedical researchers continues to grow and evolve as biology matures as a natural science. Science necessitates creative yet critical thinking, persuasive communication skills, purposeful use of time, and adeptness at the laboratory bench. Teaching these skills can be effectively accomplished in an inquiry-based, active-learning environment at a primarily undergraduate institution. Cell Biology Techniques, an upper-level cell biology laboratory course at St. John Fisher College, features two independent projects that take advantage of the biology of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a premier yet simple model organism. First, students perform a miniature epigenetic screen for novel phenotypes using RNA interference. The results of this screen combined with literature research direct students toward a singe gene that they attempt to subclone in the second project. The biology of the chosen gene/protein also becomes an individualized focal point with respect to the content of the laboratory. Progress toward course goals is evaluated using written, oral, and group-produced assignments, including a concept map. Pre- and postassessment indicates a significant increase in the understanding of broad concepts in cell biological research.
The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement.
The primary method of learning the surface anatomy is by making the students mark structures on mummified bodies. The students feel that learning the surface anatomy on mummified cadavers is not interesting. The present project on learning the surface anatomy through the body painting method was undertaken to evoke interest among the students.
Materials and Methods
Physiotherapy and dental undergraduate students who volunteered were involved in this study. A few surface anatomy classes were conducted by using the traditional method and a few more by using the body painting exercise. Non toxic body paints of various colours and brushes of different sizes were used for the body painting.
A feedback was obtained from the students by using a structured questionnaire. The students opined that the body painting method was advantageous to them in learning the human anatomy. They also felt that they could have more practice sessions in any setting other than in the classroom and that they did not need to rely upon the mummified bodies. They described the body painting method as self explanatory, which gave them the feel of live structures.
This project was successful in achieving its objectives as the students felt that the method was exciting, with lots of fun during the learning. The body painting method was well accepted by the students as an effective method for learning the surface and the clinical anatomy.
Living anatomy; Body painting; Medical education; Visual images; Memory