Although lung transplantation is an accepted therapy for end-stage disease, recipient outcomes continue to be hindered by early primary graft dysfunction (PGD) as well as late rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). We have previously shown that the pro-inflammatory cytokine response following transplantation correlates with the severity of PGD. We hypothesized that lung-transplant recipients with an increased inflammatory response immediately following surgery would also have a greater incidence of unfavorable long-term outcomes including rejection, BOS and ultimately death.
A retrospective study of lung-transplant recipients (n = 19) for whom serial blood sampling of cytokines was performed for 24 h following transplantation between March 2002 and June 2003 at a single institution. Long-term follow-up was examined for rejection, BOS and survival.
Thirteen single and six bilateral lung recipients were examined. Eleven (58%) developed BOS and eight (42%) did not. Subgroup analysis revealed an association between elevated IL-6 concentrations 4 h after reperfusion of the allograft and development of BOS (P = 0.068). The correlation between IL-6 and survival time was found to be significant (corr = −0.46, P = 0.047), indicating that higher IL-6 response had shorter survival following transplantation.
An elevation in interleukin (IL)-6 concentration immediately following lung transplantation is associated with a trend towards development of bronchiolitis obliterans, rejection and significantly decreased survival time. Further studies are warranted to confirm the correlation between the immediate inflammatory response, PGD and BOS. Identification of patients at risk for BOS based on the cytokine response after surgery may allow for early intervention.
Transplantation; Lung transplantation; Lung other; Inflammation
WC and NS contributed equally.
Non‐tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) frequently colonise patients with end stage cystic fibrosis (CF), but its impact on the course of the disease following lung transplantation is unknown.
Lung transplant recipients with CF who underwent lung transplantation at our institution between January 1990 and May 2003 (n = 146) and CF patients awaiting lung transplantation in May 2003 (n = 31) were studied retrospectively.
The prevalence rate of NTM isolated from respiratory cultures in patients with end stage CF referred for lung transplantation was 19.7%, compared with a prevalence rate of 13.7% for NTM isolates in CF lung transplant recipients. The overall prevalence of invasive NTM disease after lung transplantation was low (3.4%) and was predicted most strongly by pre‐transplant NTM isolation (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) 6.13, 95% CI 3.2 to 11.4). This association was restricted to Mycobacterium abscessus (p = 0.005, Fisher's exact test, OR 7.45, 95% CI 2.9 to 16.9). While NTM disease caused significant morbidity in a small number of patients after transplantation, it was successfully treated and did not influence the post‐transplant course of the disease.
The isolation of NTM before transplantation in CF patients should not be an exclusion criterion for lung transplantation, but it may alert the clinician to patients at risk of recurrence following transplantation.
cystic fibrosis; lung transplantation; non‐tuberculous mycobacteria; Mycobacterium abscessus
Background: Recent reports have shown evidence of host derived parenchymal engraftment in several human allografts including the lung, leading to speculation that stem cell therapy may be useful for lung repair in diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). To date, previous studies have looked at single surgical or autopsy specimens and no longitudinal studies have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether transbronchial biopsies could be used to study the time course of chimerism following lung transplantation.
Methods: Specimens of archived transbronchial lung biopsies from five time points taken for clinical purposes from two boys who had received a sex mismatched heart-lung transplant for end stage CF were examined. Sections were dual stained for cytokeratin (epithelium) and a mixture of leucocyte common antigen and CD68 for inflammatory cells. Co-localisation of cells containing a Y chromosome was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation.
Results: Evidence of chimerism was found in up to 6.6% of epithelial cells in bronchial (median 1.4% (range 0–6.6)) and alveolar (median 3.6% (range 2.3–5.5) tissue without apparent evidence of fusion. This engraftment was seen as early as 3 weeks and remained relatively constant up to 37 months.
Conclusions: This study has demonstrated proof of principle for long term chimerism in lung epithelium. Transbronchial biopsies may provide a new method for studying the kinetics of stem cell engraftment in the lung.
Approximately 20% of patients receiving liver transplants for end-stage hepatitis C rapidly develop severe allograph fibrosis within the first 24 months after transplant. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants were studied in 56 genotype 1-infected subjects with end-stage hepatitis C disease at the time before and 12-month after liver transplant, and post-transplant outcome was followed with serial liver biopsies. In 15 cases, pre-transplant HCV genetic diversity was studied in detail in liver (n=15), serum (n=15), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (n=13) and perihepatic lymph nodes (n=10). Our results revealed that pre-transplant HCV genetic diversity predicted the histological outcome of recurrent hepatitis C disease after transplant. Mild disease recurrence after transplant was significantly associated with higher genetic diversity, and greater diversity changes between the pre- and post-transplant time points (p=0.004). Meanwhile, pre-transplant genetic differences between serum and liver were related to a higher likelihood of development of mild recurrent disease after transplant (p=0.039).
Selection of an HLA identical donor is a critical pre-requisite for successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Most transplant centers utilize blood as the most common source of DNA for HLA testing. However, obtaining blood through phlebotomy is often challenging in patients with conditions like severe leucopenia or hemophilia, pediatric and elderly patients. We have used a simple in-house protocol and shown that HLA genotypes obtained on DNA extracted from saliva or hair are concordant with blood and hence can be used for selection of donors for HSCT or organ transplantation. Similarly, for post-HSCT chimerism monitoring, non-availability of pre-transplant DNA samples poses a major limitation of reference STR fingerprints. This study shows that DNA obtained post-HSCT from hair follicles can be used to generate pre-transplant patient specific fingerprints while the STR profiles obtained in saliva samples cannot as these display a mixed state of chimerism.
chimerism; DNA; hair; HLA; saliva; transplantation
Lung transplantation may be the only intervention that can prolong survival and improve quality of life for those individuals with advanced lung disease who are acceptable candidates for the procedure. However, these candidates may be extremely ill and require ventilator and/or circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation, and lung transplantation recipients are at risk of numerous post-transplant complications that include surgical complications, primary graft dysfunction, acute rejection, opportunistic infection, and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which may be caused by chronic rejection. Many advances in pre- and post-transplant management have led to improved outcomes over the past decade. These include the creation of sound guidelines for candidate selection, improved surgical techniques, advances in donor lung preservation, an improving ability to suppress and treat allograft rejection, the development of prophylaxis protocols to decrease the incidence of opportunistic infection, more effective therapies for treating infectious complications, and the development of novel therapies to treat and manage CLAD. A major obstacle to prolonged survival beyond the early post-operative time period is the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), which is the most common form of CLAD. This manuscript discusses recent and evolving advances in the field of lung transplantation.
The purpose of this study was to compare spirometry data between patients who underwent single-lung or double-lung transplantation the first year after transplantation.
Lung transplantation, which was initially described as an experimental method in 1963, has become a therapeutic option for patients with advanced pulmonary diseases due to improvements in organ conservation, surgical technique, immunosuppressive therapy and treatment of post-operative infections.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of the 39 patients who received lung transplantation in our institution between August 2003 and August 2006. Twenty-nine patients survived one year post-transplantation, and all of them were followed.
The increase in lung function in the double-lung transplant group was more substantial than that of the single-lung transplant group, exhibiting a statistical difference from the 1st month in both the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) in comparison to the pre-transplant values (p <0.05).
Comparison between double-lung transplant and single lung-transplant groups of emphysema patients demonstrated a significant difference in lung function beginning in the 3rd month after transplantation.
The analyses of the whole group of transplant recipients and the sub-group of emphysema patients suggest the superiority of bilateral transplant over the unilateral alternative. Although the pre-transplant values of lung function were worse in the double-lung group, this difference was no longer significant in the subsequent months after surgery.
Although both groups demonstrated functional improvement after transplantation, there was a clear tendency to greater improvement in FVC and FEV1 in the bilateral transplant group. Among our subjects, double-lung transplantation improved lung function.
Lung transplantation; Spirometry; Respiratory function tests; Emphysema; Insufflation
Rationale: Bilateral lung transplantation (BLT) improves survival compared with single lung transplantation (SLT) for some individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unclear which strategy optimally uses this scarce societal resource.
Objectives: To compare the effect of SLT versus BLT strategies for COPD on waitlist outcomes among the broader population of patients listed for lung transplantation.
Methods: We developed a Markov model to simulate the transplant waitlist using transplant registry data to define waitlist size, donor frequency, the risk of death awaiting transplant, and disease- and procedure-specific post-transplant survival. We then applied this model to 1,000 simulated patients and compared the number of patients under each strategy who received a transplant, the number who died before transplantation, and total post-transplant survival.
Measurements and Main Results: Under baseline assumptions, the SLT strategy resulted in more patients transplanted (809 vs. 758) and fewer waitlist deaths (157 vs. 199). The strategies produced similar total post-transplant survival (SLT = 4,586 yr vs. BLT = 4,577 yr). In sensitivity analyses, SLT always maximized the number of patients transplanted. The strategy that maximized post-transplant survival depended on the relative survival benefit of BLT versus SLT among patients with COPD, donor interval, and waitlist size.
Conclusions: In most circumstances, a policy of SLT for COPD improves access to organs for other potential recipients without significant reductions in total post-transplant survival. However, there may be substantial geographic variations in the effect of such a policy on the balance between these outcomes.
lung transplantation; resource allocation; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; bioethics
Lung transplantation is a commonly employed therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced lung diseases related to tobacco use. Little is known about the long-term incidence or risk factors for primary lung cancer after lung transplantation. To determine the frequency, clinical features and risk factors for primary bronchogenic malignancy after lung transplantation, we designed a matched cohort study of single and bilateral lung transplant recipients with extended follow-up.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 262 lung transplant recipients who survived ≥90 days post-transplant and assessed for the development of primary lung cancer. One hundred thirty-one consecutive single-lung transplant (SLTx) recipients were matched to 131 consecutive bilateral lung transplant (BLTx) recipients by native disease. Risk factors for lung cancer development were derived using univariate and multivariate proportional hazards models.
Of the SLTx recipients, 6.9% developed primary lung cancer after transplantation as compared with 0% of the BLTx recipients (p = 0.002), after a mean of 52 months. Histologically, non–small-cell cancers were present in the native lung, which led to death in 67% (6 of 9) of the patients despite treatment. Significant risk factors for the development of primary lung cancer were increasing age (p = 0.004), >60-pack-year smoking history (p = 0.03), and SLTx as compared with BLTx (p < 0.001).
Single-lung transplant confers a significantly elevated risk of developing primary post-transplant lung cancer as compared with BLTx in patients with comparable native disease, age and tobacco history.
Apoptosis has recently been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema.
In order to establish if cell fate plays a role even in end-stage disease we studied 16 lungs (9 smoking-associated and 7 α1antitrypsin (AAT)-deficiency emphysema) from patients who had undergone lung transplantations. Six unused donor lungs served as controls. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL analysis, single-stranded DNA laddering, electron microscopy and cell proliferation by an immunohistochemical method (MIB1). The role of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 pathway was also investigated and correlated with epithelial cell turnover and with the severity of inflammatory cell infiltrate.
The apoptotic index (AI) was significantly higher in emphysematous lungs compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.01), particularly if only lungs with AAT-deficiency emphysema were considered (p ≤ 0.01 vs p = 0.09). The proliferation index was similar in patients and controls (1.9 ± 2.2 vs 1.7 ± 1.1). An increased number of T lymphocytes was observed in AAT-deficiency lungs than smoking-related cases (p ≤ 0.05). TGF-β1 expression in the alveolar wall was higher in patients with smoking-associated emphysema than in cases with AAT-deficiency emphysema (p ≤ 0.05). A positive correlation between TGF-βRII and AI was observed only in the control group (p ≤ 0.005, r2 = 0.8). A negative correlation was found between the TGF-β pathway (particularly TGF-βRII) and T lymphocytes infiltrate in smoking-related cases (p ≤ 0.05, r2 = 0.99)
Our findings suggest that apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells plays an important role even in end-stage emphysema particularly in AAT-deficiency disease. The TGFβ-1 pathway does not seem to directly influence epithelial turnover in end-stage disease. Inflammatory cytokine different from TGF-β1 may differently orchestrate cell fate in AAT and smoking-related emphysema types.
apoptosis; proliferation; end-stage emphysema
As waiting lists for lung transplantation are ever increasing, the number of organ donors is not able to keep pace with it. Living donor lobar lung transplantation is a source of organs which could be lifesaving in end-stage lung disease patients who cannot wait for cadaveric organs due to deteriorating lung function and clinical condition. Two young women with end stage cystic fibrosis received lobes from their relatives and an altruistic friend. They are surviving for more than 12 and 14 years with good lung functions.
Live related donor lobar lung transplantation; Live donor lobar lung transplantation; Lung transplantation
Heart-lung transplantation is reserved for selected patients who have end-stage cardiac and pulmonary disease. Gastroparesis, which is associated with aspiration, is commonly seen after transplantation. Here, we present a case in which gastric contents aspiration leads to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection, 11 months after the heart lung transplantation. We strongly recommend that early diagnosis and aggressive management of post-transplantation gastroparesis is essential to prevent lung allograft injury and pulmonary infections.
heart-lung transplantation; gastroparesis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; pulmonary infection
Lung transplantation is the only definitive therapy for many forms of end-stage lung diseases. However, the success of lung transplantation is limited by many factors: (1) Too few lungs available for transplantation due to limited donors or injury to the donor lung; (2) current methods of preservation of excised lungs do not allow extended periods of time between procurement and implantation; (3) acute graft failure is more common with lungs than other solid organs, thus contributing to poorer short-term survival after lung transplant compared with that for recipients of other organs; (4) lung transplant recipients are particularly vulnerable to pulmonary infections; and (5) chronic allograft dysfunction, manifest by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, is frequent and limits long-term survival. Scientific advances may provide significant improvements in the outcome of lung transplantation. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group of investigators on June 14–15, 2004, in Bethesda, Maryland, to identify opportunities for scientific advancement in lung transplantation, including basic and clinical research. This workshop provides a framework to identify critical issues related to clinical lung transplantation, and to delineate important areas for productive scientific investigation.
allograft dysfunction; infection; ischemia-reperfusion injury; lung transplantation; obliterative bronchiolitis; rejection
BACKGROUND: The source of airway colonisation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is not well defined in patients with cystic fibrosis after lung transplantation. Using a DNA-based typing system a study was undertaken to investigate whether lung transplant recipients acquired new strains of P aeruginosa or retained those they had before transplantation. METHODS: Seventy four P aeruginosa isolates taken before and after transplantation were analysed from 11 patients with cystic fibrosis who had undergone lung transplantation in the Medical School of Hannover between 1988 and 1994. The genetic relatedness of the 74 P aeruginosa strains was evaluated from macrorestriction fragment pattern similarity. RESULTS: Each of the 11 lung transplant recipients harboured one identical P aeruginosa clone before and after transplantation. The airways of four of the 11 patients were preoperatively colonised by two or three different clones, but six months after transplantation only one clone was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that there is no change in the P aeruginosa population in the airways of lung transplant recipients before and after transplantation and it is assumed that the chronic drainage of P aeruginosa into the lung allografts is caused by the bacterial reservoir in the paranasal sinuses and the trachea.
Even in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with identical CFTR genotypes, there is a wide range in the severity of lung disease, with some individuals facing death or lung transplantation early in life and others demonstrating mild lung disease well into adulthood. Although numerous environmental factors have been identified that influence CF pulmonary phenotype, there is now growing evidence that polymorphic variants in genes besides CFTR play an important role in determining severity of CF lung disease. This article reviews the most recent findings regarding genetic modifiers in CF and also discusses in detail the strategies currently being used to identify novel modifiers of CF pulmonary phenotype. These include single- and multicenter studies, twin and sib studies, microarray approaches, and whole genome association studies.
cystic fibrosis; genotype; modifier; phenotype; transforming growth factor β
In spite of advances in the field of lung transplantation, the median survival following lung transplant remains below 5 years. Early rejection is a risk factor for the development of chronic rejection. In animal models of transplant tolerance, regulatory T cells (Tregs) can prevent the establishment of rejection.
This study was designed to explore the dynamics of Tregs focally and systemically in lung transplant recipients. Sequential surveillance bronchoscopy results were available in 51 patients with at least 4 sequential samples recovered from each patient at defined times post transplant. In 36 individuals, an entire year of BAL was analyzed. In 33 of these individuals an entire year of PBMC specimens were also analyzed. Lung lavage cells were recovered from each bronchoscopy and corresponding blood draw and subjected to polychromatic flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4 lymphocytes which expressed the intracellular transcription factor foxP3 was recorded at each point. At each time point lung biopsy specimens were scored for rejection.
Lung Treg frequency was significantly more variable then blood Treg frequency. Treg frequency in the lung was increased in the aftermath of acute rejection. In contrast, lung Treg frequency declined sequentially in patients demonstrating continued quiescence. Mean BAL Treg level integrated over the first transplant year correlated inversely with the degree of acute cellular rejection. In contrast, blood Treg levels demonstrated no correlation with lung pathology.
Lung Tregs increase in the setting of acute cellular rejection, while declining levels of BAL Tregs correlates with immunologic quiescence.
Lung Transplantation; Regulatory T Cells; FoxP3
Purpose: Exercise limitation in recipients of lung transplant may be a result of abnormalities in the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether these abnormalities are merely a reflection of the changes observed in the pretransplant condition. The purpose of this paper was to compare thigh muscle volume and composition, strength, and endurance in lung transplant recipients to people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Methods: Single lung transplant recipients (n=6) and people with COPD (n=6), matched for age, sex, and BMI participated in the study. Subjects underwent MRI to determine muscle size and composition, lower extremity strength testing and an isometric endurance test of the quadriceps.
Results: Lung transplant recipients had similar muscle volumes and intramuscular fat infiltration of their thigh muscles and similar strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings to people with COPD who had not undergone transplant. However, quadriceps endurance tended to be lower in transplant recipients compared to people with COPD (15 ± 7 seconds in transplant versus 31 ± 12 seconds in COPD, p = 0.08).
Conclusions: Recipients of lung transplant showed similar changes in muscle size and strength as people with COPD, however muscle endurance tended to be lower in people with lung transplants. Impairments in muscle endurance may reflect the effects of immunosuppressant medications on skeletal muscle in people with lung transplant.
lung transplant; muscle function; MRI
Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is the primary structural component of cell membrane invaginations called 'caveolae'. Expression of Cav-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms in the CAV1 gene influence the function of Cav-1 in malignancies and associate with renal allograft fibrosis. Chronic allograft rejection after lung transplantation, called 'bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome' (BOS), is also characterised by the development of fibrosis.
In this study, we investigated whether CAV1 genotypes associate with BOS and whether Cav-1 serum levels are influenced by the CAV1 genotype and can be used as a biomarker to predict the development of BOS.
Twenty lung transplant recipients with BOS (BOSpos), ninety without BOS (BOSneg) and four hundred twenty-two healthy individuals donated DNA samples. Four SNPs in CAV1 were genotyped. Serial Cav-1 serum levels were measured in a matched cohort of 10 BOSpos patients and 10 BOSneg patients. Furthermore, single-time point Cav-1 serum levels were measured in 33 unmatched BOSneg patients and 60 healthy controls.
Homozygosity of the minor allele of rs3807989 was associated with an increased risk for BOS (odds ratio: 6.13; P = 0.0013). The median Cav-1 serum level was significantly higher in the BOSpos patients than in the matched BOSneg patients (P = 0.026). Longitudinal analysis did not show changes in Cav-1 serum levels over time in both groups. The median Cav-1 serum level in the group of 43 BOSneg patients was lower than that in the healthy control group (P = 0.046).
In lung transplant recipients, homozygosity of the minor allele of rs3807989 and rs3807994 was associated with increased Cav-1 serum levels.
In lung transplant recipients, the CAV1 SNP rs3807989 was associated with the development of BOS and Cav-1 serum levels were influenced by the CAV1 genotype.
caveolin 1; genetic polymorphism; serum; lung transplantation; bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome
Lung transplantation remains the only viable therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, the full utilization of this strategy is severely compromised by a lack of donor lung availability. The vast majority of donor lungs available for transplantation are from individuals after brain death (BD). Unfortunately, the early autonomic storm that accompanies BD often results in neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE), producing varying degrees of lung injury or leading to primary graft dysfunction after transplantation. We demonstrated that sphingosine 1–phosphate (S1P)/analogues, which are major barrier-enhancing agents, reduce vascular permeability via the S1P1 receptor, S1PR1. Because primary lung graft dysfunction is induced by lung vascular endothelial cell barrier dysfunction, we hypothesized that the S1PR1 agonist, SEW-2871, may attenuate NPE when administered to the donor shortly after BD. Significant lung injury was observed after BD, with increases of approximately 60% in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) total protein, cell counts, and lung tissue wet/dry (W/D) weight ratios. In contrast, rats receiving SEW-2871 (0.1 mg/kg) 15 minutes after BD and assessed after 4 hours exhibited significant lung protection (∼ 50% reduction, P = 0.01), as reflected by reduced BAL protein/albumin, cytokines, cellularity, and lung tissue wet/dry weight ratio. Microarray analysis at 4 hours revealed a global impact of both BD and SEW on lung gene expression, with a differential gene expression of enriched immune-response/inflammation pathways across all groups. Overall, SEW served to attenuate the BD-mediated up-regulation of gene expression. Two potential biomarkers, TNF and chemokine CC motif receptor-like 2, exhibited gene array dysregulation. We conclude that SEW-2871 significantly attenuates BD-induced lung injury, and may serve as a potential candidate to improve human donor availability.
neurogenic pulmonary edema; lung injury; sphingosine 1–phosphate; sphingolipids; lung transplant donors
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is frequently encountered in patients with advanced lung disease before the first and second lung transplantation. We sought to determine whether there is any relationship between pulmonary hemodynamics obtained before first and second lung transplantation. We also assessed whether PH has prognostic implications in lung transplant patients going for second transplantation.
We included consecutive adult (16-yr-old or older) patients who underwent lung re-transplantation, between 1997 and 2009, and had right heart catheterization before their first and second lung transplantation.
Eighteen patients were included in the study. Age at first transplantation was 50.4 (SD 10.4) yr, and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in the transplanted lung was the only indication for re-transplantation. PH was observed in 39% of the patients before the first lung transplant and in 56% of the subjects before re-transplantation (p = 0.91). Pre-capillary PH was present in 28% (n = 5) and 33% (n = 6) of the patients before first and second lung transplantation, respectively. None of the hemodynamic variables obtained before the first transplant predicted the development of PH before re-transplantation. PH before re-transplantation did not predict survival or development of BOS after re-transplantation.
PH before initial lung transplantation did not predict the development of PH before the second transplantation. In our cohort, PH before second lung transplantation did not predict outcomes after re-transplantation.
bronchiolitis obliterans; lung transplantation; mortality; outcome; pulmonary hypertension
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in lung recipients is associated with decreased survival and attenuated allograft function. This study evaluates fundoplication in preventing GERD-related allograft dysfunction.
Prospectively collected data on patients who underwent transplantation between January 2001 and August 2009 were included. Lung transplant candidates underwent esophageal pH probe testing before transplantation and surveillance spirometry evaluation after transplantation. Bilateral lung transplant recipients who had pretransplant pH probe testing and posttransplant 1-year forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1) data were included for analysis.
Of 297 patients who met study criteria, 222 (75%) had an abnormal pH probe study before or early after transplantation and 157 (53%) had a fundoplication performed within the first year after transplantation. Patients with total proximal acid contact times greater than 1.2% or total distal acid contact times greater than 7.0% demonstrated an absolute decrease of 9.4% (± 4.6) or 12.0% (± 5.4) in their respective mean 1-year FEV1 values. Patients with abnormal acid contact times who did not undergo fundoplication had considerably worse predicted peak and 1-year FEV1 results compared with recipients receiving fundoplication (peak percent predicted = 75% vs. 84%; p = 0.004 and 1-year percent predicted = 68% vs. 77%; p = 0.003, respectively).
Lung transplant recipients with abnormal esophageal pH studies attain a lower peak allograft function as well as a diminished 1-year FEV1 after transplantation. However a strategy of early fundoplication in these recipients appears to preserve lung allograft function.
A 19-years-old girl was referred for lung transplant due to end stage lung disease secondary to idiopathic bilateral bronchiectasis. Her routine pre lung transplant evaluation showed normal esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) and 24-hours impedance pH monitoring. Four weeks after the bilateral sequential lung transplantation (LTx), she developed dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation, complicated by aspiration pneumonia. Repeated HRM showed Jackhammer esophagus, delayed gastric emptying and abnormal 24-hour pH impedance monitoring consistent with the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Twelve weeks after LTx, she was symptom free, HRM and 24-hour impedance pH monitoring returned to normal. To the best of our knowledge, this rare transient esophageal hypercontractility episode occurred after LTx and recovered without any specific treatment was never reported in literature. The etiopathogenesis of Jackhammer esophagus in general and LTx induced dysmotility in particular is discussed and reviewed.
High-resolution manometry; Jackhammer esophagus; Lung transplantation
Pneumocystis jirovecii has been detected in lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with disease severity. The regional distribution of the organism in lungs is unknown, but differences in distribution of Pneumocystis could affect estimates of colonization prevalence. We examined the distribution of Pneumocystis in the lungs of 19 non-HIV-infected patients with COPD who were undergoing lung transplantation. DNA was extracted from explanted lungs. We found Pneumocystis colonization in lung tissue of 42.1% of patients with advanced COPD; however, there was significant regional variation in colonization between lung segments of individual patients. Colonization was detected more commonly in the lower and middle lobes than the upper lobes. These findings suggest that single samples from an individual may underestimate the prevalence of Pneumocystis colonization and future studies may obtain a higher yield of Pneumocystis colonization detection when sampling the lower lobes.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Pneumocystis jirovecii; lung
Heart and lung transplantation is frequently the only therapeutic option for patients with end stage cardio respiratory disease. Organ donation post brain stem death (BSD) is a pre-requisite, yet BSD itself causes such severe damage that many organs offered for donation are unusable, with lung being the organ most affected by BSD. In Australia and New Zealand, less than 50% of lungs offered for donation post BSD are suitable for transplantation, as compared with over 90% of kidneys, resulting in patients dying for lack of suitable lungs. Our group has developed a novel 24 h sheep BSD model to mimic the physiological milieu of the typical human organ donor. Characterisation of the gene expression changes associated with BSD is critical and will assist in determining the aetiology of lung damage post BSD. Real-time PCR is a highly sensitive method involving multiple steps from extraction to processing RNA so the choice of housekeeping genes is important in obtaining reliable results. Little information however, is available on the expression stability of reference genes in the sheep pulmonary artery and lung. We aimed to establish a set of stably expressed reference genes for use as a standard for analysis of gene expression changes in BSD.
We evaluated the expression stability of 6 candidate normalisation genes (ACTB, GAPDH, HGPRT, PGK1, PPIA and RPLP0) using real time quantitative PCR. There was a wide range of Ct-values within each tissue for pulmonary artery (15–24) and lung (16–25) but the expression pattern for each gene was similar across the two tissues. After geNorm analysis, ACTB and PPIA were shown to be the most stably expressed in the pulmonary artery and ACTB and PGK1 in the lung tissue of BSD sheep.
Accurate normalisation is critical in obtaining reliable and reproducible results in gene expression studies. This study demonstrates tissue associated variability in the selection of these normalisation genes in BSD sheep and underlines the importance of selecting the correct reference genes for both the animal model and tissue studied.
Rationale: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from human lung allografts demonstrates the presence of a multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell population. However, the clinical relevance of this novel cellular component of BAL and its association with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a disease marked by progressive airflow limitation secondary to fibrotic obliteration of the small airways, remains to be determined.
Objectives: In this study we investigate the association of number of mesenchymal stromal cells in BAL with development of BOS in human lung transplant recipients.
Methods: Mesenchymal colony-forming units (CFUs) were quantitated in a cohort of 405 BAL samples obtained from 162 lung transplant recipients. Poisson generalized estimating equations were used to determine the predictors of BAL mesenchymal CFU count.
Measurements and Main Results: Higher CFU counts were noted early post-transplantation; time from transplant to BAL of greater than 3 months predicted 0.4-fold lower CFU counts (P = 0.0001). BOS diagnosis less than or equal to 365 days before BAL was associated with a 2.11-fold higher CFU count (P = 0.02). There were 2.62- and 2.70-fold higher CFU counts noted in the presence of histologic diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans (P = 0.05) and organizing pneumonia (0.0003), respectively. In BAL samples obtained from BOS-free patients greater than 6 months post-transplantation (n = 173), higher mesenchymal CFU counts (≥10) significantly predicted BOS onset in both univariate (hazard ratio, 5.61; 95% CI, 3.03–10.38; P < 0.0001) and multivariate (hazard ratio, 5.02; 95% CI, 2.40–10.51; P < 0.0001) Cox regression analysis.
Conclusions: Measurement of mesenchymal CFUs in the BAL provides predictive information regarding future BOS onset.
bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome; acute rejection; bronchoalveolar lavage