Most of the studies investigating the effectiveness of blocking the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor 1 (BLT1) have been performed in models of primary or acute allergen challenge. The role of the LTB4-BLT1 pathway in secondary challenge models, where airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation have been established, has not been defined. We investigated the effects of blocking BLT1 on early- and late-phase development of AHR and airway inflammation in previously sensitized and challenged mice. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized (Days 1 and 14) and challenged (primary, Days 28–30) with ovalbumin. On Day 72, mice were challenged (secondary) with a single OVA aerosol, and the early and late phases of AHR and inflammation were determined. Specific blockade of BLT1 was attained by oral administration of a BLT1 antagonist on Days 70 through 72. Administration of the antagonist inhibited the secondary ovalbumin challenge–induced alterations in airway responses during the late phase but not during the early phase, as demonstrated by decreases in AHR and in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia and eosinophilia 6 and 48 hours after secondary challenge. The latter was associated with decreased levels of KC protein, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and IL-17 in the airways. These data identify the importance of the LTB4-BLT1 pathway in the development of late–phase, allergen-induced airway responsiveness after secondary airway challenge in mice with established airway disease.
LAR; EAR; established asthma; BLT1 antagonist
Previous studies have shown that leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a proinflammatory lipid mediator, is linked to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness through the accumulation of IL-13–producing CD8+ T cells, which express a high affinity receptor for LTB4, BLT1 (Miyahara et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;172:161–167; J Immunol 2005;174:4979–4984). By using leukotriene A4 hydrolase–deficient (LTA4H−/−) mice, which fail to synthesize LTB4, we determined the role of this lipid mediator in allergen-induced airway responses. Two approaches were used. In the first, LTA4H−/− mice and wild-type (LTA4H+/+) mice were systemically sensitized and challenged via the airways to ovalbumin. In the second, mice were passively sensitized with anti-ovalbumin IgE and exposed to ovalbumin via the airways. Mast cells were generated from bone marrow of LTA4H+/+ mice or LTA4H−/− mice. After active sensitization and challenge, LTA4H−/− mice showed significantly lower airway hyperresponsiveness compared with LTA4H+/+ mice, and eosinophil numbers and IL-13 levels in the bronchoalveoloar lavage of LTA4H−/− mice were also significantly lower. LTA4H−/− mice also showed decreased airway reactivity after passive sensitization and challenge. After LTA4H+/+ mast cell transfer, LTA4H−/− mice showed increased airway reactivity after passive sensitization and challenge, but not after systemic sensitization and challenge. These data confirm the important role for LTB4 in the development of altered airway responses and suggest that LTB4 secretion from mast cells is critical to eliciting increased airway reactivity after passive sensitization with allergen-specific IgE.
rodent; T cells; cytokines; lipid mediators; lung
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a rapidly synthesized, early neutrophil chemoattractant that signals via its cell surface receptor, BLT-1, to attract and activate neutrophils during peritonitis. BLT-1-deficient (BLT-1−/−) mice were used to determine the effects of LTB4 on neutrophil migration and activation, bacterial levels, and survival after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Male BLT-1−/− or wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice underwent CLP. Tissues were harvested for determination of levels of bacteria, myeloperoxidase (MPO), LTB4, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), and neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte [PMN]) numbers at 4 and 18 h after CLP. PMN activation was determined by an assessment of phagocytosis ability and CD11b expression. Survival was also determined. BLT-1−/− mice had decreased numbers of PMNs in the peritoneum at both 4 and 18 h after CLP but increased numbers of PMNs in the blood at 18 h compared with WT mice. Liver and lung MPO levels were significantly higher in BLT-1−/− mice at both 4 and 18 h after CLP, with increased bacterial levels in the blood, the liver, and peritoneal fluid at 4 h. Bacterial levels remained higher in peritoneal fluid at 18 h, but blood and liver bacterial levels at 18 h were not different from levels at 4 h. PMN phagocytosis and CD11b levels were decreased in BLT-1−/− mice. LTB4 levels were similar between the groups before and after CLP, but MIP-2 levels were decreased both locally and systemically in BLT-1−/− mice. Survival was significantly improved in BLT-1−/− mice (71%) compared with WT mice (14%) at 48 h post-CLP. Thus, LTB4 modulates neutrophil migration into the mouse peritoneum, but not the lung or liver, after CLP. Despite higher bacterial and PMN levels at remote sites, there was increased survival in BLT-1−/− mice compared to WT mice. Decreased PMN activation may result in less remote organ dysfunction and improved survival.
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and has been linked to inflammation. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is synthesized from arachidonic acid via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway and is a potent chemoattractant for inflammatory cells. LTB4 was recently shown to be associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, including cancer. Of the two known LTB4 receptors, BLT1 and BLT2, the biological roles of the low-affinity LTB4 receptor 2, BLT2, have only recently been elucidated. This review focuses on recent discoveries regarding BLT2 and its roles in cancer progression and the downstream signaling mechanisms of the BLT2-linked signaling cascade in cancer cells. We believe that these findings will facilitate the development of new cancer treatments.
Leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (BLT2); leukotriene B4; NADPH oxidase; reactive oxygen species; nuclear factor-kB; cancer progression
Scratching triggers skin flares in atopic dermatitis (AD). We demonstrate that scratching of human skin, and tape stripping of mouse skin, causes neutrophil influx. This influx in mice was largely dependent on the generation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) by neutrophils and their expression of the LTB4 receptor BLT1. Allergic skin inflammation in response to epicutaneous (EC) application of ovalbumin to tape-stripped skin was severely impaired in Ltb4r1−/− mice, and required expression of BLT1 on both T cells and non-T cells. Co-transfer of WT neutrophils, but not neutrophils deficient in BLT1 or the LTB4 synthesizing enzyme LTA4H, restored the ability of WT CD4+ effector T cells to transfer allergic skin inflammation to Ltb4r1−/− recipients. Pharmacologic blockade of LTB4 synthesis inhibited allergic skin inflammation elicited by cutaneous antigen challenge in previously EC-sensitized mice. Our results demonstrate that a neutrophil-T cell axis reliant on LTB4-BLT1 interaction is required for allergic skin inflammation.
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a lipid mediator that activates leukocytes and is involved in host defense and inflammation. BLT1, a high-affinity receptor for LTB4 (originally termed BLT), is expressed exclusively in inflammatory cells and is inducible in macrophages upon activation. The mechanisms of tissue-specific expression and induction of BLT1 are important for the understanding of mechanism of onset and the potential treatment of inflammatory disorders. Here, we report the genomic structure and a promoter analysis of the human BLT1 gene, with an emphasis on the mechanism of cell-specific transcription. No TATA or CAAT elements exist around the transcription initiation sites, but a GC-rich sequence is observed in this region. A reporter gene assay revealed that a region ∼80 basepair upstream from the initiator sequence is required for the basal transcription of the BLT1 gene. Sp1 was found to be a major activator of basal transcription by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and site-directed mutagenesis. The CpG sites of the BLT1 promoter region were highly methylated in BLT1-nonexpressing cells, but not methylated in BLT1-expressing cells. Further, methylation of this region in vitro inhibited the promoter activity to ∼15% of the control. Thus, methylation at CpG sites in the promoter region is important for cell-specific transcription of the BLT1 gene. The promoter region of the BLT1 gene is localized within the open reading frame (ORF) of the BLT2 gene, which encodes a low-affinity receptor for LTB4 (Yokomizo, T., K. Kato, K. Terawaki, T. Izumi, and T. Shimizu. 2000. J. Exp. Med. 192:421–431). To our knowledge, this is the first example of “promoter in ORF” in higher eukaryotes.
leukotriene B4 receptor; inflammation; methylation; Sp1; THP-1 cell
Despite intensive studies focused on the pathophysiology of asthmatic inflammation, little is known about how cross-talk between neuroendocrine and immune systems regulates the inflammatory response during an asthmatic attack. We recently showed corresponding changes of cytokines and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in brain and lung tissues of antigen-challenged asthmatic rats. Here, we investigated how LTB4 interacts with the neuroendocrine-immune system in regulating antigen-induced asthmatic responses in sensitized guinea pigs.
Ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs were challenged by inhalation of antigen. Vehicle, LTB4 or U75302 (a selective LTB4 BLT1 receptor inhibitor) was given via intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) 30 min before challenge. Airway contraction response was evaluated using Penh values before and after antigen challenge. The inflammatory response in lung tissue was evaluated 24 h after challenge. The LTB4 content of lung and brain homogenate preparations was detected by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) were measured using ELISA kits.
Antigen challenge impaired pulmonary function and increased inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue. These responses could be significantly suppressed by LTB4, 30 ng i.c.v., in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. LTB4 content of lung and brain homogenates from antigen-challenged guinea pigs was significantly increased. In addition, administration of LTB4 via i.c.v. markedly increased CORT and ACTH level in plasma before antigen challenge, and there were further increases in CORT and ACTH levels in plasma after antigen challenge. U75302, 100 ng i.c.v., completely blocked the effects of LTB4. In addition, U75302, 100 ng via i.c.v. injection, markedly decreased LTB4 content in lung homogenates, but not in brain homogenates.
Increased LTB4 levels in brain during asthmatic attacks down-regulates airway contraction response and inflammation through the BLT1 receptor. Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by LTB4 may result in an increase in systemic glucocorticoids which, in turn, would feed back to suppress the asthmatic response.
Inhalation of antigen in immunized mice induces an infiltration of eosinophils into the airways and increased bronchial hyperreactivity as are observed in human asthma. We employed a model of late-phase allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice to address the role of leukotrienes (LT) in mediating airway eosinophilia and hyperreactivity to methacholine. Allergen intranasal challenge in OVA-sensitized mice induced LTB4 and LTC4 release into the airspace, widespread mucus occlusion of the airways, leukocytic infiltration of the airway tissue and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid that was predominantly eosinophils, and bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine. Specific inhibitors of 5- lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) blocked airway mucus release and infiltration by eosinophils indicating a key role for leukotrienes in these features of allergic pulmonary inflammation. The role of leukotrienes or eosinophils in mediating airway hyperresponsiveness to aeroallergen could not be established, however, in this murine model.
Leukotriene B4 is a lipid mediator that recently has been shown to have potent chemotactic activity for effector T lymphocytes mediated through its receptor, BLT1. Here, we developed a novel murine model of acute lung rejection to demonstrate that BLT1 controls effector CD8+ T cell trafficking into the lung and that disruption of BLT1 signaling in CD8+ T cells reduces lung inflammation and mortality in the model. In addition, we used BLT1-deficient mice and a BLT1 antagonist in two tracheal transplant models of lung transplantation to demonstrate the importance of BLT1 for the recruitment of T cells into tracheal allografts. We also show that BLT1-mediated CD8+ T cell recruitment plays an important role in the development of airway fibroproliferation and obliteration. Finally, in human studies of lung transplant recipients, we found that BLT1 is up-regulated on T lymphocytes isolated from the airways of patients with obliterative bronchiolitis. These data demonstrate that BLT1 contributes to the development of lung rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis by mediating effector T lymphocyte trafficking into the lung. This is the first report that describes a pathologic role for BLT1-mediated T lymphocyte recruitment in disease and identifies BLT1 as a potential therapeutic target after lung transplantation.
Rationale: Airway inflammation in asthma is accompanied by structural changes, including goblet cell metaplasia, smooth muscle cell layer thickening, and subepithelial fibrosis. This allergen-induced airway remodeling can be replicated in a mouse asthma model.
Objectives: The study goal was to determine whether established airway remodeling in a mouse asthma model is reversible by administration of the cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT)1 receptor antagonist montelukast, the corticosteroid dexamethasone, or the combination montelukast + dexamethasone.
Methods: BALB/c mice, sensitized by intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) as allergen, received intranasal OVA periodically Days 14–73 and montelukast or dexamethasone or placebo from Days 73–163.
Measurements and Main Results: Allergen-induced trafficking of eosinophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung interstitium and airway goblet cell metaplasia, smooth muscle cell layer thickening, and subepithelial fibrosis present on Day 73 persisted at Day 163, 3 mo after the last allergen challenge. Airway hyperreactivity to methacholine observed on Day 73 in OVA-treated mice was absent on Day 163. In OVA-treated mice, airway eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia were reduced by either montelukast or dexamethasone alone. Montelukast, but not dexamethasone, reversed the established increase in airway smooth muscle mass and subepithelial collagen deposition. By immunocytochemistry, CysLT1 receptor expression was significantly increased in airway smooth muscle cells in allergen-treated mice compared with saline-treated controls and was reduced by montelukast, but not dexamethasone, administration.
Conclusions: These data indicate that established airway smooth muscle cell layer thickening and subepithelial fibrosis, key allergen-induced airway structural changes not modulated by corticosteroids, are reversible by CysLT1 receptor blockade therapy.
eosinophils; fibrosis; mucus; smooth muscle
Rationale: There is conflicting information about the development and resolution of airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) after repeated airway exposure to allergen in sensitized mice.
Methods: Sensitized BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were exposed to repeated allergen challenge on 3, 7, or 11 occasions. Airway function in response to inhaled methacholine was monitored; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammatory cells were counted; and goblet cell metaplasia, peribronchial fibrosis, and smooth muscle hypertrophy were quantitated on tissue sections. Bone marrow–derived dendritic cells were generated after differentiation of bone marrow cells in the presence of growth factors.
Results: Sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) in alum, followed by three airway exposures to OVA, induced lung eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, mild peribronchial fibrosis, and peribronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy; increased levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor, transforming growth factor-β1, eotaxin-1, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), and OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE; and resulted in AHR. After seven airway challenges, development of AHR was markedly decreased as was the production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Levels of IL-10 in both strains and the level of IL-12 in BALB/c mice increased. After 11 challenges, airway eosinophilia and peribronchial fibrosis further declined and the cytokine and chemokine profiles continued to change. At this time point, the number of myeloid dendritic cells and expression of CD80 and CD86 in lungs were decreased compared with three challenges. After 11 challenges, intratracheal instillation of bone marrow–derived dendritic cells restored AHR and airway eosinophilia.
Conclusions: These data suggest that repeated allergen exposure leads to progressive decreases in AHR and allergic inflammation, through decreases in myeloid dendritic cell numbers.
airway hyperresponsiveness; chronic asthma; cytokine; dendritic cells; eosinophil
Aim: To investigate the role of arachidonic acid derived chemotactic factor, LTB4, in the development of endotoxin induced uveitis (EIU), using mice deficient in the BLT1 gene which encodes the high affinity LTB4 receptor.
Methods: BLT1 gene deficient and wild type BALB/c mice were injected intravitreally with Escherichia coli 055:B5 lipopolysaccharide (250 ng/2 μl). Number of leukocytes invading the anterior chamber 24 hours later were counted on tissue cross sections.
Results: In all mice, EIU was characterised by a polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cell infiltrate. Numbers of infiltrating cells did not differ significantly between control and BLT1 gene knockout mice.
Conclusion: Chemotactic factors other than LTB4 are primarily responsible for leukocyte migration into the eye during murine EIU.
endotoxin induced uveitis; chemotaxis; leukotriene B4; receptor; knockout
Mast cells are the main effector cells of immediate hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis. Their role in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is controversial and based on indirect evidence. To address these issues, mast cell–deficient mice (W/W v) and their congenic littermates were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by intraperitoneal injection and subsequently challenged with OVA via the airways. Comparison of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in the serum and numbers of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung digests showed no differences between the two groups of mice. Further, measurements of airway resistance and dynamic compliance at baseline and after inhalation of methacholine were similar. These data indicate that mast cells or IgE–mast cell activation is not required for the development of eosinophilic inflammation and AHR in mice sensitized to allergen via the intraperitoneal route and challenged via the airways.
L-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule, which mediates leukocyte rolling on bronchopulmonary endothelium. Previous studies in a murine model of allergic airways disease have shown that L-selectin plays a role in the regulation of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma via mechanisms independent of inflammation. Airway remodeling has been shown to modulate airway hyperresponsiveness independently of inflammation.
Our aim was to determine if L-selectin influenced airway hyperresponsiveness via modulation of structural changes as a result of airway remodeling.
A chronic ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease model was applied to L-selectin-deficient mice and wild-type control mice. The development of airway inflammation was assessed by examining leukocyte influx into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Airway remodeling changes were determined via histology and morphometric analysis of lung tissue sections, and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed by invasive plethysmography.
Total cell counts, but not individual differential cell counts, were reduced in the ovalbumin-treated L-selectin-deficient mice compared to wildtype ovalbumin-treated mice. L-selectin-deficient mice had significantly reduced epithelial thickness and smooth muscle thickness. Airway hyperresponsiveness was abrogated in ovalbumin treated L-selectin-deficient mice compared to wild-type controls.
L-selectin plays an important role in regulating airway remodeling in an animal model of chronic allergic airways disease. Abrogated airway hyperresponsiveness may be related to reduced remodeling changes in L-selectin-deficient mice. L-selectin represents a potential target for novel asthma treatment for airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness.
asthma; L-selectin; airway hyperresponsiveness; airway remodeling
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent chemoattractant and activator of both granulocytes and macrophages. The actions of LTB4 appear to be mediated by a specific G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) BLT1, originally termed BLT (Yokomizo, T., T. Izumi, K. Chang, Y. Takuwa, and T. Shimizu. 1997. Nature. 387:620–624). Here, we report the molecular cloning of a novel GPCR for LTB4, designated BLT2, which binds LTB4 with a Kd value of 23 nM compared with 1.1 nM for BLT1, but still efficiently transduces intracellular signaling. BLT2 is highly homologous to BLT1, with an amino acid identity of 45.2%, and its open reading frame is located in the promoter region of the BLT1 gene. BLT2 is expressed ubiquitously, in contrast to BLT1, which is expressed predominantly in leukocytes. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing BLT2 exhibit LTB4-induced chemotaxis, calcium mobilization, and pertussis toxin–insensitive inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Several BLT1 antagonists, including U 75302, failed to inhibit LTB4 binding to BLT2. Thus, BLT2 is a pharmacologically distinct receptor for LTB4, and may mediate cellular functions in tissues other than leukocytes. BLT2 provides a novel target for antiinflammatory therapy and promises to expand our knowledge of LTB4 function. The location of the gene suggests shared transcriptional regulation of these two receptors.
BLT; cloning; gene cluster; leukotriene; low-affinity receptor
Basic and clinical studies suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the neuroendocrine-immnue pathway that functionally regulates the chronic inflammatory disease including asthma. Our previous studies showed corresponding changes of cytokines and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) between brain and lung tissues in antigen-challenged asthmatic rats. Here, we investigated how the increased LTB4 level in brain interacts with HPA axis in regulating antigen-induced asthmatic response in sensitized rats.
Ovalbumin-sensitized rats were challenged by inhalation of antigen. Rats received vehicle, LTB4 or U75302 (a selective LTB4 BLT1 receptor inhibitor) was given via intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v) 30 min before challenge. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) were measured before and after antigen challenge. Inflammatory response in lung tissue was assessed 24 h after challenge. Expression of CRH mRNA and protein in hypothalamus were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western Blot, and plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) were measured using the ELISA kits.
Antigen challenge decreased pulmonary function and induced airway inflammation, evoked HPA axis response in sensitized rats. Administration of LTB4 via i.c.v markedly attenuated airway contraction and inflammation. Meanwhile, LTB4 via i.c.v markedly increased CORT and ACTH level in plasma before antigen challenge, and followed by further increases in CORT and ACTH levels in plasma after antigen challenge in sensitized rats. Expression of CRH mRNA and protein in hypothalamus were also significantly increased by LTB4 via i.c.v in sensitized rats after antigen challenge. These effect were completely blocked by pre-treatment with BLT1 receptor antagonist U75302 (10 ng), but not by BLT2 antagonist LY255283.
LTB4 administered via i.c.v down-regulates the airway contraction response and inflammation through activation of the HPA axis via its BLT1 receptor. This study expands our concept of the regulatory role of intracranial inflammatory mediators in inflammatory diseases including asthma. The favourable effects of LTB4 on the HPA axis may help to explain the phenomenon of self-relief after an asthmatic attack.
A large and diverse array of chemoattractants control leukocyte trafficking, but how these apparently redundant signals collaborate in vivo is still largely unknown. We previously demonstrated an absolute requirement for the lipid chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and its receptor BLT1 for neutrophil recruitment into the joint in autoantibody-induced arthritis. We now demonstrate that BLT1 is required for neutrophils to deliver IL-1 into the joint to initiate arthritis. IL-1-expressing neutrophils amplify arthritis through the production of neutrophil-active chemokines from synovial tissue cells. CCR1 and CXCR2, two neutrophil chemokine receptors, operate non-redundantly to sequentially control the later phase of neutrophil recruitment into the joint and mediate all neutrophil chemokine activity in the model. Thus, we have uncovered a complex sequential relationship involving unique contributions from the lipid mediator LTB4, the cytokine IL-1, and CCR1 and CXCR2 chemokine ligands that are all absolutely required for effective neutrophil recruitment into the joint.
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are important immune mediators, often found concomitantly at sites of inflammation. Although, some of the leukotriene-mediated actions are distinctive (e.g. bronchial constriction for cysLTs), many activities such as leukocyte recruitment to tissues and amplification of inflammatory responses are shared by both classes of leukotrienes.
We used human monocytes to characterize leukotriene specific signaling, gene expression signatures and functions and to identify interactions between LTB4 and cysLTs induced pathways.
Responsiveness to leukotrienes was assessed using oligonucleotide microarrays, real-time PCR, calcium mobilization, kinase activation and chemotaxis assays.
Human monocytes were found to express mRNA for high- and low-affinity LTB4 receptors, BLT1 and BLT2, but signal predominantly through BLT1 in response to LTB4 stimulation as shown using selective agonists, inhibitors and gene knock-down experiments. LTB4 acting through BLT1 coupled to G protein α inhibitory subunit activated calcium signaling, p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, gene expression and chemotaxis. Twenty-seven genes, including immediate-early genes, transcription factors, cytokines and membrane receptors were significantly upregulated by LTB4. LTB4 and LTD4 had similar effects on signaling, gene expression and chemotaxis indicating redundant cell activation pathways but co-stimulation with both lipid mediators was additive for many monocyte functions.
LTB4 and LTD4 display both redundant and cooperative effects on intracellular signaling, gene expression and chemotaxis in human monocytes. These findings suggest that therapies targeting either leukotriene alone may be less effective than approaches directed at both.
asthma; inflammation; monocytes; leukotrienes; receptors
We evaluated the role of Syk, using an inhibitor, on allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation in a system shown to be B cell– and mast cell–independent. Sensitization of BALB/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum after three consecutive OVA challenges resulted in AHR to inhaled methacholine and airway inflammation. The Syk inhibitor R406 (30 mg/kg, administered orally, twice daily) prevented the development of AHR, increases in eosinophils and lymphocytes and IL-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and goblet cell metaplasia when administered after sensitization and before challenge with OVA. Levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ in BAL fluid and allergen-specific antibody levels in serum were not affected by treatment. Because many of these responses may be influenced by dendritic cell function, we investigated the effect of R406 on bone marrow–derived dendritic cell (BMDC) function. Co-culture of BMDC with immune complexes of OVA and IgG anti-OVA together with OVA-sensitized spleen mononuclear cells resulted in increases in IL-13 production. IL-13 production was inhibited if the BMDCs were pretreated with the Syk inhibitor. Intratracheal transfer of immune complex-pulsed BMDCs (but not nonpulsed BMDCs) to naive mice before airway allergen challenge induced the development of AHR and increases in BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes. All of these responses were inhibited if the transferred BMDCs were pretreated with R406. These results demonstrate that Syk inhibition prevents allergen-induced AHR and airway inflammation after systemic sensitization and challenge, at least in part through alteration of DC function.
AHR; dendritic cells; eosinophils; mice; Syk
Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea, which is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, has emerged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and negatively correlates to hypoxic levels during sleep, with continuous positive airway pressure therapy decreasing LTB4 production.
Objectives: Determine the potential role of LTB4 in IH-induced atherosclerosis in a monocyte cellular model and a murine model.
Methods: THP-1 cells were exposed to IH for 3, 6, 24, and 48 hours. Macrophage transformation and foam cell formation were assessed after IH exposures. Apolipopotein E (ApoE)−/− or BLT1−/−/ApoE−/− mice were fed an atherogenic diet and exposed to IH (alternating 21% and 5.7% O2 from 7 am to 7 PM each day) for 10 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesion formation in en face aorta was examined by oil red O staining.
Measurements and Main Results: IH increased production of LTB4 and the expression of 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene A4 hydrolase, the key enzymes for producing LTB4. IH was associated with transformation of monocytes to activated macrophages, as evidenced by increased expression of CD14 and CD68. In addition, IH exposures promoted increased cellular cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. The LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1) antagonist U-75302 markedly attenuated IH-induced changes. Furthermore, IH promoted atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE−/− mice. IH-induced lesion formation was markedly attenuated in BLT1−/−/ApoE−/− mice.
Conclusions: BLT1-dependent pathways underlie IH-induced atherogenesis, and may become a potential novel therapeutic target for obstructive sleep apnea–associated cardiovascular disease.
obstructive sleep apnea; inflammation; monocyte; atherosclerosis
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling modulates functions of inflammatory cells involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, and type 4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) are essential components of this pathway. Induction of the PDE4 isoform PDE4B is necessary for Toll-like receptor signaling in monocytes and macrophages and is associated with T cell receptor/CD3 in T cells; however, its exact physiological function in the development of allergic asthma remains undefined.
We investigated the role of PDE4B in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and TH2-driven inflammatory responses.
Wild-type and PDE4B−/− mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and AHR measured in response to inhaled methacholine. Airway inflammation was characterized by analyzing leukocyte infiltration and cytokine accumulation in the airways. Ovalbumin-stimulated cell proliferation and TH2 cytokine production were determined in cultured bronchial lymph node cells.
Mice deficient in PDE4B do not develop AHR. This protective effect was associated with a significant decrease in eosinophils recruitment to the lungs and decreased TH2 cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Defects in T-cell replication, TH2 cytokine production, and dendritic cell migration were evident in cells from the airway-draining lymph nodes. Conversely, accumulation of the TH1 cytokine IFN-γ was not affected in PDE4B−/− mice. Ablation of the orthologous PDE4 gene PDE4A has no impact on airway inflammation.
By relieving a cAMP-negative constraint, PDE4B plays an essential role in TH2-cell activation and dendritic cell recruitment during airway inflammation. These findings provide proof of concept that PDE4 inhibitors with PDE4B selectivity may have efficacy in asthma treatment.
Asthma; PDE4B; TH2 cytokines; airway hyperresponsiveness; airway inflammation; cAMP signaling
Neutrophil recruitment into tissue plays an important role in host defense and disease pathogenesis, including the inflammatory arthritides. A multitude of diverse chemoattractants have been implicated in neutrophil recruitment, suggesting that they have overlapping functions in mediating this critical biological response. However, here we demonstrate a unique, non-redundant role for the leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 in mediating neutrophil recruitment into the joint in the K/BxN mouse model of inflammatory arthritis. We demonstrate that neutrophil expression of BLT1 was absolutely required for arthritis generation and chemokine production in this model, and that specific BLT1 inhibition reversed established disease. Adoptive transfer of wild-type (WT) neutrophils restored arthritis and chemokine production in BLT1−/− mice. Surprisingly, the primary effect of the transferred WT neutrophils into BLT1−/− mice was to promote the entry of endogenous BLT1−/− neutrophils into the joints of these mice. However, continued joint inflammation was dependent on the presence of WT neutrophils, indicating an ongoing specific requirement for BLT1-activated neutrophils in mediating BLT1−/− neutrophil recruitment by other chemoattractants. These experiments demonstrate that neutrophil BLT1 functions in a novel and essential non–cell-autonomous manner to enable the recruitment of additional neutrophils not expressing this receptor, thereby amplifying the inflammatory response in autoantibody-induced arthritis.
Chronic inflammation is an underlying factor linking obesity with insulin resistance. Diet-induced obesity promotes an increase in circulating levels of inflammatory monocytes and their infiltration into expanding adipose tissue. Nevertheless, the endogenous pathways that trigger and sustain chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity are incompletely understood. Here, we report that a high-fat diet selectively increases the circulating levels of CD11b+ monocytes in wild-type mice that express leukotriene B4 receptor, BLT-1, and that this increase is abolished in BLT-1-null mice. The accumulation of classically activated (M1) adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (i.e. IL-6 and Ccl2) was largely blunted in adipose tissue of obese BLT-1-/- mice, while the ratio of alternatively activated (M2) ATMs to M1 ATMs was increased. Obese BLT-1-/- mice were protected from systemic glucose and insulin intolerance and this was associated with a decrease in inflammation in adipose tissue and liver and a decrease in hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Deletion of BLT-1 prevented high-fat induced loss of insulin signaling in liver and skeletal muscle. These observations elucidate a novel role of chemoattractant receptor, BLT-1, in promoting monocyte trafficking to adipose tissue and promoting chronic inflammation in obesity and could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for treating insulin resistance in obesity.
Various inflammatory mediators related to obesity might be closely related to insulin resistance. Leukotrienes (LTs) are involved in inflammatory reactions. However, there are few reports regarding the role of LTs in adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the role of leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-leukotriene receptor (BLT) signaling in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblastic preadipocyte differentiation to mature adipocytes.
Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors, BLT antagonist, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BLT1 and BLT2 to block the LTB4-BLT signaling pathway, then the adipocyte differentiation such as lipid accumulation and the increase in triglyceride was evaluated.
Blockade of BLT signaling by treatment with a LOX inhibitor or a BLT antagonist suppressed preadipocyte differentiation into mature adipocytes. In addition, knockdown of BLT1 and BLT2 by siRNAs dramatically inhibited differentiation. These results indicate the LTB4-BLT signaling pathway may positively regulate preadipocyte differentiation and be a rate-limiting system to control adipocyte differentiation.
The LTB4-BLT signaling pathway provides a potent regulatory signal that accelerates the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Further investigations are necessary to confirm the exact role of LTB4 and BLTs signaling pathways in preadipocyte differentiation.
Leukotrienes; Preadipocyte differentiation; Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts; BLT; siRNA
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a pro-inflammatory lipid mediator generated by the enzymes 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and LTA4-hydrolase. LTB4 signals primarily through its G protein-coupled receptor BLT1, which is highly expressed on specific leukocyte subsets. Recent genetic studies in humans as well as knockout studies in mice have implicated the leukotriene synthesis pathway in several vascular pathologies. Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of BLT1 diminishes abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation, a major complication associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Chow-fed Apoe-/- mice were treated with a 4 week infusion of Angiotensin II (AngII, 1000 ng/kg/min) beginning at 10 weeks of age, in a well-established murine AAA model. Administration of the selective BLT1 antagonist CP-105,696 beginning simultaneously with AngII infusion reduced the incidence of AAA formation from 82% to 40% (p<0.05). There was a concordant reduction in maximal aortic diameter from 2.35 mm to 1.56 mm (p<0.05). While administration of the antagonist on day 14 after the onset of AngII infusion diminished lesional macrophage accumulation, it did not significantly alter the size of AAA by day 42. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of BLT1 may ultimately hold clinical promise, but early intervention may be critical.