To present the case of an intercollegiate swimmer with a stage IV lateral talar dome injury and associated bony fragments.
Lack of distinct diagnostic symptoms, low index of clinical suspicion, and the difficulty of visualizing the early stages of this injury on standard x-rays cause frequent misdiagnosis of talar dome lesions.
Ganglion cyst, with inflammatory synovitis secondary to rupture of cyst; loose bodies from previous occult fracture; osteochondral fracture.
Initial treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a posterior splint for comfort, followed by arthroscopic excision of loose bodies with abrasion and drilling arthroplasty.
Patient presented to the team physician for care of acute left medial ankle pain after the athletic trainer had attempted to rupture a ganglion cyst on the anterolateral aspect of the patient's ankle.
Increased clinical suspicion is necessary to correctly diagnose osteochondral lesions, particularly in the early stages. Aggressive treatment of talar dome lesions has a good success rate and may be an attractive option for competitive athletes.
ganglion cyst; inflammatory synovitis; osteochondral fracture
To describe the case of a 10-year-old football player who sustained a comminuted osteochondral avulsion fracture of the femoral origin of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) via a low-energy mechanism.
In children, both purely cartilaginous and osteochondral avulsion fractures have been described; most such ACL avulsions are from the tibial eminence. In the few previous case reports describing femoral osteochondral avulsion fractures, high-energy injury mechanisms were typically responsible and resulted in a single fracture fragment.
Femoral osteochondral avulsion fracture at the ACL origin, femoral cartilaginous avulsion fracture at the ACL origin, midsubstance ACL tear, meniscal tear.
Sutures and a button were used to repair the comminuted fragments. Postoperatively, a modified ACL reconstruction rehabilitation program was instituted.
Most injuries of this nature in youngsters are caused by a high-energy mechanism of injury, result in an osteochondral avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence, and involve a single fracture fragment.
Although they occur infrequently, ACL femoral avulsion fractures in children can result from a low-energy injury mechanism. Identifying the mechanism of injury, performing a thorough physical examination, and obtaining appropriate diagnostic studies will enable the correct treatment to be implemented, with the goal of safely returning the athlete to play.
injury mechanisms; knee injuries; pediatric injuries
Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee is identified with increasing frequency in the young adult patient. Left untreated, osteochondritis dissecans can lead to the development of osteoarthritis at an early age, resulting in progressive pain and disability. Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans may include nonoperative or operative intervention. Surgical treatment is indicated mainly by lesion stability, physeal closure, and clinical symptoms. Reestablishing the joint surface, maximizing the osteochondral biologic environment, achieving rigid fixation, and ensuring early motion are paramount to fragment preservation. In cases where the fragment is not amenable to preservation, the treatment may include complex reconstruction procedures, such as marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft, fresh osteochondral allograft, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. Treatment goals include pain relief, restoration of function, and the prevention of secondary osteoarthritis.
osteochondritis dissecans; knee; cartilage; surgical treatment
Meniscal injury produces disability in a large portion of the population, and sports injuries are a common cause. Atraumatic meniscal tears may occur after repetitive low-energy loading. Rowing is a highly technical sport and very demanding on an athlete’s body. There are numerous reports on patellofemoral and iliotibial band friction syndrome in rowers but there is an extremely low incidence of meniscal tears reported in these athletes. This is a unique case report of a young adolescent athlete who suffered bilateral medical meniscal tears during sporting activity. Rowing is a low impact sport making this an unusual occurrence, especially in a young individual. This case report highlights the importance of considering all training activities when trying to isolate the mechanism of injury in an athlete.
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) primarily affects subchondral bone. Multiple drilling, fixation implant or autogenous osteochondral grafts are reported as treatment options. We present the midterm results of cases in which an OCD lesion was treated by osteochondral autograft transfer and drilling.
Materials and Methods:
Between 2002 and 2006, 14 knees with International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS-OCD) type II and III lesions were treated in our clinic using osteochondral autograft transfer and drilling by arthroscopic or open surgery. The average age of our patients was 22.14 years (range 17-29 years) and average followup was of 24.3 months (range 11-40 months). Lesion type was ICRS type II in five patients (35.7%) and ICRS type III in nine patients (64.3%). In cases with ICRS-OCD type II lesions, in situ fixation was applied following circumferential multiple drilling, while mosaicplasty was done following debridement and multiple drilling in cases with ICRS-OCD type III lesion. Mosaicplasty was performed in the lesion area by an average of 2.5 (range 1-3) cylindrical osteochondral autografts. Patients were not allowed to perform loading activities for 3 weeks in the postoperative period; movement was initiated by using CPM device in the early phase; full range of motion was achieved in third week, and full weight bearing was permitted in 6 to 8 weeks
While 6 and 8 patients were classified preoperatively as fair and poor, respectively, according to Hughston scale, excellent and good results were obtained postoperatively in 10 and 4 patients, respectively. During the followup, no problems were detected in any of the patients in the regions where osteochondral graft was harvested.
Biologic fixation or mosaicplasty and drilling as a technique to treatment of the lesion in OCD by osteochondral autograft transfer has resulted in good and excellent clinical outcomes in our patients and it is considered that providing blood flow to subchondral bone by circumferencial drilling leads to an increase in the robustness of biological internal fixation and shortens the duration of recovery.
Osteochondritis dissecans; Hughston scale; knee; mosaicplasty
Jump landing is a common activity in collegiate activities, such as women's basketball, volleyball, and soccer, and is a common mechanism for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. It is important to better understand how athletes returning to competition after ACL reconstruction are able to maintain dynamic postural control during a jump landing.
To use time to stabilization (TTS) to measure differences in dynamic postural control during jump landing in ACL-reconstructed (ACLR) knees compared with healthy knees among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes.
University athletic training research laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants:
Twenty-four Division I female basketball, volleyball, and soccer players volunteered and were assigned to the healthy control group (n = 12) or the ACLR knee group (n = 12). Participants with ACLR knees were matched to participants with healthy knees by sport and by similar age, height, and mass.
At 1 session, participants performed a single-leg landing task for both limbs. They were instructed to stabilize as quickly as possible in a single-limb stance and remain as motionless as possible for 10 seconds.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
The anterior-posterior TTS and medial-lateral TTS ground reaction force data were used to calculate resultant vector of the TTS (RVTTS) during a jump landing. A 1-way analysis of variance was used to determine group differences on RVTTS. The means and SDs from the participants' 10 trials in each leg were used for the analyses.
The ACLR group (2.01 ± 0.15 seconds, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.91, 2.10) took longer to stabilize than the control group (1.90 ± 0.07 seconds, 95% CI = 1.86, 1.95) (F1,22 = 4.28, P = .05). This result was associated with a large effect size and a 95% CI that did not cross zero (Cohen d = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.91, 1.09).
Although they were Division I female athletes at an average of 2.5 years after ACL reconstruction, participants with ACLR knees demonstrated dynamic postural-control deficits as evidenced by their difficulty in controlling ground reaction forces. This increased TTS measurement might contribute to the established literature reflecting differences in single-limb dynamic control. Clinicians might need to focus rehabilitation efforts on stabilization after jump landing. Further research is needed to determine if TTS is a contributing factor in future injury.
postural control; jump landings; dynamic stability
Osteochondral injuries, if not treated adequately, often lead
to severe osteoarthritis. Possible treatment options include refixation
of the fragment or replacement therapies such as Pridie drilling,
microfracture or osteochondral grafts, all of which have certain
disadvantages. Only refixation of the fragment can produce a smooth
and resilient joint surface. The aim of this study was the evaluation
of an ultrasound-activated bioresorbable pin for the refixation of
osteochondral fragments under physiological conditions.
In 16 Merino sheep, specific osteochondral fragments of the medial
femoral condyle were produced and refixed with one of conventional
bioresorbable pins, titanium screws or ultrasound-activated pins.
Macro- and microscopic scoring was undertaken after three months.
The healing ratio with ultrasound-activated pins was higher than
with conventional pins. No negative heat effect on cartilage has
As the material is bioresorbable, no further surgery is required
to remove the implant. MRI imaging is not compromised, as it is
with implanted screws. The use of bioresorbable pins using ultrasound
is a promising technology for the refixation of osteochondral fractures.
Osteochondral fracture; Ultrasound-activated pin; Bioresorbable implant; Sheep study; Cartilage; Polylactide
The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis following an intra-articular fracture is determined to large extent by the success or failure of osteochondral repair. To measure the efficacy of osteochondral repair in a primate and determine if osteochondral repair differs in the patella (PA) and the medial femoral condyle (FC) and if passive motion treatment affects osteochondral repair, we created 3.2 mm diameter 4.0 mm deep osteochondral defects of the articular surfaces of the PA and FC in both knees of twelve skeletally mature cynomolgus monkeys. Defects were treated with intermittent passive motion (IPM) or castimmobilization (CI) for two weeks, followed by six weeks of ad libitum cage activity. We measured restoration of the articular surface, and the volume, composition, type II collagen concentration and in situ material properties of the repair tissue. The osteochondral repair response restored a mean of 56% of the FC and 34% of the PA articular surfaces and filled a mean of 68% of the chondral and 92% of the osseous defect volumes respectively. FC defect repair produced higher concentrations of hyaline cartilage (FC 83% vs. PA 52% in chondral defects and FC 26% vs. PA 14% in osseous defects) and type II collagen (FC 84% vs. PA 71% in chondral defects and FC 37% vs. PA 9% in osseous defects) than PA repair. IPM did not increase the volume of chondral or osseous repair tissue in PA or FC defects. In both PA and FC defects, IPM stimulated slightly greater expression of type II collagen in chondral repair tissue (IPM 81% vs. CI 74%); and, produced a higher concentration of hyaline repair tissue (IPM 62% vs. CI 42%), but IPM produced poorer restoration of PA articular surfaces (IPM 23% vs. CI 45%). Normal articular cartilage was stiffer, and had a larger Poisson's ratio and less permeability than repair cartilage. Overall CI treated repair tissue was stiffer and less permeable than IPM treated repair tissue. The stiffness, Poisson's ratio and permeability of femoral condyle cast immobilized (FC CI) treated repair tissue most closely approached the normal values. The differences in osteochondral repair between FC and PA articular surfaces suggest that the mechanical environment strongly influences the quality of articular surface repair. Decreasing the risk of posttraumatic osteoarthritis following intra-articular fractures will depend on finding methods of promoting the osteochondral repair response including modifying the intra-articular biological and mechanical environments.
Osteochondral fractures of lateral femoral condyle are common in adolescents and young adults. They are usually caused by direct trauma or twisting injuries of the knee. We present a case of large osteochondral fracture of lateral femoral condyle involving the articular surface in a fifteen-year-old male with a positive history of significant weight gain of 5 kilograms in last six months. Blood investigations reported low vitamin D and testosterone levels with elevated alkaline phosphatase. Adequate exposure was achieved by doing Z-plasty of quadriceps apparatus. The fracture was treated with open reduction and internal fixation using Herbert's screws. Medical management in the form of vitamin D and calcium along with testosterone was given. After the surgery, full weight-bearing was allowed at three months. At one year followup, patient has good quadriceps function without any weakness of the muscle.
Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries in the athletic patient. They present a challenging clinical problem as cartilage has a poor potential for healing. Current surgical treatments consist of reparative (microfracture) or replacement (autologous osteochondral graft) strategies and demonstrate good clinical outcomes at the short and medium term follow-up. Radiological findings and second-look arthroscopy however, indicate possible poor cartilage repair with evidence of fibrous infill and fissuring of the regenerative tissue following microfracture. Longer-term follow-up echoes these findings as it demonstrates a decline in clinical outcome. The nature of the cartilage repair that occurs for an osteochondral graft to become integrated with the native surround tissue is also of concern. Studies have shown evidence of poor cartilage integration, with chondrocyte death at the periphery of the graft, possibly causing cyst formation due to synovial fluid ingress. Biological adjuncts, in the form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), have been investigated with regard to their potential in improving cartilage repair in both in vitro and in vitro settings. The in vitro literature indicates that these biological adjuncts may increase chondrocyte proliferation as well as synthetic capability, while limiting the catabolic effects of an inflammatory joint environment. These findings have been extrapolated to in vitro animal models, with results showing that both PRP and BMAC improve cartilage repair. The basic science literature therefore establishes the proof of concept that biological adjuncts may improve cartilage repair when used in conjunction with reparative and replacement treatment strategies for osteochondral lesions of the talus.
Osteochondral lesion; Cartilage repair; Platelet-rich plasma; Bone marrow aspirate concentrate
Although disorders of the patellofemoral joint are common in the athlete, their management can be challenging and require a thorough physical examination and radiologic evaluation, including advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques.
Relevant articles were searched under OVID and MEDLINE (1968 to 2010) using the keywords patellofemoral joint, patellofemoral pain or patella and radiography, imaging, or magnetic resonance imaging, and the referenced sources were reviewed for additional articles. The quality and validity of the studies were assessed on the basis of careful analysis of the materials and methods before their inclusion in this article.
Physical examination and imaging evaluation including standard radiographs are crucial in identifying evidence of malalignment or instability. Magnetic resonance imaging provides valuable information about concomitant soft tissue injuries to the medial stabilizers as well as injuries to the articular cartilage, including chondral shears and osteochondral fractures. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging assessing the ultrastructure of cartilage has shown high correlation with histology and may be useful for timing surgery.
Evaluation of patellofemoral disorders is complex and requires a comprehensive assessment. Recent advancements in imaging have made possible a more precise evaluation of the individual anatomy of the patient, addressing issues of malalignment, instability, and underlying cartilage damage.
Patellofemoral joint; patellofemoral pain; chondromalacia patella; Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Osteochondritis dissecans is a lesion of subchondral bone with subsequent involvement of the overlying cartilage. Although the etiology of the disease is unknown, mechanical, traumatic, and ischemic etiologies have been suggested, in addition to developmental and genetic factors. There are several treatment options depending on the stage of the disease and surgeon preference. The use of a fresh osteochondral allograft for treatment of a lesion of the femoral condyle is relatively new, and we report its use in a unique situation involving identical twins who both presented with osteochondritis dissecans of the same anatomic location within 2 years of each other. Since these were identical lesions in identical twins, this commonality supports the suggestion that some genetic component may be present in the etiology, especially in this situation where a genetic connection existed. We recommend genetic studies to determine the extent of genetic influence on the disease.
Objective: To present the case of a collegiate soccer player who suffered from a traumatic knee hemarthrosis secondary to hemophilia A. This case presents an opportunity to discuss the participation status of athletes with hemophilia.
Background: Hemophilia is a hereditary blood disease characterized by impaired coagulability of the blood. Hemophilia A is the most common of the severe, inherited bleeding disorders. This type, also called classic hemophilia, is due to a deficiency of clotting factor VIII. The athlete with hemophilia A reported pain and loss of function of his knee during a soccer game despite the absence of injury.
Differential Diagnosis: Anterior cruciate ligament tear, intra-articular fracture, meniscus tear, capsular tear, hemarthrosis.
Treatment: After the injury, the athlete was admitted to the hospital, where his knee joint was aspirated and he was infused with factor VIII. Later, he participated in traditional knee rehabilitation and was returned to play at the discretion of the orthopaedist and the hematologist.
Uniqueness: In past participation guidelines, individuals with bleeding disorders were disqualified from athletic participation; however, with advances in medical care, these individuals may be permitted to participate in accordance with the law.
Conclusions: Individuals with hemophilia participate in athletics; therefore, team physicians and athletic trainers must be prepared to care for these individuals.
Americans with Disabilities Act; desmopressin acetate; factor VIII; preparticipation physical examination; blood coagulation
Osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle is relatively rare, and it is reported to often be combined with a discoid lateral meniscus. Given the potential for healing, conservative management is indicated for stable osteochondritis dissecans in patients who are skeletally immature. However, patients with osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus often have persistent symptoms despite conservative management.
We present the case of a seven-year-old Korean girl who had osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus, which healed after meniscoplasty for the symptomatic lateral discoid meniscus without surgical intervention for the osteochondritis dissecans. In addition, healing of the osteochondritis dissecans lesion was confirmed by an MRI scan five months after the operation.
Meniscoplasty can be recommended for symptomatic stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle combined with a discoid lateral meniscus when conservative treatment fails.
To present the case of a collegiate baseball player struck in the right eye.
While attempting a bunt, a 20-year-old collegiate baseball player was hit in the right eye when the ball was deflected off the bat. The athlete bled from the nose, and the right eye swelled shut from eyelid edema. Initial nasal hemorrhage was controlled, and the athlete was referred to the emergency room for further care due to pain in the inferior orbit.
Eyelid contusion, traumatic iritis, or traumatic microhyphema to the right eye secondary to blunt trauma.
Immediate treatment consisted of controlling the nasal bleeding with sterile gauze pads. Because of palpable tenderness over the inferior orbit, the athlete was immediately transported to the emergency room.
Hyphema is one of the most common sport-related eye injuries: the incidence is 12.2 cases per 100,000 population, with approximately 37% resulting from sports injury. Racquet sports, baseball, and softball account for more than half of all hyphema injuries in athletics. Individuals with traumatic hyphema rarely require surgery; however, proper initial care, treatment, and referral are imperative to a good prognosis.
Athletic trainers need to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of hyphema and seek medical evaluation immediately in order to avoid secondary complications. With proper recognition, initial care and referral, and appropriate, well-fitted protective eyewear as needed, hyphema can have minimal complications, and the athlete may be able to compete again within 1 to 2 weeks.
cycloplegia; fundoscopy; gonioscopy; limbal tissue; tonometry
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of both femoral condyles is very rare, with no previously reported cases of bilateral OCD of both knees in two siblings. We report on a brother and sister with both femoral condyle OCD with a description of surgical technique and clinical results. Fixation using headless compressive screws, osteochondral autologous transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation were all successful.
Osteochondritis dissecans; Bilateral; Both femoral condyle; Knee; Autologous chondrocyte implantation; Open osteochondral autograft
To describe the evaluation, management, and rehabilitation of an acute, supraspinatus tendon injury in an intercollegiate football player.
While attempting to block a defender, a 19-year-old collegiate football player slipped on the artificial turf and landed on his right elbow, causing an injury to his right shoulder. The athlete was initially seen by the head athletic trainer and then referred to the team physician for further evaluation.
acromioclavicular joint sprain, brachial plexopathy, subacromial impingement syndrome, supraspinatus lesion.
The athlete was managed surgically with an open acromioplasty and a 3-bone tunnel repair of the supraspinatus tendon. After surgery, the athlete underwent a 4-month rehabilitation protocol in preparation for return to competition.
This case involved a teenage athlete rather than the older individuals who normally sustain rotator cuff lesions. Also, the mechanism was a compressive force on the supraspinatus tendon rather than the tensile force common to rotator cuff lesions.
By presenting this case report, we hope to give sports medicine clinicians a better understanding of rotator cuff injuries and how to successfully manage and rehabilitate supraspinatus lesions.
acromioplasty; rotator cuff repair; shoulder injury
Osteochondritis dissecans (OD) of the femoral condyles is a vague and often confusing diagnostic entity encountered by many clinicians. Unfortunately, there are several factors that add to this confusion. Chief among these is the proper recognition and understanding of the disease process, which is not well-documented. In addition, OD is often generically grouped together with other femoral condylar lesions that require differing diagnostic and treatment methods for proper care. OD is commonly divided into two categories, juvenile and adult forms. Each requires different methods of correction and rehabilitation. This paper describes the disease process of OD, explains the differences between the juvenile and adult forms (including common symptoms and diagnostic techniques), describes several of the pathologies that OD is mistakenly grouped with, and gives a brief review of the common arthroscopic and surgical techniques used to treat this pathology. In addition, rehabilitation guidelines and suggestions are offered to aid the athlete's return to functional activities.
Osteochondral defects of the femoral head are exceedingly rare, with limited treatment options. Restoration procedures for similar defects involving the knee and ankle have been well described. In this report, we present a young patient who had a symptomatic osteochondral defect of the femoral head develop secondary to trauma and underwent subsequent treatment using a fresh-stored osteochondral allograft via a trochanteric osteotomy. At the 1-year followup, the patient was symptom free with near-complete incorporation of the graft radiographically. Our observations in this case suggest osteoarticular implantation may be an appropriate alternative to consider when treating osteochondral defects of the femoral head.
To introduce the case of a collegiate wrestler who suffered a traumatic unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury. This case presents the opportunity to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a 20-year-old man with an injury to his right hypoglossal nerve.
Injuries to the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) are rare. Most reported cases are the result of malignancy, with traumatic causes less common. In this case, a collegiate wrestler struck his head on the wrestling mat during practice. No loss of consciousness occurred. The wrestler initially demonstrated signs and symptoms of a mild concussion, with dizziness and a headache. These concussion symptoms cleared quickly, but the athlete complained of difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) and demonstrated slurred speech (dysarthria). Also, his tongue deviated toward the right. No other neurologic deficits were observed.
Occipital-cervical junction fracture, syringomyelia, malignancy, iatrogenic causes, cranial nerve injury.
After initial injury recognition, the athletic trainer placed the patient in a cervical collar and transported him to the emergency department. The patient received prednisone, and the emergency medicine physician ordered cervical spine plain radiographs, brain computed tomography, and brain and internal auditory canal magnetic resonance imaging. The physician consulted a neurologist, who managed the patient conservatively, with rest and no contact activity. The neurologist allowed the patient to participate in wrestling 7 months after injury.
To our knowledge, no other reports of unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury from relatively low-energy trauma (including athletics) exist.
Hypoglossal nerve injury should be considered in individuals with head injury who experience dysphagia and dysarthria. Athletes with head injuries require cranial nerve assessments.
twelfth cranial nerve; tongue paralysis; dysarthria; dysphagia
To present the history, surgery, rehabilitation management, and eventual functional and surgical outcomes of a collegiate basketball player with recalcitrant jumper's knee.
A 21-year-old, male collegiate basketball player had a 2-year history of anterior knee pain.
Injuries that often mimic symptoms of infrapatellar tendinitis include infrapatellar fat pad irritation, Hoffa fat pad disease, patellofemoral joint dysfunction, mucoid degeneration of the infrapatellar tendon, and, in preadolescents and adolescents, Sinding-Larsen-Johannsson disease.
After conservative treatment failed to improve his symptoms, the athlete underwent surgical excision of infrapatellar fibrous scar tissue and repair of the infrapatellar tendon.
This patient's case was unique in 3 distinct ways: (1) outcome surveys helped me to understand how this injury affected various aspects of this patient's life and how he viewed himself as he progressed through rehabilitation; (2) a modified functional test was used to help determine whether the athlete was ready to return to sport; and (3) the athlete progressed rapidly through rehabilitation and returned to competitive athletics in 3 months.
This patient was able to return to sport without functional limitations. The surgical outcome was also considered excellent.
jumper's knee; tendinitis; tendinosis; rehabilitation
To present the case of a high school football player with a burst fracture of the ring of C1 resulting from a “spearing” tackle.
Cervical spine fractures are rare in collision sports, but their potentially grave consequences mean that they must be given special attention. Spearing was banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the National Federation of High School Athletic Associations in 1976, and the number of cervical spine fractures in high school and college football players has fallen dramatically. However, cervical spine fractures do still occur, and they present a diagnostic challenge to sports medicine professionals.
Treatment consists of halo-vest immobilization. Surgical fusion may be necessary for unstable C1-C2 fractures, although initial halo-vest treatment is usually attempted.
A 17-year-old defensive back attempted to make a tackle with his head lowered. He was struck on the superolateral aspect of the helmet by the opposing running back. He remained in the game for another play, but then left the field under his own power, complaining of neck stiffness and headache. Physical examination revealed upper trapezius and occiput tenderness, bilateral cervical muscle spasm, and pain at all extremes of voluntary cervical movement. He was alert and oriented, with a normal neurologic examination. Treatment with ice was attempted but was discontinued due to increased pain and stiffness. Heat resulted in decreased pain and stiffness, but his symptoms persisted, and he was trans- ported to the emergency room. Plain radiographs were read as negative, but a CT scan demonstrated a burst fracture of Cl. He was treated with halo-vest immobilization for 8 weeks and a rigid cervical collar for 8 additional weeks. Physical therapy was then initiated, and normal cervical range of motion and strength were restored within 6 weeks. The athlete competed in track 6 months after the injury and continues to play recreational sports without difficulty. At clinical follow-up 8 months after injury, he had full, painless cervical range of motion and a normal neurologic examination.
A potentially devastating cervical spine injury can present insidiously, without dramatic signs or symptoms. Therefore, sports medicine professionals must retain a high index of suspicion when evaluating athletes with cervical spine complaints.
Jefferson fracture; C1; atlas; athletic injury
Patellofemoral arthralgia is a very common syndrome affecting athletes. Most often, examination fails to define true pathology. Conservative treatment, an active exercise program, and sports may be undertaken without harm to the knee. The patellofemoral arthralgia syndrome must be differentiated from true chondromalacia patella, where there is actual degeneration of the patella's articular cartilage, and from other sources of internal derangement such as meniscal disease or osteochondral lesions. Careful attention to the history of onset, and provoking activities such as climbing stairs, kneeling, and crouching, will allow the physician to recognize patellofemoral arthralgia. Other common overuse syndromes also should be looked for, and differentiated from problems due to true internal derangement.
Patellofemoral arthralgia; overuse syndromes; chondromalacia patella
Lateral Patella dislocations are common injuries seen in the active and young adult populations. Our study focus was to evaluate medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) injury patterns and associated knee pathology using Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies.
MRI studies taken at one imaging site between January, 2007 to January, 2008 with the final diagnosis of patella dislocation were screened for this study. Of the 324 cases that were found, 195 patients with lateral patellar dislocation traumatic enough to cause bone bruises on the lateral femoral trochlea and the medial facet of the patella were selected for this study. The MRI images were reviewed by three independent observers for location and type of MPFL injury, osteochondral defects, loose bodies, MCL and meniscus tears. The data was analyzed as a single cohort and by gender.
This study consisted of 127 males and 68 females; mean age of 23 yrs. Tear of the MPFL at the patellar attachment occurred in 93/195 knees (47%), at the femoral attachment in 50/195 knees (26%), and at both the femoral and patella attachment sites in 26/195 knees (13%). Attenuation of the MPFL without rupture occurred in 26/195 knees (13%). Associated findings included loose bodies in 23/195 (13%), meniscus tears 41/195 (21%), patella avulsion/fracture in 14/195 (7%), medial collateral ligament sprains/tears in 37/195 (19%) and osteochondral lesions in 96/195 knees (49%). Statistical analysis showed females had significantly more associated meniscus tears than the males (27% vs. 17%, p = 0.04). Although not statistically significant, osteochondral lesions were seen more in male patients with acute patella dislocation (52% vs. 42%, p = 0.08).
Patients who present with lateral patella dislocation with the classic bone bruise pattern seen on MRI will likely rupture the MPFL at the patellar side. Females are more likely to have an associated meniscal tear than males; however, more males have underlying osteochondral lesions. Given the high percentage of associated pathology, we recommend a MRI of the knee in all patients who present with acute patella dislocation.
To present the case of a college football player with acute, atraumatic, exercise-induced compartment syndrome in the leg.
Acute, atraumatic, exercise-induced compartment syndrome is an infrequently reported cause of leg pain in the athlete. If left untreated, acute compartment syndrome can cause muscle necrosis.
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome, medial tibial syndrome, stress fracture.
Treatment consists of compartment fasciotomy.
This previously healthy, but unconditioned, athlete developed severe anterolateral left leg pain after two days of fall practice in which he was unable to run a mile in 7.5 minutes. Physical examination by the team physician revealed acute compartment syndrome, and an emergency anterolateral compartment fasciotomy was performed. Second-look débridement performed 48 hours later revealed no significant change in the necrotic appearance of the anterior compartment soft tissue. Therefore, the dead muscle was completely débrided, and a free-flap latissumus dorsi graft was used for coverage of the wound. With recovery, strength returned to normal in the lateral compartment but remained 0/5 in the anterior compartment. The patient had persistent sensory loss in the distributions of the superficial and deep peroneal nerves.
Although much less common than the more frequent causes of leg pain (ie, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, medial tibial syndrome, stress fracture), acute compartment syndrome is potentially more devastating. When the increased intracompartmental pressure within a closed tissue space exceeds capillary perfusion pressure, tissue perfusion is decreased, the soft tissue becomes ischemic, and cells die. The most important clinical diagnostic signs of compartment syndrome are pain with passive stretching of the compartment and pain out of proportion to the results of the physical examination.
leg pain; fasciotomy; rhabdomyolysis