Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) usually requires symptomatic supportive therapy by intubation and mechanical ventilation with the supplemental use of high oxygen concentrations. Although oxygen therapy represents a life-saving measure, the recent discovery of a critical tissue-protecting mechanism predicts that administration of oxygen to ARDS patients with uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation also may have dangerous side effects. Oxygenation may weaken the local tissue hypoxia-driven and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanism and thereby further exacerbate lung injury. Here we report experiments with wild-type and adenosine A2AR-deficient mice that confirm the predicted effects of oxygen. These results also suggest the possibility of iatrogenic exacerbation of acute lung injury upon oxygen administration due to the oxygenation-associated elimination of A2AR-mediated lung tissue-protecting pathway. We show that this potential complication of clinically widely used oxygenation procedures could be completely prevented by intratracheal injection of a selective A2AR agonist to compensate for the oxygenation-related loss of the lung tissue-protecting endogenous adenosine. The identification of a major iatrogenic complication of oxygen therapy in conditions of acute lung inflammation attracts attention to the need for clinical and epidemiological studies of ARDS patients who require oxygen therapy. It is proposed that oxygen therapy in patients with ARDS and other causes of lung inflammation should be combined with anti-inflammatory measures, e.g., with inhalative application of A2AR agonists. The reported observations may also answer the long-standing question as to why the lungs are the most susceptible to inflammatory injury and why lung failure usually precedes multiple organ failure.
A mouse model suggests that oxygen therapy may exacerbate lung injury by weakening the anti-inflammatory mechanisms driven by hypoxia.
Liver fibrosis develops when chronic liver injury stimulates cells in the liver to produce mediators that activate hepatic stellate cells and stimulate them to secrete collagen. Recent studies suggest that the hypoxia-regulated transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, is essential for upregulation of profibrotic mediators, such as platelet-derived growth factor, in the liver during the development of liver fibrosis. What remains unknown, however, is the cell type-specific regulation of profibrotic mediators by hypoxia-inducible factors. Accordingly, in the present study the hypothesis was tested that hypoxia-inducible factors regulate production of profibrotic mediators by hypoxic Kupffer cells.
Kupffer cells were isolated from Control mice and hypoxia-inducible factor-1β-Deficient mice and exposed to room air or 1% oxygen (i.e., hypoxia). Levels of profibrotic mediators were quantified by real-time PCR.
Exposure of Kupffer cells isolated from Control mice to 1% oxygen activated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and increased mRNA levels of platelet-derived growth factor-B, vascular endothelial growth factor, Angiopoietin-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Upregulation of all of these mediators by hypoxia was prevented in Kupffer cells isolated from hypoxia-inducible factor-1β-Deficient mice.
Results from these studies suggest that hypoxia-inducible factors are critical regulators of profibrotic mediator production by hypoxic Kupffer cells.
Angiogenesis; Fibrosis; Hypoxia; Hypoxia-inducible Factors; Kupffer cells; Liver
Recent evidence indicates that low oxygen tension or hypoxia alters the characteristics of stem cells. The actions of hypoxia are mediated through the hypoxia-inducible factor, a critical mediator of the cellular response to hypoxia. Adipose tissue–derived stromal cells (ASCs) are one of the most promising cell sources for tissue engineering applications. This study investigated the effect of hypoxia on ASCs in terms of the ability to proliferate and differentiate. ASCs were extracted from mice and maintained under hypoxic atmosphere (2% O2) for up to eight in vitro passages. The proliferation rate was examined as a growth curve, and the potency of differentiation was evaluated. To investigate the cell characteristics, we checked several stem-cell markers and growth factors. Compared with the normoxic state (20% O2), hypoxia enhances proliferation with an approximately six- to sevenfold higher ASC expansion over 6 weeks. The expression of Oct3/4 and Nanog (stem-cell marker) and the amount of secreted growth factors were increased under the hypoxic condition. These results suggest that low oxygen tension enhances proliferation and maintains stemness of ASCs. Thus, this study emphasizes the profitability of hypoxic culture for expansion of ASCs and maintenance of their undifferentiated state for further therapeutic use.
cell growth; differentiation; hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor; stem cell
Activation of immune cells is under control of immunological and physiological regulatory mechanisms to ensure adequate destruction of pathogens with the minimum collateral damage to “innocent” bystander cells. The concept of physiological negative regulation of immune response has been advocated based on the finding of the critical immunoregulatory role of extracellular adenosine. Local tissue oxygen tension was proposed to function as one of such physiological regulatory mechanisms of immune responses. In the current study, we utilized in vivo marker of local tissue hypoxia pimonidazole hydrochloride (Hypoxyprobe-1) in the flowcytometric analysis of oxygen levels to which lymphocytes are exposed in vivo. The level of exposure to hypoxia in vivo was low in B cells and the levels increased in the following order: T cells < NKT cells < NK cells. The thymus was more hypoxic than the spleen and lymph nodes, suggesting the variation in the degree of oxygenation among lymphoid organs and cell types in normal mice. Based on in vitro studies, tissue hypoxia has been assumed to be suppressive to T cell activation in vivo, but there was no direct evidence demonstrating that T cells exposed to hypoxic environment in vivo are less activated. We tested whether the state of activation of T cells in vivo changes due to their exposure to hypoxic tissue microenvironments. The parallel analysis of more hypoxic and less hypoxic T cells in the same mouse revealed that the degree of T cell activation was significantly stronger in better-oxygenated T cells. These observations suggest that the extent of T cell activation in vivo is dependent on their localization and is decreased in environment with low oxygen tension.
T cell; oxygen; hypoxia; hyperoxia; Hypoxyprobe-1; cytometry; tumor
Hypoxia-driven increase of extracellular adenosine in local tissue microenvironments of inflamed and cancerous tissues plays a critical role in the regulation of tissue destruction by activated immune cells. Accumulated data suggest that injection or consumption of A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) antagonists may represent a drug treatment that diminishes adenosine-mediated immunosuppression. Since this, in turn, enhances the immune response, inhibition of adenosine-A2AR signaling may be a promising approach to enhance anti-tumor or anti-pathogen immune response. Patients with disorders characterized by excessive inflammation may be at risk to A2AR antagonists (e.g. caffeine) because of the effect to increase inflammatory damage secondary to enhanced immunity. On the other hand, enhancement of hypoxia-adenosinergic immunomodulatory pathways may be beneficial to prevent inflammatory tissue destruction.
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are specialized scavenger cells, with crucial roles in maintaining hepatic and systemic homeostasis. Under normal physiological conditions, the oxygen tension encountered in the hepatic sinusoids is in general considerably lower than the oxygen tension in the air; therefore, cultivation of freshly isolated LSECs under more physiologic conditions with regard to oxygen would expect to improve cell survival, structure and function. In this study LSECs were isolated from rats and cultured under either 5% (normoxic) or 20% (hyperoxic) oxygen tensions, and several morpho-functional features were compared.
Cultivation of LSECs under normoxia, as opposed to hyperoxia improved the survival of LSECs and scavenger receptor-mediated endocytic activity, reduced the production of the pro-inflammatory mediator, interleukin-6 and increased the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10. On the other hand, fenestration, a characteristic feature of LSECs disappeared gradually at the same rate regardless of the oxygen tension. Expression of the cell-adhesion molecule, ICAM-1 at the cell surface was slightly more elevated in cells maintained at hyperoxia. Under normoxia, endogenous generation of hydrogen peroxide was drastically reduced whereas the production of nitric oxide was unaltered. Culture decline in high oxygen-treated cultures was abrogated by administration of catalase, indicating that the toxic effects observed in high oxygen environments is largely caused by endogenous production of hydrogen peroxide.
Viability, structure and many of the essential functional characteristics of isolated LSECs are clearly better preserved when the cultures are maintained under more physiologic oxygen levels. Endogenous production of hydrogen peroxide is to a large extent responsible for the toxic effects observed in high oxygen environments.
Hypoxia in adipose tissue is suggested to be involved in the development of a chronic mild inflammation, which in obesity can further lead to insulin resistance. The effect of hypoxia on gene expression in adipocytes appears to play a central role in this inflammatory response observed in obesity. However, the global impact of hypoxia on transcriptional changes in human adipocytes is unclear. Therefore, we compared gene expression profiles of human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes under normoxic or hypoxic conditions to detect hypoxia-responsive genes in adipocytes by using whole human genome microarrays. Microarray analysis showed more than 500 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs after incubation of the cells under low oxygen levels. To gain further insight into the biological processes, hypoxia-regulated genes after 16 hours of hypoxia were classified according to their function. We identified an enrichment of genes involved in important biological processes such as glycolysis, response to hypoxia, regulation of cellular component movement, response to nutrient levels, regulation of cell migration, and transcription regulator activity. Real-time PCR confirmed eight genes to be consistently upregulated in response to 3, 6 and 16 hours of hypoxia. For adipocytes the hypoxia-induced regulation of these genes is shown here for the first time. Moreover in six of these eight genes we identified HIF response elements in the proximal promoters, specific for the HIF transcription factor family members HIF1A and HIF2A. In the present study, we demonstrated that hypoxia has an extensive effect on gene expression of SGBS adipocytes. In addition, the identified hypoxia-regulated genes are likely involved in the regulation of obesity, the incidence of type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome.
Few signaling molecules have the potential to influence the developing mammal as the nucleoside adenosine. Adenosine levels increase rapidly with tissue hypoxia and inflammation. Adenosine antagonists include the methlyxanthines caffeine and theophylline. The receptors that transduce adenosine action are the A1, A2a, A2b, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). We examined how adenosine acts via A1ARs to influence embryo development.
Transgenic mice were studied along with embryo cultures. Embryos lacking A1ARs were markedly growth retarded following intrauterine hypoxia exposure. Studies of mice selectively lacking A1AR in the heart identify the heart as a key site of adenosines embryo protective effects. Studies of isolated embryos showed that adenosine plays a key role in modulating embryo cardiac function, especially in the setting of hypoxia. When pregnant mice were treated during embryogenesis with the adenosine antagonist caffeine, adult mice had abnormal heart function.
Adenosine acts via A1ARs to play an essential role in protecting the embryo against intra uterine stress, and adenosine antagonists, including caffeine, may be an unwelcome exposure for the embryo.
embryo; fetus; adenosine; caffeine; heart; A1 adenosine receptors
Infections with intracellular bacteria such as chlamydiae affect the majority of the world population. Infected tissue inflammation and granuloma formation help contain the short-term expansion of the invading pathogen, leading also to local tissue damage and hypoxia. However, the effects of key aspects of damaged inflamed tissues and hypoxia on continued infection with intracellular bacteria remain unknown. We find that development of Chlamydia trachomatis is reversibly retarded by prolonged exposure of infected cells to extracellular adenosine, a hallmark of hypoxia and advanced inflammation. In epithelial cells, this effect was mediated by the A2b adenosine receptor, unique in the adenosine receptor family for having a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1-α) binding site at its promoter region, and was dependent on an increase in the intracellular cAMP levels, but was independent of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Further study of adenosine receptor signaling during intracellular bacterial infection could lead to breakthroughs in our understanding of persistent infections with these ubiquitous pathogens.
The effect of acute hypoxic hypoxia on the profile of plasma amino acids in rats was studied and compared to that resulting from acute liver injury induced by giving carbon tetrachloride. In hypoxic rats exposed to 45% air in N2 for 5 h, the concentrations of branched chain amino acids, including valine, leucine and isoleucine, and aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyrosine were significantly increased as compared to those in normoxic rats. The ratio of branched-chain to aromatic amino acids (Fischer’s ratio) was significantly decreased. The levels of arginine and citrulline, which are related to the urea cycle, were also depressed. Furthermore, plasma proline level was reduced in hypoxic rats. The activities of plasma marker enzymes for tissue damage remained unchanged during hypoxia, indicating that tissue injury was not induced by exposure to hypoxic conditions. We suggest that the characteristic profile of plasma amino acids and the Fischer ratio are valuable tools for understanding the pathology of acute hypoxia in the absence of systemic tissue damage.
Hypoxia; Fischer’s ratio; Branched-chain amino acids; Aromatic amino acids; Amino acids; Rat
The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on liver fibrosis is not well understood, but evidence suggests that adenosine may play a role in mediating the effects of moderate ethanol on tissue injury. Ethanol increases the concentration of adenosine in the liver. Adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) activation is known to enhance hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and A2AR deficient mice are protected from fibrosis in mice. Making use of a novel mouse model of moderate ethanol consumption in which female C57BL/6J mice were allowed continued access to 2% (vol/vol) ethanol (11% calories) or pair-fed control diets for 2 days, 2 weeks or 5 weeks and superimposed with exposure to CCl4, we tested the hypothesis that moderate ethanol consumption increases fibrosis in response to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and that treatment of mice with an A2AR antagonist prevents and/or reverses this ethanol-induced increase in liver fibrosis. Neither the expression or activity of CYP2E1, required for bio-activation of CCl4, nor AST and ALT activity in the plasma were affected by ethanol, indicating that moderate ethanol did not increase the direct hepatotoxicity of CCl4. However, ethanol feeding enhanced HSC activation and exacerbated liver fibrosis upon exposure to CCl4. This was associated with an increased sinusoidal angiogenic response in the liver. Treatment with A2AR antagonist both prevented and reversed the ability of ethanol to exacerbate liver fibrosis.
Moderate ethanol consumption exacerbates hepatic fibrosis upon exposure to CCl4. A2AR antagonism may be a potential pharmaceutical intervention to decrease hepatic fibrosis in response to ethanol.
Evidence has accumulated in the last three decades to suggest tissue protection and regeneration by adenosine in multiple different cell types. Adenosine produced in hypoxic or inflamed environments reduces tissue injury and promotes repair by receptor-mediated mechanisms. Among other actions, regulation of cytokine production and secretion by immune cells, astrocytes and microglia (the brain immunocytes) has emerged as a main mechanism at the basis of adenosine effects in diseases characterized by a marked inflammatory component. Many recent studies have highlighted that signalling through A1 and A2A adenosine receptors can powerfully prevent the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus inhibiting inflammation and reperfusion injury. However, the activation of adenosine receptors is not invariably protective of tissues, as signalling through the A2B adenosine receptor has been linked to pro-inflammatory actions which are, at least in part, mediated by increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from epithelial cells, astrocytes and fibroblasts. Here, we discuss the multiple actions of P1 receptors on cytokine secretion, by analyzing, in particular, the role of the various adenosine receptor subtypes, the complex reciprocal interplay between the adenosine and the cytokine systems, their pathophysiological significance and the potential of adenosine receptor ligands as new anti-inflammatory agents.
adenosine; asthma; central nervous system; chronic heart failure; cytokines; immune cells; inflammation
One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described.
Ischemic tissues require mechanisms to alert the immune system of impending cell damage. The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can activate inflammatory pathways when released from ischemic cells. We elucidate the mechanism by which HMGB1, one of the key alarm molecules released during liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), is mobilized in response to hypoxia. HMGB1 release from cultured hepatocytes was found to be an active process regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Optimal production of ROS and subsequent HMGB1 release by hypoxic hepatocytes required intact Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. To elucidate the downstream signaling pathways involved in hypoxia-induced HMGB1 release from hepatocytes, we examined the role of calcium signaling in this process. HMGB1 release induced by oxidative stress was markedly reduced by inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs), a family of proteins involved in a wide range of calcium-linked signaling events. In addition, CaMK inhibition substantially decreased liver damage after I/R and resulted in accumulation of HMGB1 in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hypoxia-induced HMGB1 release by hepatocytes is an active, regulated process that occurs through a mechanism promoted by TLR4-dependent ROS production and downstream CaMK-mediated signaling.
Low oxygen tension exerts a significant effect on the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses in cultured cells. In vitro propagation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has thus far been studied under atmospheric oxygen levels despite the fact that the liver tissue microenvironment is hypoxic. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of HCV production in actively dividing or differentiating human hepatoma cells cultured under low or atmospheric oxygen tensions. By using both HCV replicons and infection-based assays, low oxygen was found to enhance HCV RNA replication whereas virus entry and RNA translation were not affected. Hypoxia signaling pathway-focused DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed an upregulation of genes related to hypoxic stress, glycolytic metabolism, cell growth, and proliferation when cells were kept under low (3% [vol/vol]) oxygen tension, likely reflecting cell adaptation to anaerobic conditions. Interestingly, hypoxia-mediated enhancement of HCV replication correlated directly with the increase in anaerobic glycolysis and creatine kinase B (CKB) activity that leads to elevated ATP production. Surprisingly, activation of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α) was not involved in the elevation of HCV replication. Instead, a number of oncogenes known to be associated with glycolysis were upregulated and evidence that these oncogenes contribute to hypoxia-mediated enhancement of HCV replication was obtained. Finally, in liver biopsy specimens of HCV-infected patients, the levels of hypoxia and anaerobic metabolism markers correlated with HCV RNA levels. These results provide new insights into the impact of oxygen tension on the intricate HCV-host cell interaction.
Aquatic hypoxia caused by organic pollution and eutrophication is a pressing worldwide water pollution problem. Better methods for monitoring oxygen levels are needed to assist efforts to maintain and protect the health of natural aquatic environments. In this project, we used a Japanese ricefish (medaka, Oryzias latipes) 8K oligonucleotide array as a platform to identify potential hypoxic biomarkers in different organs (fin, gill, liver and brain) upon exposure to hypoxia. The microarray results were validated by qRT-PCR employing a subset of candidate biomarkers. Interestingly, the largest number and most significant of hypoxia responding array features were detected in hypoxia exposed fin tissues. We identified 173 array features that exhibited a significant response (over 2 fold change in expression) upon exposure to hypoxic conditions and validated a subset of these by quantitative RT-PCR. These gene targets were subjected to annotation and gene ontology mining. Positively identifiable gene targets that may be useful for development of a rapid and accurate biomarker test using fin clips are discussed in relation to previous reports on hypoxia responsive genes.
gene expression; hypoxia; medaka; fish; microarray; biomarker
Limited oxygen delivery to tissues (hypoxia) is common in a variety of disease states. A number of parallels exist between hypoxia and acute inflammation, including the observation that both influence vascular permeability. As such, we compared the functional influence of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) on normoxic and posthypoxic endothelial cells. Initial studies indicated that activated PMN preferentially promote endothelial barrier function in posthypoxic endothelial cells (>60% increase over normoxia). Extension of these findings identified at least one soluble mediator as extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Subsequent studies revealed that ATP is coordinately hydrolyzed to adenosine at the endothelial cell surface by hypoxia-induced CD39 and CD73 (>20-and >12-fold increase in mRNA, respectively). Studies in vitro and in cd39-null mice identified these surface ecto-enzymes as critical control points for posthypoxia-associated protection of vascular permeability. Furthermore, insight gained through microarray analysis revealed that the adenosine A2B receptor (AdoRA2B) is selectively up-regulated by hypoxia (>5-fold increase in mRNA), and that AdoRA2B antagonists effectively neutralize ATP-mediated changes in posthypoxic endothelial permeability. Taken together, these results demonstrate transcription coordination of adenine nucleotide and nucleoside signaling at the vascular interface during hypoxia.
adenosine; ectonucleotidase; endothelium; neutrophil; inflammation
The A2A adenosine receptor plays a critical and non-redundant role in suppressing inflammation at sites of hypoxia and tissue damage. The tumor microenvironment has high levels of adenosine as a result of hypoxia and ectopic expression of enzymes responsible for the generation of extracellular adenosine. Thus, we sought to determine the ability of A2A receptor null mice to immunologically reject tumors. We observed that mice lacking the A2A adenosine receptor showed significantly delayed growth of lymphoma cells when compared to WT mice. Furthermore, when immunized with a low dose of tumor or with an irradiated GM-CSF–secreting tumor vaccine, A2A receptor null mice showed significantly enhanced protection from a subsequent high-dose challenge from both immunogenic and poorly immunogenic tumor lines. This increase in protection was accompanied by an increase in the number of tumor-antigen-specific CD8 T cells at the vaccine-site draining lymph node. Finally, we found that A2A receptor null mice displayed more robust anti-tumor responses than WT mice when they were treated with a soluble B7-DC/Fc fusion protein designed to antagonize B7-H1-mediated co-inhibition. This combinatorial immunotherapy strategy could also be recapitulated with pharmacological A2A receptor blockade paired with B7-DC/Fc administration. In light of these data, we believe that blockade of the A2A adenosine receptor is an attractive target for tumor immunotherapy that synergizes with other immunomodulatory approaches currently in clinical trials.
A2a Adenosine receptor; Tumor; T cell; Co-inhibition; B7-DC; Vaccine
ATP concentrations maintain physiological processes and protect tissue
from hypoxic damage. With decreasing oxygen concentration, ATP
synthesis relies increasingly on the presence of phosphocreatine.
AIM—The effect of
exogenously applied creatine on phosphocreatine and ATP concentrations
was studied under control and anoxic conditions.
were fed orally with creatine monohydrate (2 g/kg body weight/day).
Brainstem slices from these mice pups were compared with those from
pups of non-creatine supplemented pregnant mice. Measurements were
performed under normoxic and anoxic conditions. In addition, brainstem
slices from non-creatine treated mice pups were incubated for 3 hours
in control artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n = 10) or in
artificial CSF containing 200 µM creatine (n = 10). ATP and
phosphocreatine contents were determined enzymatically in single
concentrations were in the same range in all preparations. However,
there was a significant increase of phosphocreatine in the brainstems
from pups of creatine fed mice when compared with the brainstems of
pups from non-creatine treated mice or in non-incubated brainstems of
control animals. After 30 minutes anoxia, ATP as well as
phosphocreatine concentrations remained significantly higher in
creatine pretreated slices compared with controls.
indicate that exogenous application of creatine is effective in neuroprotection.
Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury (IRI) is a major cause of liver damage during liver surgery and transplantation. Ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning are strategies that can reduce IRI. In this study, different combined types of pre- and postconditioning procedures were tested in a murine warm hepatic IRI model to evaluate their protective effects. Proanthocyanidins derived from grape seed was used before ischemia process as pharmacological preconditioning to combine with technical preconditioning and postconditioning. Three pathways related to IRI, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and hypoxia responses were examined in hepatic IRI model. Individual and combined pre- and postconditioning protocols significantly reduce liver injury by decreasing the liver ROS and cytokine levels, as well as enhancing the hypoxia tolerance response. Our data also suggested that in addition to individual preconditioning or postconditioning, the combination of these two treatments could reduce liver ischemia/reperfusion injury more effectively by increasing the activity of ROS scavengers and antioxidants. The utilization of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) could improve the oxidation resistance in combined pre- and postconditioning groups. The combined protocol also further increased the liver HIF-1 alpha protein level, but had no effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines release compared to solo treatment.
Preconditioning; Postconditioning; Ischemia; Reperfusion Injury; Proanthocyanidins
Alpinia pricei Hayata is a Formosan plant which has been popularly used as nutraceutical or folk medicine for inflammation and various disorders. An active compound of the plant rhizomes, desmethoxyyangonin (DMY), was identified in this study for its novel effect against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation in murine macrophages and LPS/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice. DMY was observed to significantly inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells ex vivo and the activity of several pro-inflammatory mediators in vitro. DMY also protected LPS/D-GalN−induced acute hepatic damages in mice through inhibiting aminotransferases activities and infiltrations of inflammatory macrophages, neutrophils and pathogenic T cells into the liver tissues. In addition, pretreatment with DMY significantly improved the survival rate of LPS/D-GalN−treated mice to 90% (9/10), compared to LPS/D-GalN−treated group (40%, 4/10). UPLC/MS platform-based comparative metabolomics approach was used to explore the serum metabolic profile in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) mice with or without the DMY pretreatment. The results showed that LPS/D-GalN−induced hepatic damage is likely through perturbing amino acid metabolism, which leads to decreased pyruvate formation via catalysis of aminotransferases, and DMY treatment can prevent to a certain degree of these alterations in metabolic network in mouse caused by LPS/D-GalN. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DMY protects LPS or LPS/D-GalN−induced damages in cell or liver tissues mainly through de-regulating IKK/NFκB and Jak2/STAT3 signaling pathways. This report provides evidence-based knowledge to support the rationale for the use of A. pricei root extract in anti-inflammation and also its new function as hepatoprotetive agent against fulminant hepatitis.
Adenosine has long been regarded as a crucial anti-inflammatory agent that protects the host from excessive damage. It has been reported to play an important role in suppressing immune activation, particularly that of T cells. However, it is a general observation that induction of T-cell activation is an efficient event despite the high adenosine levels that are often present in the affected host due to injury or stress. We report here that prior to antigenic stimulation via TCR/CD3, exposure of T cells to adenosine desensitizes adeno-sine receptors, so as to create a window of time where the T cells are insensitive to this ubiquitous suppressor. T cells from mice that were pre-exposed to this manipulation showed stronger responses to antigenic stimulation; therefore, the P1 adenosine receptor desensitization demonstrated an adjuvant-like effect. Our results suggest that adenosine receptor desensitization may be a mechanism for T cells to escape the general suppression during early points of T-cell activation and may emerge as a potential alternative for vaccine adjuvants.
Adjuvants; Immune regulation; T cells
Oxidative and nitrative stress responses resulting from inflammation exacerbate liver injury associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by inducing lipid peroxidation and protein nitration. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the anti-inflammatory properties of green tea extract (GTE) would protect against NASH by suppressing oxidative and nitrative damage mediated by proinflammatory enzymes. Obese mice (ob/ob) and their 5-week-old C57BL6 lean littermates were fed 0%, 0.5% or 1% GTE for 6 weeks (n=12–13 mice/group). In obese mice, hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammatory infiltrates and serum alanine aminotransferase activity were markedly increased, whereas these markers of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were significantly reduced among obese mice fed GTE. GTE also normalized hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr) concentrations to those observed in lean controls. These oxidative and nitrative damage markers were correlated with alanine aminotransferase (P<.05; r=0.410–0.471). Improvements in oxidative and nitrative damage by GTE were also associated with lower hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity. Likewise, GTE reduced protein expression levels of hepatic myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase and decreased the concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites. Correlative relationships between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal (r=0.364) as well as nitric oxide metabolites and N-Tyr (r=0.598) suggest that GTE mitigates lipid peroxidation and protein nitration by suppressing the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Further study is warranted to determine whether GTE can be recommended as an effective dietary strategy to reduce the risk of obesity-triggered NASH.
Green tea; NADPH oxidase; Myeloperoxidase; Lipid peroxidation; Protein nitration; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
Re-epithelialization of skin wounds depends upon the migration of keratinocytes from the cut margins of the wound and is enhanced when human keratinocytes are covered with occlusive dressings that induce hypoxia. In this study, two independent migration assays were used to compare cellular motility on connective tissue components under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Human keratinocytes apposed to collagens or fibronectin exhibited increased motility when subjected to hypoxic (0.2 or 2% oxygen) conditions compared with normoxic (9 or 20% oxygen) conditions. When compared with normoxic cells, hypoxic keratinocytes exhibited increased expression and redistribution of the lamellipodia-associated proteins (ezrin, radixin, and moesin). Furthermore, hypoxic keratinocytes demonstrated decreased secretion of laminin-5, a laminin isoform known to inhibit keratinocyte motility. Hypoxia did not alter the number of integrin receptors on the cell surface, but did induce enhanced secretion of the 92-kD type IV collagenase. These data demonstrate that hypoxia promotes human keratinocyte motility on connective tissue. Hypoxia-driven motility is associated with increased expression of lamellipodia proteins, increased expression of collagenase and decreased expression of laminin-5, the locomotion brake for keratinocytes.
Eosinophils are involved in various inflammatory processes including allergic inflammation during which angiogenesis has been documented. Angiogenesis is most likely connected to the hypoxia which characterizes inflamed tissues. Eosinophils produce VEGF and are pro-angiogenic. However, to the best of our knowledge no study has been performed to verify the existence of a direct link between eosinophils, hypoxia and angiogenesis in allergic inflammation.
To characterize eosinophil function and angiogenic potential under hypoxic conditions.
Human peripheral blood eosinophils were cultured in normoxic or hypoxic conditions with or without cytokines. Viability and apoptosis were assessed by Annexin V/PI staining. Anti- or pro-apoptotic protein levels, HIF-1α levels and MAPK phosphorylation were analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Angiogenic mediator release was evaluated by ELISA.
Hypoxic eosinophils were more viable than normoxic ones after up to three days. In addition in hypoxia, anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL protein levels increased more than pro-apoptotic Bax levels. Hypoxia increased VEGF and IL-8 release. In hypoxic eosinophils high levels of HIF-1α were observed, particularly in the presence of GM-CSF. MAPK, particularly ERK1/2 inhibitors, decreased hypoxia-mediated VEGF release and HIF-1α expression.
Eosinophils respond to hypoxia by up-regulation of survival and of some of their pro-angiogenic functions indicating a correlation between eosinophilic inflammation and angiogenesis.