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1.  Montelukast during Primary Infection Prevents Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation after Reinfection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus 
Rationale: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infants may be followed by the development of asthma-like symptoms. Age at first infection dictates consequences upon reinfection. Reinfection of mice initially exposed as neonates to RSV enhanced development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic inflammation, and mucus hyperproduction. RSV lower respiratory tract disease is associated with activation of the leukotriene pathway.
Objectives: To determine the effects of montelukast (MK), a cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) receptor antagonist, in primary and secondary RSV-infected newborn and adult mice.
Methods: BALB/c mice were infected with RSV at 1 week (neonate) or 6 to 8 weeks (adult) of age and reinfected 5 weeks later. MK was administered 1 day before the initial infection and through Day 6 after infection. Seven days after primary or secondary infection, airway function was assessed by lung resistance to increasing doses of inhaled methacholine; lung inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were monitored.
Measurements and Main Results: RSV infection induced cysLT release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. MK decreased RSV-induced AHR, airway inflammation, and increased IFN-γ production in primary infected adult and neonatal mice. MK, administered during initial infection of neonates but not during secondary infection, prevented subsequent enhancement of AHR, airway eosinophilia, and mucus hyperproduction upon reinfection.
Conclusions: MK attenuated the initial responses to primary RSV infection in both age groups and altered the consequences of RSV reinfection in mice initially infected as neonates. These data support an important role for cysLT in RSV-induced AHR and inflammation.
PMCID: PMC2937239  PMID: 20442434
airway; inflammation; RSV; cysteinyl leukotrienes
2.  Responsiveness to respiratory syncytial virus in neonates is mediated through thymic stromal lymphopoietin and OX40 ligand 
Recent studies revealed a critical role for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) released from epithelial cells and OX40 ligand (OX40L) expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) in TH2 priming and polarization.
We sought to determine the importance of the TSLP-OX40L axis in neonatal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.
Mice were initially infected with RSV as neonates or adults and reinfected 5 weeks later. Anti-OX40L or anti-TSLP were administered during primary or secondary infection. Outcomes included assessment of airway function and inflammation and expression of OX40L, TSLP, and IL-12.
OX40L was expressed mainly on CD11c+MHC class II (MHCII)+CD11b+ DCs but not CD103+ DCs. Treatment of neonates with OX40L antibody during primary RSV infection prevented the subsequent enhancement of airway hyperresponsiveness and the development of airway eosinophilia and mucus hyperproduction on reinfection. Administration of anti-TSLP before neonatal RSV infection reduced the accumulation of lung DCs, decreased OX40L expression on lung DCs, and attenuated the enhancement of airway responses after reinfection.
In mice initially infected as neonates, TSLP expression induced by RSV infection is an important upstream event that controls OX40L expression, lung DC migration, and TH2 polarization, accounting for the enhanced response on reinfection.
PMCID: PMC3593657  PMID: 23036746
Respiratory syncytial virus; OX40 ligand; thymic stromal lymphopoietin
3.  MMP-12-mediated by SARM-TRIF signaling pathway contributes to IFN-γ-independent airway inflammation and AHR post RSV infection in nude mice 
Respiratory Research  2015;16(1):11.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequently observed pathogens during infancy and childhood. However, the corresponding pathogenesis has not been determined to date. We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ plays an important role in RSV pathogenesis, and SARM-TRIF-signaling pathway could regulate the production of IFN-γ. This study is to investigate whether T cells or innate immune cells are the predominant producers of IFN-γ, and further to explore other culprits in addition to IFN-γ in the condition of RSV infection.
Normal BALB/c mice and nude mice deficient in T cells were infected intranasally with RSV. Leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted, lung histopathology was examined, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured by whole-body plethysmography. IFN-γ and MMP-12 were detected by ELISA. MMP408, a selective MMP-12 inhibitor, was given intragastrically. Resveratrol, IFN-γ neutralizing antibody and recombinant murine IFN-γ were administered intraperitoneally. SARM and TRIF protein were semi-quantified by Western blot. siRNA was used to knock-down SARM expression.
RSV induced significant airway inflammation and AHR in both mice; IFN-γ was significantly increased in BALB/c mice but not in nude mice. MMP-12 was dramatically increased in both mice but earlier in nude mice. When MMP-12 was inhibited by MMP408, RSV-induced respiratory symptoms were alleviated. SARM was significantly suppressed while TRIF was significantly enhanced in both mice strains. Following resveratrol administration in nude mice, 1) SARM inhibition was prevented, 2) TRIF and MMP-12 were correspondingly down-regulated and 3) airway disorders were subsequently alleviated. Moreover, when SARM was efficiently knocked down using siRNA, TRIF and MMP-12 were markedly enhanced, and the anti-RSV effects of resveratrol were remarkably abrogated. MMP-12 was significantly increased in the IFN-γ neutralizing antibody-treated BALB/c mice but reduced in the recombinant murine IFN-γ-treated nude mice.
MMP-12 can result in at least part of the airway inflammation and AHR independent of IFN-γ. And SARM-TRIF- signaling pathway is involved in regulating the overproduction of MMP-12. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first that has examined the effects of SARM on MMP-12 and further highlights the potential to target SARM-TRIF-MMP-12 cascades to treat RSV infection.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12931-015-0176-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4332892  PMID: 25652021
RSV; MMP-12; SARM; TRIF; Airway inflammation; AHR
4.  Delayed Sequelae of Neonatal Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Are Dependent on Cells of the Innate Immune System 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(1):604-611.
Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in neonatal mice leads to exacerbated disease if mice are reinfected with the same virus as adults. Both T cells and the host major histocompatibility complex genotype contribute to this phenomenon, but the part played by innate immunity has not been defined. Since macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells play key roles in regulating inflammation during RSV infection of adult mice, we studied the role of these cells in exacerbated inflammation following neonatal RSV sensitization/adult reinfection. Compared to mice undergoing primary infection as adults, neonatally sensitized mice showed enhanced airway fluid levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), alpha interferon (IFN-α), CXCL1 (keratinocyte chemoattractant/KC), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) at 12 to 24 h after reinfection and IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and CCL11 (eotaxin) at day 4 after reinfection. Weight loss during reinfection was accompanied by an initial influx of NK cells and granulocytes into the airways and lungs, followed by T cells. NK cell depletion during reinfection attenuated weight loss but did not alter T cell responses. Depletion of alveolar macrophages with inhaled clodronate liposomes reduced both NK and T cell numbers and attenuated weight loss. These findings indicate a hitherto unappreciated role for the innate immune response in governing the pathogenic recall responses to RSV infection.
PMCID: PMC3911760  PMID: 24173217
5.  Exposure of neonates to Respiratory Syncytial Virus is critical in determining subsequent airway response in adults 
Respiratory Research  2006;7(1):107.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis in infants and the elderly. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggest that RSV infection during infancy is a potent trigger of subsequent wheeze and asthma development. However, the mechanism by which RSV contributes to asthma is complex and remains largely unknown. A recent study indicates that the age of initial RSV infection is a key factor in determining airway response to RSV rechallenge. We hypothesized that severe RSV infection during neonatal development significantly alters lung structure and the pulmonary immune micro-environment; and thus, neonatal RSV infection is crucial in the development of or predisposition to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma.
To investigate this hypothesis the present study was conducted in a neonatal mouse model of RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation and airway dysfunction. Seven-day-old mice were infected with RSV (2 × 105 TCID50/g body weight) and allowed to mature to adulthood. To determine if neonatal RSV infection predisposed adult animals to enhanced pathophysiological responses to allergens, these mice were then sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Various endpoints including lung function, histopathology, cytokine production, and cellularity in bronchoalveolar lavage were examined.
RSV infection in neonates alone led to inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperreactivity, peribronchial and perivascular inflammation, and subepithelial fibrosis in adults. If early RSV infection was followed by allergen exposure, this pulmonary phenotype was exacerbated. The initial response to neonatal RSV infection resulted in increased TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage. Interestingly, increased levels of IL-13 and mucus hyperproduction were observed almost three months after the initial infection with RSV.
Neonatal RSV exposure results in long term pulmonary inflammation and exacerbates allergic airways disease. The early increase in TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage implicates this inflammatory cytokine in orchestrating these events. Finally, the data presented emphasize IL-13 and TNF-α as potential therapeutic targets for treating RSV induced-asthma.
PMCID: PMC1563465  PMID: 16893457
6.  Leukemia inhibitory factor protects the lung during respiratory syncytial viral infection 
BMC Immunology  2014;15(1):41.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lung epithelium where it stimulates the production of numerous host cytokines that are associated with disease burden and acute lung injury. Characterizing the host cytokine response to RSV infection, the regulation of host cytokines and the impact of neutralizing an RSV-inducible cytokine during infection were undertaken in this study.
A549, primary human small airway epithelial (SAE) cells and wild-type, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (Trif) and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (Mavs) knockout (KO) mice were infected with RSV and cytokine responses were investigated by ELISA, multiplex analysis and qPCR. Neutralizing anti-leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) IgG or control IgG was administered to a group of wild-type animals prior to RSV infection.
Results and discussion
RSV-infected A549 and SAE cells release a network of cytokines, including newly identified RSV-inducible cytokines LIF, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), stem cell factor (SCF), CCL27, CXCL12 and stem cell growth factor beta (SCGF-β). These RSV-inducible cytokines were also observed in the airways of mice during an infection. To identify the regulation of RSV inducible cytokines, Mavs and Trif deficient animals were infected with RSV. In vivo induction of airway IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(p40), IFN-γ, CCL2, CCL5, CCL3, CXCL1, IP-10/CXCL10, IL-22, MIG/CXCL9 and MIF were dependent on Mavs expression in mice. Loss of Trif expression in mice altered the RSV induction of IL-1β, IL-5, CXCL12, MIF, LIF, CXCL12 and IFN-γ. Silencing of retinoic acid–inducible gene-1 (RIG-I) expression in A549 cells had a greater impact on RSV-inducible cytokines than melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), and Trif expression. To evaluate the role of LIF in the airways during RSV infection, animals were treated with neutralizing anti-LIF IgG, which enhanced RSV pathology observed with increased airspace protein content, apoptosis and airway hyperresponsiveness compared to control IgG treatment.
RSV infection in the epithelium induces a network of immune factors to counter infection, primarily in a RIG-I dependent manner. Expression of LIF protects the lung from lung injury and enhanced pathology during RSV infection.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12865-014-0041-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4189665  PMID: 25277705
Respiratory syncytial virus; Immune response; Pathogen recognition receptors; Gene expression
7.  Limited Type I Interferons and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells during Neonatal Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Permit Immunopathogenesis upon Reinfection 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(16):9350-9360.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the number one cause of bronchiolitis in infants, yet no vaccines are available because of a lack of knowledge of the infant immune system. Using a neonatal mouse model, we previously revealed that mice initially infected with RSV as neonates develop Th2-biased immunopathophysiologies during reinfection, and we demonstrated a role for enhanced interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) expression on T helper cells in these responses. Here we show that RSV infection in neonates induced limited type I interferon (IFN) and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) responses. IFN alpha (IFN-α) treatment or adoptive transfer of adult pDCs capable of inducing IFN-α prior to neonatal RSV infection decreased Th2-biased immunopathogenesis during reinfection. A reduced viral load and downregulation of IL-4Rα on Th2 cells were observed in IFN-α-treated neonatal mice, suggesting dual mechanisms of action.
IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infancy worldwide. Despite the dire need, we have failed to produce efficacious RSV vaccines or therapeutics. Part of the reason for this failure is our lack of understanding of how RSV interacts with the infant immune system to suppress the development of protective immunity. In the study described in the present paper, we used a neonatal mouse model, which more closely mimics human infants, to study the role of the innate immune system, particularly type I interferons (IFNs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), in the pathogenesis of RSV infection. RSV infection in neonates induced limited type I IFN and pDC responses. IFN-α treatment or adoptive transfer of adult pDCs capable of producing IFN-α prior to neonatal RSV infection decreased Th2-biased immunopathogenesis during reinfection. These data suggest that IFN-α is a promising target for future RSV vaccine design.
PMCID: PMC4136292  PMID: 24920801
8.  Resveratrol-Mediated Gamma Interferon Reduction Prevents Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected Immunocompromised Mice ▿  
Journal of Virology  2011;85(24):13061-13068.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of severe, lower respiratory tract infections in infants, and RSV infections have been associated with chronic wheezing and asthma during childhood. However, the mechanism of RSV-induced airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is poorly understood. Furthermore, there are presently neither effective vaccines nor drugs available for the prevention or treatment of RSV infections. In this study, we investigated the effect of the plant extract resveratrol as a means of preventing airway inflammation and attenuating RSV-induced AHR. Our data showed that resveratrol reduced RSV lung titers and the number of infiltrating lymphocytes present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, resveratrol attenuated airway responses to methacholine following RSV infection and significantly decreased gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels in BALF of RSV-infected mice. Data presented in this report demonstrated that resveratrol controlled Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression, inhibited the TRIF signaling pathway, and induced M2 receptor expression following RSV infection. These data support a role for the use of resveratrol as a means of reducing IFN-γ levels associated with RSV-mediated airway inflammation and AHR, which may be mediated via TLR3 signaling.
PMCID: PMC3233156  PMID: 21937650
9.  A role for airway remodeling during respiratory syncytial virus infection 
Respiratory Research  2005;6(1):122.
Severe respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV) during infancy has been shown to be a major risk factor for the development of subsequent wheeze. However, the reasons for this link remain unclear. The objective of this research was to determine the consequences of early exposure to RSV and allergen in the development of subsequent airway hyperreactivity (AHR) using a developmental time point in the mouse that parallels that of the human neonate.
Weanling mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (Ova) and/or infected with RSV. Eight days after the last allergen challenge, various pathophysiological endpoints were examined.
AHR in response to methacholine was enhanced only in weanling mice exposed to Ova and subsequently infected with RSV. The increase in AHR appeared to be unrelated to pulmonary RSV titer. Total bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity in these mice increased approximately two-fold relative to Ova alone and was attributable to increases in eosinophil and lymphocyte numbers. Enhanced pulmonary pathologies including persistent mucus production and subepithelial fibrosis were observed. Interestingly, these data correlated with transient increases in TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-5, and IL-2.
The observed changes in pulmonary structure may provide an explanation for epidemiological data suggesting that early exposure to allergens and RSV have long-term physiological consequences. Furthermore, the data presented here highlight the importance of preventative strategies against RSV infection of atopic individuals during neonatal development.
PMCID: PMC1283984  PMID: 16242038
respiratory syncytial virus; pulmonary; inflammation; age factors; asthma; mice
10.  Age at First Viral Infection Determines the Pattern of T Cell–mediated Disease during Reinfection in Adulthood 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2002;196(10):1381-1386.
Infants experiencing severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis have an increased frequency of wheeze and asthma in later childhood. Since most severe RSV infections occur between the 8th and 24th postnatal week, we examined whether age at first infection determines the balance of cytokine production and lung pathology during subsequent rechallenge. Primary RSV infection in newborn mice followed the same viral kinetics as in adults but was associated with reduced and delayed IFN-γ responses. To study rechallenge, mice were infected at 1 day or 1, 4, or 8 weeks of age and reinfected at 12 weeks. Neonatal priming produced more severe weight loss and increased inflammatory cell recruitment (including T helper 2 cells and eosinophils) during reinfection, whereas delayed priming led to enhanced interferon γ production and less severe disease during reinfection. These results show the crucial importance of age at first infection in determining the outcome of reinfection and suggest that the environment of the neonatal lung is a major determinant of cytokine production and disease patterns in later life. Thus, simply delaying RSV infection beyond infancy might reduce subsequent respiratory morbidity in later childhood.
PMCID: PMC2193991  PMID: 12438429
bronchiolitis; asthma; immunity; pneumovirinae; virus
11.  Respiratory Syncytial Virus Persistence in the Lungs Correlates with Airway Hyperreactivity in the Mouse Model 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2008;198(10):1435-1443.
Previous studies in mice showed that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was associated with RSV RNA persistence. This study was designed to characterize the significance of RSV RNA persistence and its relation to RSV-induced chronic airway disease.
Mice were inoculated with live RSV, UV light–treated RSV, heat-inactivated RSV, or medium. Bronchoal-veolar lavage fluid samples were obtained and lung specimens were harvested on days 1, 5, and 42 after inoculation to assess lung inflammation, lung mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)–4, IL-5, IL-15, and interferon (IFN)–γ; RSV loads were assessed by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and correlated with pulmonary function.
During the acute phase of infection, RSV loads as indicated by culture and PCR were significantly higher in mice inoculated with live RSV. On day 42, RSV RNA remained detectable only in mice inoculated with live or UV light–treated RSV. Lung inflammation, IFN-γ:IL-4 mRNA expression ratios, airway obstruction (AO), and airway hyperreactivity (AHR) were significantly increased in mice inoculated with live RSV. AO on day 5 and AHR on day 42 were significantly correlated with RSV RNA copy number in lung samples.
Infection with live RSV induced acute and chronic airway disease that was associated with a predominantly Th-1 immune response and RSV RNA persistence that significantly correlated with pulmonary function abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC3689551  PMID: 18828742
12.  Resveratrol Inhibits the TRIF-Dependent Pathway by Upregulating Sterile Alpha and Armadillo Motif Protein, Contributing to Anti-Inflammatory Effects after Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(8):4229-4236.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children and the leading cause of infant hospitalization worldwide. Uncontrolled response to RSV is mediated by a toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune response. Resveratrol possesses anti-RSV activity and is an inhibitor of the TRIF/TBK1/IRF-3 complex. We hypothesize that resveratrol inhibits the TRIF-dependent pathway through upregulation of SARM post-RSV infection. BALB/c mice were infected with RSV and were injected with resveratrol 1 h postinoculation. SARM short interfering RNA was administered to RSV-infected and resveratrol-treated mice. Lung function was measured by whole-body plethysmography, lung histopathology was examined, and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified. SARM and TRIF protein expression were detected in the lung by Western blot analyses. The expression of gamma interferon in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SARM expression was reduced and TRIF expression was increased after infection with RSV. Resveratrol increased SARM expression and decreased TRIF expression after RSV infection. SARM knockdown in resveratrol-treated mice enhanced gamma interferon production, RSV-induced airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Resveratrol decreased TRIF expression and prevented the RSV-mediated reduction of SARM expression. Resveratrol-mediated inhibition of the TRIF-dependent pathway may be dependent on SARM expression.
IMPORTANCE Our study provides insights into the regulation of innate immunity in response to RSV infection. The results suggest that resveratrol-mediated alterations in SARM have therapeutic potential against RSV immunopathology caused by deregulation of the TLR-mediated immune response. Ultimately, improved insight into the complex interplay between TLR adaptor proteins and the occurrence of severe RSV infection might lead to novel therapeutic treatment strategies, such as TLR adjuvants.
PMCID: PMC3993725  PMID: 24478430
13.  The Role of T Cells in the Enhancement of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Severity during Adult Reinfection of Neonatally Sensitized Mice▿  
Journal of Virology  2008;82(8):4115-4124.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of infantile bronchiolitis and hospitalization. Severe RSV disease is associated with the development of wheezing in later life. In a mouse model of the delayed effects of RSV, the age at primary infection determines responses to reinfection in adulthood. During primary RSV infection, neonatal BALB/c mice developed only mild disease and recruited CD8 cells that were defective in gamma interferon production. Secondary reinfection of neonatally primed mice caused enhanced inflammation and profuse lung T-cell recruitment. CD4 cell depletion during secondary RSV challenge attenuated disease (measured by weight loss); depletion of CD8 cells also markedly attenuated disease severity but enhanced lung eosinophilia, and depletion of both CD4 and CD8 cells together completely abrogated weight loss. Depletion of CD8 (but not CD4) cells during primary neonatal infection was protective against weight loss during adult challenge. Therefore, T cells, in particular CD8 T cells, play a central role in the outcome of neonatal infection by enhancing disease during secondary challenge. These findings demonstrate a crucial role for T cells in the regulation of immune responses after neonatal infection.
PMCID: PMC2293007  PMID: 18272579
14.  Respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute and chronic airway disease is independent of genetic background: An experimental murine model 
Virology Journal  2005;2:46.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading respiratory viral pathogen in young children worldwide. RSV disease is associated with acute airway obstruction (AO), long-term airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and chronic lung inflammation. Using two different mouse strains, this study was designed to determine whether RSV disease patterns are host-dependent. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were inoculated with RSV and followed for 77 days. RSV loads were measured by plaque assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and whole lung samples; cytokines were measured in BAL samples. Lung inflammation was evaluated with a histopathologic score (HPS), and AO and AHR were determined by plethysmography.
Viral load dynamics, histopathologic score (HPS), cytokine concentrations, AO and long-term AHR were similar in both strains of RSV-infected mice, although RSV-infected C57BL/6 mice developed significantly greater AO compared with RSV-infected BALB/c mice on day 5. PCR detected RSV RNA in BAL samples of RSV infected mice until day 42, and in whole lung samples through day 77. BAL concentrations of cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, and chemokines MIG, RANTES and MIP-1α were significantly elevated in both strains of RSV-infected mice compared with their respective controls. Viral load measured by PCR significantly correlated with disease severity on days 14 and 21.
RSV-induced acute and chronic airway disease is independent of genetic background.
PMCID: PMC1183251  PMID: 15916706
Viral pneumonia; mouse model; airway hyperresponsiveness; PCR; cytokines
15.  Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles to Assess Pathogenesis and Disease Severity in Infants with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(11):e1001549.
In this study, Mejias and colleagues found that specific blood RNA profiles of infants with RSV LRTI allowed for specific diagnosis, better understanding of disease pathogenesis, and better assessment of disease severity.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and hospitalization in infants. Mostly because of the incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, there is no licensed vaccine, and treatment remains symptomatic. We analyzed whole blood transcriptional profiles to characterize the global host immune response to acute RSV LRTI in infants, to characterize its specificity compared with influenza and human rhinovirus (HRV) LRTI, and to identify biomarkers that can objectively assess RSV disease severity.
Methods and Findings
This was a prospective observational study over six respiratory seasons including a cohort of infants hospitalized with RSV (n = 135), HRV (n = 30), and influenza (n = 16) LRTI, and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 39). A specific RSV transcriptional profile was identified in whole blood (training cohort, n = 45 infants; Dallas, Texas, US) and validated in three different cohorts (test cohort, n = 46, Dallas, Texas, US; validation cohort A, n = 16, Turku, Finland; validation cohort B, n = 28, Columbus, Ohio, US) with high sensitivity (94% [95% CI 87%–98%]) and specificity (98% [95% CI 88%–99%]). It classified infants with RSV LRTI versus HRV or influenza LRTI with 95% accuracy. The immune dysregulation induced by RSV (overexpression of neutrophil, inflammation, and interferon genes, and suppression of T and B cell genes) persisted beyond the acute disease, and immune dysregulation was greatly impaired in younger infants (<6 mo). We identified a genomic score that significantly correlated with outcomes of care including a clinical disease severity score and, more importantly, length of hospitalization and duration of supplemental O2.
Blood RNA profiles of infants with RSV LRTI allow specific diagnosis, better understanding of disease pathogenesis, and assessment of disease severity. This study opens new avenues for biomarker discovery and identification of potential therapeutic or preventive targets, and demonstrates that large microarray datasets can be translated into a biologically meaningful context and applied to the clinical setting.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs)—bacterial and viral infections of the lungs and airways (the tubes that take oxygen-rich air to the lungs)—are major causes of illness and death in children worldwide. Pneumonia (infection of the lungs) alone is responsible for 14% of all child deaths. The leading cause of viral LTRIs in children is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is readily transmitted from person to person by direct contact with nasal fluids or airborne droplets. Almost all children have an RSV infection before their second birthday, but most have only minor symptoms similar to those of a common cold and are cared for at home. Unfortunately, some children develop more serious conditions when they become infected with RSV, such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis (swelling and mucus build-up in the bronchioles, the smallest air passages in the lungs). These children have to be admitted to the hospital for supportive care—there is no specific treatment for RSV infection—such as the provision of supplemental oxygen.
Why Was This Study Done?
The lack of a treatment (and of a vaccine) for RSV is largely due to our incomplete understanding of the cellular events and reactions, including the host immune response, that occur during the development of an RSV infection (disease pathogenesis). Moreover, based on physical examination and available diagnostic tools, it is impossible to predict which children infected with RSV will develop a serious condition that requires hospitalization and which ones can be safely nursed at home. Here, the researchers use microarrays to analyze the global host response to acute RSV LTRI in infants, to define gene expression patterns that are specific to RSV infection rather than infection with other common respiratory viruses, and to identify biomarkers that indicate the severity of RSV infection. “Microarray” analysis allows researchers to examine gene expression patterns (“RNA transcriptional profiles”) in, for example, whole blood; a biomarker is a molecule whose level in bodily fluids or tissues indicates how a disease might develop and helps with patient classification.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers compared the RNA transcriptional profile in whole blood taken from children less than two years old hospitalized with RSV, human rhinovirus, or influenza virus infection (rhinovirus and influenza are two additional viral causes of LRTI), and from healthy infants. Using “statistical group comparisons,” they identified more than 2,000 transcripts that were differentially expressed in blood from 45 infants with RSV infection and from 14 healthy matched controls. Genes related to interferon function (interferons are released by host cells in response to the presence of disease-causing organisms) and neutrophil function (neutrophils are immune system cells that, like interferons, are involved in the innate immune response, the body's first line of defense against infection) were among the most overexpressed genes in infants infected with RSV. Genes regulating T and B cells (components of the adaptive immune response, the body's second-line of defense against infection) were among the most underexpressed genes. This specific transcriptional profile, which was validated in three additional groups of infants, accurately distinguished between infants infected with RSV and those infected with human rhinovirus or influenza virus. Finally, a “molecular distance to health” score (a numerical score that quantifies the transcriptional perturbation associated with an illness) was correlated with the clinical disease severity score of the study participants, with how long they needed supplemental oxygen, and with their duration of hospitalization.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that it might be possible to use whole blood RNA transcriptional profiles to distinguish between infants infected with RSV and those with other viruses that commonly cause LRTI. Moreover, if these findings can be replicated in more patients (including non-hospitalized children), gene expression profiling might provide a strategy for triaging patients with RSV infections when they first present to an emergency department and for monitoring clinical changes during the course of the infection, particularly given the development of molecular tools that might soon enable the “real time” acquisition of transcriptional profiles in the clinical setting. Finally, although certain aspects of the study design limit the accuracy and generalizability of the study's findings, these data provide new insights into the pathogenesis of RSV infection and open new avenues for the discovery of biomarkers for RSV infection and for the identification of therapeutic and preventative targets.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by Peter Openshaw
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information about RSV infection
The US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provides information about the respiratory system and about RSV infections
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information about bronchiolitis
The British Lung Foundation also provides information on RSV and on bronchiolitis
MedlinePlus provides links to other resources about RSV infections and about pneumonia (in English and Spanish); the MedlinePlus encyclopedia has a page on bronchiolitis (in English and Spanish)
PATH is an international non-profit organization investigating new RSV vaccines
PMCID: PMC3825655  PMID: 24265599
16.  Alpha/Beta Interferon Receptor Signaling Amplifies Early Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in the Lung during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(11):6128-6136.
Type I interferons (IFNs) are produced early upon virus infection and signal through the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) receptor (IFNAR) to induce genes that encode proteins important for limiting viral replication and directing immune responses. To investigate the extent to which type I IFNs play a role in the local regulation of inflammation in the airways, we examined their importance in early lung responses to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). IFNAR1-deficient (IFNAR1−/−) mice displayed increased lung viral load and weight loss during RSV infection. As expected, expression of IFN-inducible genes was markedly reduced in the lungs of IFNAR1−/− mice. Surprisingly, we found that the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the lungs of RSV-infected mice were also greatly reduced in the absence of IFNAR signaling. Furthermore, low levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also detected in the lungs of IFNAR1−/− mice challenged with noninfectious innate immune stimuli such as selected Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Finally, recombinant IFN-α was sufficient to potentiate the production of inflammatory mediators in the lungs of wild-type mice challenged with innate immune stimuli. Thus, in addition to its well-known role in antiviral resistance, type I IFN receptor signaling acts as a central driver of early proinflammatory responses in the lung. Inhibiting the effects of type I IFNs may therefore be useful in dampening inflammation in lung diseases characterized by enhanced inflammatory cytokine production.
IMPORTANCE The initial response to viral infection is characterized by the production of interferons (IFNs). One group of IFNs, the type I IFNs, are produced early upon virus infection and signal through the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) to induce proteins important for limiting viral replication and directing immune responses. Here we examined the importance of type I IFNs in early responses to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Our data suggest that type I IFN production and IFNAR receptor signaling not only induce an antiviral state but also serve to amplify proinflammatory responses in the respiratory tract. We also confirm this conclusion in another model of acute inflammation induced by noninfectious stimuli. Our findings are of relevance to human disease, as RSV is a major cause of infant bronchiolitis and polymorphisms in the IFN system are known to impact disease severity.
PMCID: PMC4093897  PMID: 24648449
17.  Specific Dietary Oligosaccharides Increase Th1 Responses in a Mouse Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Model 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(21):11472-11482.
Breast feeding reduces the risk of developing severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in infants. In addition to maternal antibodies, other immune-modulating factors in human milk contribute to this protection. Specific dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides, similar to oligosaccharides present in human milk, were evaluated in a C57BL/6 mouse RSV infection model. During primary RSV infection, increased numbers of RSV-specific CD4+ T cells producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were found in the lungs at days 8 to 10 postinfection in mice receiving diet containing short-chain galactooligosacharides, long-chain fructooligosaccharides, and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (termed scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS). In a Th2-skewed formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV vaccination model, the prebiotic diet reduced RSV-specific Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-13)-producing CD4+ T cells in the lung and the magnitude of airway eosinophilia at day 4 and 6 after infection. This was accompanied by a decreased influx of inflammatory dendritic cells (CD11b+/CD11c+) and increased numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at day 8 after viral challenge. These findings suggest that specific dietary oligosaccharides can influence trafficking and/or effector functions of innate immune, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell subsets in the lungs of RSV-infected mice. In our models, scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS had no effect on weight but increased viral clearance in FI-RSV-vaccinated mice 8 days after infection. The increased systemic Th1 responses potentiated by scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS might contribute to an accelerated Th1/Th2 shift of the neonatal immune system, which might favor protective immunity against viral infections with a high attack rate in early infancy, such as RSV.
PMCID: PMC3486291  PMID: 22896622
18.  Immunomodulation with IL-4 Receptor-α Antisense Oligonucleotide Prevents RSV-Mediated Pulmonary Disease1 
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants worldwide. Severe RSV infections in infants cause bronchiolitis, wheeze, and/or cough and significantly increase the risk of developing asthma. RSV pathogenesis is thought to be due to a Th2-type immune response initiated in response to RSV infection specifically in the infant. Using a neonatal mouse system as an appropriate model for human infants, we sought to determine if local inhibition of IL-4Rα expression during primary RSV infection in the neonate would prevent Th2-skewed responses to secondary RSV infection and improve long-term pulmonary function. To reduce IL-4Rα expression, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) specific for IL-4Rα were administered intranasally to neonatal mice at the time of primary infection. Mice were initially infected with RSV at one week of age and reinfected at six weeks of age. Administration of IL-4Rα ASO during primary RSV infection in neonatal mice abolished the pulmonary dysfunction normally observed following reinfection in the adult. This ablation of pulmonary dysfunction correlated with a persistent rebalancing of the Th cell compartment with decreased Th2 responses (i.e. reduced goblet cell hyperplasia and Th2 cells and cytokine secretion) and increased Th1 responses (i.e. elevated Th1 cell numbers and type I antibodies and cytokines). Our data support our hypothesis that a reduction in the Th2 immune response during primary infection in neonates prevents Th2-mediated pulmonary pathology initially and upon reinfection; and further suggest that vaccine strategies incorporating IL-4Rα ASO may be of significant benefit to infants.
PMCID: PMC3063095  PMID: 20861354
19.  Gene Expression Differences in Lungs of Mice during Secondary Immune Responses to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection▿ †  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(18):9584-9594.
Vaccine-induced immunity has been shown to alter the course of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection both in murine models and in humans. To elucidate which mechanisms underlie the effect of vaccine-induced immunity on the course of RSV infection, transcription profiles in the lungs of RSV-infected mice were examined by microarray analysis. Three models were used: RSV reinfection as a model for natural immunity, RSV challenge after formalin-inactivated RSV vaccination as a model for vaccine-enhanced disease, and RSV challenge following vaccination with recombinant RSV virus lacking the G gene (ΔG-RSV) as a model for vaccine-induced immunity. Gene transcription profiles, histopathology, and viral loads were analyzed at 1, 2, and 5 days after RSV challenge. On the first 2 days after challenge, all mice displayed an expression pattern in the lung similar of that found in primary infection, showing a strong innate immune response. On day 5 after RSV reinfection or after challenge following ΔG-RSV vaccination, the innate immune response was waning. In contrast, in mice with vaccine-enhanced disease, the innate immune response 5 days after RSV challenge was still present even though viral replication was diminished. In addition, only in this group was Th2 gene expression induced. These findings support a hypothesis that vaccine-enhanced disease is mediated by prolonged innate immune responses and Th2 polarization in the absence of viral replication.
PMCID: PMC2937637  PMID: 20592085
20.  Respiratory Syncytial Virus Induced Type I IFN Production by pDC Is Regulated by RSV-Infected Airway Epithelial Cells, RSV-Exposed Monocytes and Virus Specific Antibodies  
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81695.
Innate immune responses elicited upon virus exposure are crucial for the effective eradication of viruses, the onset of adaptive immune responses and for establishing proper immune memory. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for a high disease burden in neonates and immune compromised individuals, causing severe lower respiratory tract infections. During primary infections exuberant innate immune responses may contribute to disease severity. Furthermore, immune memory is often insufficient to protect during RSV re-exposure, which results in frequent symptomatic reinfections. Therefore, identifying the cell types and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in RSV-specific innate immune responses is necessary to understand incomplete immunity against RSV. We investigated the innate cellular response triggered upon infection of epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We show that CD14+ myeloid cells and epithelial cells are the major source of IL-8 and inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, when exposed to live RSV Three routes of RSV-induced IFN-α production can be distinguished that depend on the cross-talk of different cell types and the presence or absence of virus specific antibodies, whereby pDC are the ultimate source of IFN-α. RSV-specific antibodies facilitate direct TLR7 access into endosomal compartments, while in the absence of antibodies, infection of monocytes or epithelial cells is necessary to provide an early source of type I interferons, required to engage the IFN-α,β receptor (IFNAR)-mediated pathway of IFN-α production by pDC. However, at high pDC density infection with RSV causes IFN-α production without the need for a second party cell. Our study shows that cellular context and immune status are factors affecting innate immune responses to RSV. These issues should therefore be addressed during the process of vaccine development and other interventions for RSV disease.
PMCID: PMC3841124  PMID: 24303065
21.  Enhanced pulmonary histopathology induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge of formalin-inactivated RSV-immunized BALB/c mice is abrogated by depletion of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10. 
Journal of Virology  1994;68(8):5321-5325.
In previous studies, children immunized with a formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (FI-RSV) developed severe pulmonary disease with greater frequency than did controls during subsequent natural RSV infection. In earlier efforts to develop an animal model for this phenomenon, extensive pulmonary histopathology developed in FI-RSV-immunized cotton rats and mice subsequently challenged with RSV. In mice, depletion of CD4+ T cells at the time of RSV challenge completely abrogated this histopathology. Furthermore, the predominant cytokine mRNA present in lungs of FI-RSV-immunized mice during subsequent infection with RSV was that characteristically secreted by Th2 T cells, namely interleukin-4 (IL-4). In the present studies, we sought to determine the relative contributions of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 to the lymphocytic infiltration into the lungs observed following RSV challenge of mice previously immunized with FI-RSV. Mice previously immunized with FI-RSV or infected with RSV were depleted of IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, or IL-10 immediately before RSV challenge, and the magnitude of inflammatory cell infiltration around bronchioles and pulmonary blood vessels was quantified. The phenomenon of pulmonary-histopathology potentiation by FI-RSV was reproduced in the present study, thereby allowing us to investigate the effect of cytokine depletion on the process. Simultaneous depletion of both IL-4 and IL-10 completely abrogated pulmonary histopathology in FI-RSV-immunized mice. Depletion of IL-4 alone significantly reduced bronchiolar, though not perivascular, histopathology. Depletion of IL-10 alone had no effect. Depletion of IFN-gamma, IL-2, or both together had no effect on the observed histopathology. These data indicate that FI-RSV immunization primes for a Th2-, IL-4-, and IL-10-dependent inflammatory response to subsequent RSV infection. It is possible that this process played a role in enhanced disease observed in infants and children immunized with FI-RSV.
PMCID: PMC236482  PMID: 8035532
22.  Th17 cytokines are critical for RSV associated airway hyperreponsiveness through regulation by complement C3a and tachykinins1 
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with serious lung disease in infants and immunocompromised individuals and is linked to development of asthma. In mice, acute RSV infection causes airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion. Infected cells induce complement activation, producing the anaphylatoxin C3a. Here we show RSV infected wild type mice produce Th17 cytokines, a response not previously associated with viral infections. Mice deficient in the C3aR (C3aR1−/−) fail to develop AHR following acute RSV infection, and production of Th17 cytokines was significantly attenuated. Tachykinin production has also been implicated in RSV pathophysiology, and tachykinin receptor null mice (TACR1−/−) were similarly protected from developing AHR. These animals were also deficient in production of Th17 cytokines. Tachykinin release was absent in C3aR1−/− mice, while C3a levels were unchanged in TACR1−/− animals. Thus, our data reveal a crucial sequence following acute RSV infection where initial C3a production causes tachykinin release, followed by activation of the IL-17A pathway. Deficiency of either receptor affords protection from AHR, identifying two potential therapeutic targets.
PMCID: PMC3186836  PMID: 21918196
respiratory syncytial virus; C3a anaphylatoxin; complement; inflammation; IL17A; airway hyperresponsiveness; tachykinins; substance P; hemokinin-1
23.  Reciprocal Immunomodulatory Effects of Gamma Interferon and Interleukin-4 on Filaria-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness 
Infection and Immunity  2001;69(3):1463-1468.
Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a severe asthmatic syndrome of lymphatic filariasis, in which an allergic response is induced to microfilariae (Mf) in the lungs. Previously, in a murine model for TPE, we have demonstrated that recombinant interleukin-12 (IL-12) suppresses pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) by modulating the T helper (Th) response in the lungs from Th2- to Th1-like, with elevated gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) production and decreased IL-4 and IL-5 production. The present study examined the immunomodulatory roles of IL-4 and IFN-γ in filaria-induced AHR and pulmonary inflammation using mice genetically deficient in these cytokines. C57BL/6, IL-4 gene knockout (IL-4−/−), and IFN-γ−/− mice were first immunized with soluble Brugia malayi antigens and then inoculated intravenously with 200,000 live Mf. Compared with C57BL/6 mice, IL-4−/− mice exhibited significantly reduced AHR, whereas IFN-γ−/− mice had increased AHR. Histopathologically, each mouse strain showed increased cellular infiltration into the lung parenchyma and bronchoalveolar space compared with naïve animals. However, consistent with changes in AHR, IL-4−/− mice had less inflammation than C57BL/6 mice, whereas IFN-γ−/− mice had exacerbated pulmonary inflammation with the loss of pulmonary architecture. Systemically, IL-4−/− mice produced significantly higher IFN-γ levels compared with C57BL/6 mice, whereas IFN-γ−/− mice produced significantly higher IL-4 levels. These data indicate that IL-4 is required for the induction of filaria-induced AHR, whereas IFN-γ suppresses AHR.
PMCID: PMC98042  PMID: 11179313
24.  Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Expressed by Recombinant Respiratory Syncytial Virus Attenuates Viral Replication and Increases the Level of Pulmonary Antigen-Presenting Cells 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(24):12128-12140.
An obstacle to developing a vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is that natural infection typically does not confer solid immunity to reinfection. To investigate methods to augment the immune response, recombinant RSV (rRSV) was constructed that expresses murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) from a transcription cassette inserted into the G-F intergenic region. Replication of rRSV/mGM-CSF in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of BALB/c mice was reduced 23- to 74- and 5- to 588-fold, respectively, compared to that of the parental rRSV. Despite this strong attenuation of replication, the level of RSV-specific serum antibodies induced by rRSV/mGM-CSF was comparable to, or marginally higher than, that of the parental rRSV. The induction of RSV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells was moderately reduced during the initial infection, which might be a consequence of reduced antigen expression. Mice infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF had elevated levels of pulmonary mRNA for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) p40 compared to animals infected by wild-type rRSV. Elevated synthesis of IFN-γ could account for the restriction of RSV replication, as was observed previously with an IFN-γ-expressing rRSV. The accumulation of total pulmonary mononuclear cells and total CD4+ T lymphocytes was accelerated in animals infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF compared to that in animals infected with the control virus, and the level of IFN-γ-positive or IL-4-positive pulmonary CD4+ cells was elevated approximately twofold. The number of pulmonary lymphoid and myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages was increased up to fourfold in mice infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF compared to those infected with the parental rRSV, and the mean expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, a marker of activation, was significantly increased in the two subsets of dendritic cells. Enhanced antigen presentation likely accounts for the maintenance of a strong antibody response despite reduced viral replication and would be a desirable property for a live attenuated rRSV vaccine.
PMCID: PMC116109  PMID: 11711604
25.  An immunocompromised BALB/c mouse model for respiratory syncytial virus infection 
Virology Journal  2005;2:3.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes bronchiolitis in infants and children, which can be fatal, especially in immunocompromised patients. The BALB/c mouse, currently used as a model for studying RSV immunopathology, is semi-permissive to the virus. A mouse model that more closely mimics human RSV infection is needed. Since immunocompromised conditions increase risk of RSV infection, the possibility of enhancing RSV infection in the BALB/c mouse by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide was examined in this study. BALB/c mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP) and five days later, they were infected with RSV intranasally. Pulmonary RSV titers, inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness were measured five days after infection.
CYP-treated mice show higher RSV titers in their lungs of than the untreated mice. Also, a decreased percentage of macrophages and an increased number of lymphocytes and neutrophils were present in the BAL of CYP-treated mice compared to controls. The CYP-treated group also exhibited augmented bronchoalveolar and interstitial pulmonary inflammation. The increased RSV infection in CYP-treated mice was accompanied by elevated expression of IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNAs and proteins compared to controls. Examination of CYP-treated mice before RSV infection showed that CYP treatment significantly decreased both IFN-γ and IL-12 expression.
These results demonstrate that CYP-treated BALB/c mice provide a better model for studying RSV immunopathology and that decreased production of IL-12 and IFN-γ are important determinants of susceptibility to RSV infection.
PMCID: PMC549044  PMID: 15701174

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