Fibrosis and apoptosis are juxtaposed in pulmonary disorders such as asthma and the interstitial diseases, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these responses. However, the in vivo effector functions of TGF-β1 in the lung and its roles in the pathogenesis of these responses are not completely understood. In addition, the relationships between apoptosis and other TGF-β1–induced responses have not been defined. To address these issues, we targeted bioactive TGF-β1 to the murine lung using a novel externally regulatable, triple transgenic system. TGF-β1 produced a transient wave of epithelial apoptosis that was followed by mononuclear-rich inflammation, tissue fibrosis, myofibroblast and myocyte hyperplasia, and septal rupture with honeycombing. Studies of these mice highlighted the reversibility of this fibrotic response. They also demonstrated that a null mutation of early growth response gene (Egr)-1 or caspase inhibition blocked TGF-β1–induced apoptosis. Interestingly, both interventions markedly ameliorated TGF-β1–induced fibrosis and alveolar remodeling. These studies illustrate the complex effects of TGF-β1 in vivo and define the critical role of Egr-1 in the TGF-β1 phenotype. They also demonstrate that Egr-1–mediated apoptosis is a prerequisite for TGF-β1–induced fibrosis and remodeling.
asthma; pulmonary fibrosis; fibrosis reversibility; airway remodeling
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is an essential regulatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse facets of the injury and repair responses in the lung. The types of responses that it elicits can be appreciated in studies from our laboratory that demonstrated that the transgenic (Tg) overexpression of TGF-β1 in the murine lung causes epithelial apoptosis followed by fibrosis, inflammation, and parenchymal destruction. Because a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, is a key regulator of apoptosis, we hypothesized that p21 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TGF-β1–induced tissue responses. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of TGF-β1 on the expression of p21 in the murine lung. We also characterized the effects of transgenic TGF-β1 in mice with wild-type and null mutant p21 loci. These studies demonstrate that TGF-β1 is a potent stimulator of p21 expression in the epithelial cells and macrophages in the murine lung. They also demonstrate that TGF-β1–induced lung inflammation, fibrosis, myofibroblast accumulation, and alveolar destruction are augmented in the absence of p21, and that these alterations are associated with exaggerated levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. Finally, our studies further demonstrated that TGF-β1 induces p21 via a TNF-α–signaling pathway and that p21 is a negative modulator of TGF-β1–induced TNF-α expression. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that p21 regulates TGF-β1–induced apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and alveolar remodeling by interacting with TNF-α–signaling pathways.
TGF-β; p21; apoptosis; fibrosis; emphysema
Semaphorin (SEMA) 7A regulates neuronal and immune function. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that SEMA 7A is also a critical regulator of tissue remodeling. These studies demonstrate that SEMA 7A and its receptors, plexin C1 and β1 integrins, are stimulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the murine lung. They also demonstrate that SEMA 7A plays a critical role in TGF-β1–induced fibrosis, myofibroblast hyperplasia, alveolar remodeling, and apoptosis. TGF-β1 stimulated SEMA 7A via a largely Smad 3–independent mechanism and stimulated SEMA 7A receptors, matrix proteins, CCN proteins, fibroblast growth factor 2, interleukin 13 receptor components, proteases, antiprotease, and apoptosis regulators via Smad 2/3–independent and SEMA 7A–dependent mechanisms. SEMA 7A also played an important role in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. TGF-β1 and bleomycin also activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT via SEMA 7A–dependent mechanisms, and PKB/AKT inhibition diminished TGF-β1–induced fibrosis. These observations demonstrate that SEMA 7A and its receptors are induced by TGF-β1 and that SEMA 7A plays a central role in a PI3K/PKB/AKT-dependent pathway that contributes to TGF-β1–induced fibrosis and remodeling. They also demonstrate that the effects of SEMA 7A are not specific for transgenic TGF-β1, highlighting the importance of these findings for other fibrotic stimuli.
Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction, and airway and vascular remodeling. However, the mechanisms that lead to these diverse alterations have not been defined.
Objectives: We hypothesized that IL-18 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these lesions.
Methods: We generated and characterized lung-specific, inducible IL-18 transgenic mice.
Measurements and Main Results: Here we demonstrate that the expression of IL-18 in the mature murine lung induces inflammation that is associated with the accumulation of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and NK1.1+ cells; emphysema; mucus metaplasia; airway fibrosis; vascular remodeling; and right ventricle cardiac hypertrophy. We also demonstrate that IL-18 induces type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines with IFN-γ–inhibiting macrophage, lymphocyte, and eosinophil accumulation while stimulating alveolar destruction and genes associated with cell cytotoxicity and IL-13 and IL-17A inducing mucus metaplasia, airway fibrosis, and vascular remodeling. We also highlight interactions between these responses with IL-18 inducing IL-13 via an IL-17A–dependent mechanism and the type 1 and type17/type 2 responses counterregulating each another.
Conclusions: These studies define the spectrum of inflammatory, parenchymal, airway, and vascular alterations that are induced by pulmonary IL-18; highlight the similarities between these responses and the lesions in COPD; and define the selective roles that type 1, type 2, and type 17 responses play in the generation of IL-18–induced pathologies.
IL-18; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; airway fibrosis; mucus metaplasia; vascular remodeling
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-α and its receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor, are induced after lung injury and are associated with remodeling in chronic pulmonary diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. Expression of TGF-α in the lungs of adult mice causes fibrosis, pleural thickening, and pulmonary hypertension, in addition to increased expression of a transcription factor, early growth response-1 (Egr-1). Egr-1 was increased in airway smooth muscle (ASM) and the vascular adventitia in the lungs of mice conditionally expressing TGF-α in airway epithelium (Clara cell secretory protein–rtTA+/−/[tetO]7–TGF-α+/−). The goal of this study was to determine the role of Egr-1 in TGF-α–induced lung disease. To accomplish this, TGF-α–transgenic mice were crossed to Egr-1 knockout (Egr-1ko/ko) mice. The lack of Egr-1 markedly increased the severity of TGF-α–induced pulmonary disease, dramatically enhancing airway muscularization, increasing pulmonary fibrosis, and causing greater airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Smooth muscle hyperplasia, not hypertrophy, caused the ASM thickening in the absence of Egr-1. No detectable increases in pulmonary inflammation were found. In addition to the airway remodeling disease, vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension were also more severe in Egr-1ko/ko mice. Thus, Egr-1 acts to suppress epidermal growth factor receptor–mediated airway and vascular muscularization, fibrosis, and airway hyperresponsiveness in the absence of inflammation. This provides a unique model to study the processes causing pulmonary fibrosis and ASM thickening without the complicating effects of inflammation.
transforming growth factor-α; pulmonary fibrosis; asthma; pulmonary hypertension; vascular remodeling
Rationale: Alveolar transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling and expression of TGF-β1 target genes are increased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and in animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. Internalization and degradation of TGF-β receptor TβRI inhibits TGF-β signaling and could attenuate development of experimental lung fibrosis.
Objectives: To demonstrate that after experimental lung injury, human syndecan-2 confers antifibrotic effects by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling in alveolar epithelial cells.
Methods: Microarray assays were performed to identify genes differentially expressed in alveolar macrophages of patients with IPF versus control subjects. Transgenic mice that constitutively overexpress human syndecan-2 in macrophages were developed to test the antifibrotic properties of syndecan-2. In vitro assays were performed to determine syndecan-2–dependent changes in epithelial cell TGF-β1 signaling, TGF-β1, and TβRI internalization and apoptosis. Wild-type mice were treated with recombinant human syndecan-2 during the fibrotic phase of bleomycin-induced lung injury.
Measurements and Main Results: We observed significant increases in alveolar macrophage syndecan-2 levels in patients with IPF. Macrophage-specific overexpression of human syndecan-2 in transgenic mice conferred antifibrotic effects after lung injury by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling and downstream expression of TGF-β1 target genes, reducing extracellular matrix production and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis. In vitro, syndecan-2 promoted caveolin-1–dependent internalization of TGF-β1 and TβRI in alveolar epithelial cells, which inhibited TGF-β1 signaling and epithelial cell apoptosis. Therapeutic administration of human syndecan-2 abrogated lung fibrosis in mice.
Conclusions: Alveolar macrophage syndecan-2 exerts antifibrotic effects by promoting caveolin-1–dependent TGF-β1 and TβRI internalization and inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling in alveolar epithelial cells. Hence, molecules that facilitate TβRI degradation via endocytosis represent potential therapies for pulmonary fibrosis.
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; TGF-β1 signaling; syndecan-2; alveolar macrophage
pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterised by subpleural fibrosis that
progresses to involve all areas of the lung. The expression of
transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a potent regulator of
connective tissue synthesis, is increased in lung sections of patients
with IPF. TGF-β1 is generally released in a biologically latent form
(L-TGF-β1). Before being biologically active, TGF-β must be
converted to its active form and interact with both TGF-β receptors
type I and II (TβR-I and TβR-II). TGF-β latency binding protein 1 (LTBP-1), which facilitates the release and activation of L-TGF-β1,
is also important in the biology of TGF-β1.
biopsy samples from patients with IPF and normal controls were examined
to localise TβR-I, TβR-II, and LTBP-1. Alveolar macrophages (AM)
and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were examined using the CCL-64
bioassay to determine if TGF-β is present in its active form in the
lungs of patients with IPF.
L-TGF-β1 was present in all lung cells of patients with IPF except
for fibroblasts in the subepithelial regions of honeycomb cysts. LTBP-1
was detected primarily in AM and epithelial cells lining honeycomb
cysts in areas of advanced IPF. In normal lungs LTBP-1 immunoreactivity
was observed in a few AM. AM from the upper and lower lobes of patients
with IPF secreted 1.6 (0.6) fmol and 4.1 (1.9) fmol active TGF-β,
respectively, while AM from the lower lobes of control patients
secreted no active TGF-β (p⩽0.01 for TGF-β in the conditioned
media from AM obtained from the lower lobes of IPF patients
v normal controls). The difference in
percentage active TGF-β secreted by AM from the lower lobes of
patients with IPF and the lower lobes of control patients was
significant (p⩽0.01), but the difference between the total TGF-β
secreted from these lobes was not significant. The difference in active
TGF-β in conditioned media of AM from the upper and lower lobes of
patients with IPF was also not statistically significant. BAL fluid
from the upper and lower lobes of patients with IPF contained 0.7 (0.2) fmol and 2.9 (1.2) fmol active TGF-β, respectively
(p⩽0.03). The percentage of active TGF-β in the upper and lower
lobes was 17.6 (1.0)% and 78.4 (1.6)%, respectively (p⩽0.03). In
contrast, BAL fluid from control patients contained small amounts of
L-TGF-β. Using immunostaining, both TβR-I and TβR-II were present
on all cells of normal lungs but TβR-I was markedly reduced in most
cells in areas of honeycomb cysts except for interstitial
myofibroblasts in lungs of patients with IPF. TGF-β1 inhibits
epithelial cell proliferation and a lack of TβR-I expression by
epithelial cells lining honeycomb cysts would facilitate repair of the
alveoli by epithelial cell proliferation. However, the presence of both
TβRs on fibroblasts is likely to result in a response to TGF-β1 for
synthesis of connective tissue proteins. Our findings show that
biologically active TGF-β1 is only present in the lungs of patients
with IPF. In addition, the effects of TGF-β1 on cells may be further
regulated by the expression of TβRs.
of L-TGF-β1 and the differential expression of TβRs may be
important in the pathogenesis of remodelling and fibrosis in IPF.
Rationale: Surfactant protein (SP)-D and SP-A have been implicated in immunomodulation in the lung. It has been reported that patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) often have elevated serum levels of SP-A and SP-D, although their role in the disease is not known.
Objectives: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that SP-D plays an important role in lung fibrosis using a mouse model of fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM).
Methods: Triple transgenic inducible SP-D mice (iSP-D mice), in which rat SP-D is expressed in response to doxycycline (Dox) treatment, were administered BLM (100 U/kg) or saline subcutaneously using miniosmotic pumps.
Measurements and Main Results: BLM-treated iSP-D mice off Dox (SP-D off) had increased lung fibrosis compared with mice on Dox (SP-D on). SP-D deficiency also increased macrophage-dominant cell infiltration and the expression of profibrotic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1, platelet-derived growth factor-AA). Alveolar macrophages isolated from BLM-treated iSP-D mice off Dox (SP-D off) secreted more TGF-β1. Fibrocytes, which are bone marrow–derived mesenchymal progenitor cells, were increased to a greater extent in the lungs of the BLM-treated iSP-D mice off Dox (SP-D off). Fibrocytes isolated from BLM-treated iSP-D mice off Dox (SP-D off) expressed more of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β1 and more CXCR4, a chemokine receptor that is important in fibrocyte migration into the lungs. Exogenous SP-D administered intratracheally attenuated BLM-induced lung fibrosis in SP-D−/− mice.
Conclusions: These data suggest that alveolar SP-D regulates numbers of macrophages and fibrocytes in the lungs, profibrotic cytokine expression, and fibrotic lung remodeling in response to BLM injury.
surfactant; lung fibrosis; macrophage; fibrocyte; growth factor
Airway remodeling is the process of airway structural change that occurs in patients with asthma in response to persistent inflammation and leads to increasing disease severity. Drugs that decrease this persistent inflammation play a crucial role in managing asthma episodes. Mice sensitized (by intraperitoneal administration) and then challenged (by inhalation) with ovalbumin (OVA) develop an extensive eosinophilic inflammatory response, goblet cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, airway smooth muscle thickening, and airway wall area increase, similar to pathologies observed in human asthma. We used OVA-sensitized/challenged mice as a murine model of chronic allergic airway inflammation with subepithelial fibrosis (i.e., asthma). In this OVA mouse model, mRNA and protein of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) are upregulated, a response similar to what has been observed in the pathogenesis of acute inflammation in human asthma. We hypothesized that MIF induces transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) synthesis, which has been shown to play an important role in asthma and airway remodeling. To explore the role of MIF in the development of airway remodeling, we evaluated the effects of an MIF small-molecule antagonist, (S,R)3-(4-hy-droxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1), on pathologies associated with the airway-remodeling process in the OVA mouse model. We found that administration of ISO-1 significantly mitigated all symptoms caused by OVA treatment. In addition, the treatment of OVA-sensitized mice with the MIF antagonist ISO-1 significantly reduced TGF-β1 mRNA levels in pulmonary tissue and its protein level in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid supernatants. We believe the repression of MIF in the ISO-1 treatment group led to the significant suppression observed in the inflammatory responses associated with the allergen-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in our murine asthma (OVA) model. Our results implicate a possible function of MIF in the pathogenesis of chronic asthma and suggest that MIF might be an important therapeutic target for airway remodeling.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) may play a role as an infectious trigger in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Few data are available regarding the influence of acute and persistent infection on tissue remodelling and repair factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β.
NTHI infection in lung tissues obtained from COPD patients and controls was studied in vivo and using an in vitro model. Infection experiments were performed with two different clinical isolates. Detection of NTHI was done using in situ hybridization (ISH) in unstimulated and in in vitro infected lung tissue. For characterization of TGF-β signaling molecules a transcriptome array was performed. Expression of the TGF-pseudoreceptor BMP and Activin Membrane-bound Inhibitor (BAMBI) was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC), ISH and PCR. CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TGF-β expression were evaluated in lung tissue and cell culture using ELISA.
In 38% of COPD patients infection with NTHI was detected in vivo in contrast to 0% of controls (p < 0.05). Transcriptome arrays showed no significant changes of TGF-β receptors 1 and 2 and Smad-3 expression, whereas a strong expression of BAMBI with upregulation after in vitro infection of COPD lung tissue was demonstrated. BAMBI was expressed ubiquitously on alveolar macrophages (AM) and to a lesser degree on alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Measurement of cytokine concentrations in lung tissue supernatants revealed a decreased expression of TGF-β (p < 0.05) in combination with a strong proinflammatory response (p < 0.01).
We show for the first time the expression of the TGF pseudoreceptor BAMBI in the human lung, which is upregulated in response to NTHI infection in COPD lung tissue in vivo and in vitro. The combination of NTHI-mediated induction of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibition of TGF-β expression may influence inflammation induced tissue remodeling.
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a group of devastating and largely irreversible diseases. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 is involved in the processes of remodeling and inflammation, which play key role in tissue fibrosis. The aim of the study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of PDE4 inhibition in experimental model of PF.
PF was induced in C57BL/6N mice by instillation of bleomycin. Pharmacological inhibition of PDE4 was achieved by using cilomilast, a selective PDE4 inhibitor. Changes in either lung inflammation or remodeling were evaluated at different stages of experimental PF. Lung inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) differential cell count and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for inflammatory cytokines. Changes in tissue remodeling were evaluated by pulmonary compliance measurement, quantified pathological examination, measurement of collagen deposition and RT-qPCR for late remodeling markers. Survival in all groups was analyzed as well.
PDE4 inhibition significantly reduced the total number of alveolar inflammatory cells in BALF of mice with bleomycin-induced PF at early fibrosis stage (days 4 and 7). Number of macrophages and lymphocytes, but not neutrophils, was significantly reduced as well. Treatment decreased lung tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA level and increased mRNA level of interleukin (IL)-6 but did not influence IL-1β. At later stage (days 14 and 24) cilomilast improved lung function, which was shown by increase in lung compliance. It also lowered fibrosis degree, as was shown by quantified pathological examination of Hematoxilin-Eosin stained lung sections. Cilomilast had no significant effect on the expression of late remodeling markers such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and collagen type Ia1 (COL(I)α1). However, it tended to restore the level of lung collagen, assessed by SIRCOL assay and Masson's trichrome staining, and to improve the overall survival.
Selective PDE4 inhibition suppresses early inflammatory stage and attenuates the late stage of experimental pulmonary fibrosis.
Ets-2 is a ubiquitous transcription factor activated after phosphorylation at threonine-72. Previous studies highlighted the importance of phosphorylated ets-2 in lung inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling, two pathways involved in pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that phosphorylated ets-2 played an important role in pulmonary fibrosis, and we sought to determine the role of ets-2 in its pathogenesis. We challenged ets-2 (A72/A72) transgenic mice (harboring a mutated form of ets-2 at phosphorylation site threonine-72) and ets-2 (wild-type/wild-type [WT/WT]) control mice with sequential intraperitoneal injections of bleomycin, followed by quantitative measurements of lung fibrosis and inflammation and primary cell in vitro assays. Concentrations of phosphorylated ets-2 were detected via the single and dual immunohistochemical staining of murine lungs and lung sections from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Ets-2 (A72/A72) mice were protected from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, compared with ets-2 (WT/WT) mice. This protection was characterized by decreased lung pathological abnormalities and the fibrotic gene expression of Type I collagen, Type III collagen, α–smooth muscle actin, and connective tissue growth factor. Immunohistochemical staining of lung sections from bleomycin-treated ets-2 (WT/WT) mice and from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated increased staining of phosphorylated ets-2 that colocalized with Type I collagen expression and to fibroblastic foci. Lastly, primary lung fibroblasts from ets-2 (A72/A72) mice exhibited decreased expression of Type I collagen in response to stimulation with TGF-β, compared with fibroblasts from ets-2 (WT/WT) mice. These data indicate the importance of phosphorylated ets-2 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis through the expression of Type I collagen and (myo)fibroblast activation.
ets-2; Type I collagen; pulmonary fibrosis; bleomycin; fibroblast
Collagen-containing leukocytes (CD45+Col-I+) accumulate in diseased and fibrotic tissues. However, the precise identity of these cells and whether injury is required for their recruitment remain unknown. Using a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis in which an inducible, bioactive form of the human transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 gene is targeted to the lung, we characterized the cell surface phenotype of collagen-containing CD45+ cells in the lung and tested the hypothesis that apoptotic cell death responses are essential to the accumulation of CD45+Col-I+ cells.
Our studies demonstrate that CD45+Col-I+ cells appearing in the TGF-β1-exposed murine lung express markers of the monocyte lineage. Inhibition of apoptosis via pharmacological caspase blockade led to a significant reduction in CD45+Col-I+ cells, which appear to accumulate independently of alternatively activated macrophages. There are also increased levels of apoptosis and greater numbers of CD45+Col-I+ in the lung tissue of patients with two distinct forms of fibrotic lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease, when compared to lung from healthy normal controls. These findings are accompanied by an increase in collagen production in cultured monocytes obtained from subjects with fibrotic lung disease. Treatment of these cultured cells with the caspase inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD/fmk) reduces both apoptosis and collagen production in all subjects.
Interventions that prevent collagen production by monocytes via modulation of caspase activation and of apoptosis may be ameliorative in monocyte-associated, TGF-β1-driven processes such as pulmonary fibrosis.
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β–activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is activated in different cytokine signaling pathways. Deletion of Tak1 from hepatocytes results in spontaneous development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver inflammation, and fibrosis. TGF-β activates TAK1 and Smad signaling, which regulate cell death, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. However, it is not clear whether TGF-β signaling in hepatocytes, via TGF-β receptor–2 (Tgfbr2), promotes HCC and liver fibrosis.
We generated mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Tak1 (Tak1ΔHep), as well as Tak1/Tgfbr2DHep and Tak1/Smad4ΔHep mice. Tak1flox/flox, Tgfbr2ΔHep, and Smad4ΔHep mice were used as controls, respectively. We assessed development of liver injury, inflammation, fibrosis, and HCC. Primary hepatocytes isolated from these mice were used to assess TGF-β–mediated signaling.
Levels of TGF-β, TGF-βR2, and phospho-Smad2/3 were increased in HCCs from Tak1ΔHep mice, which developed liver fibrosis and inflammation by 1 month and HCC by 9 months. However, Tak1/Tgfbr2ΔHep mice did not have this phenotype, and their hepatocytes did not undergo spontaneous cell death or compensatory proliferation. Hepatocytes from Tak1ΔHep mice incubated with TGF-β did not activate p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or nuclear factor-κB; conversely, TGF-β–mediated cell death and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 were increased, compared with control hepatocytes. Blocking the Smad pathway inhibited TGF-β–mediated death of Tak1−/− hepatocytes. Accordingly, disruption of Smad4 reduced the spontaneous liver injury, inflammation, fibrosis, and HCC that develops in Tak1ΔHep mice. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, β-catenin, connective tissue growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were increased in HCC from Tak1ΔHep mice, but not in HCCs from Tak1/Tgfbr2ΔHep mice. Injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine induced HCC formation in wild-type mice, but less in Tgfbr2ΔHep mice.
TGF-β promotes development of HCC in Tak1ΔHep mice by inducing hepatocyte apoptosis and compensatory proliferation during early phases of tumorigenesis, and inducing expression of anti-apoptotic, pro-oncogenic, and angiogenic factors during tumor progression.
Liver Cancer; Mouse Model; Signal Transduction; Oncogene
Defective epithelial repair, excess fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, collagen overproduction and fibrosis occur in a number of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis. Pathological conversion of epithelial cells into fibroblasts (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT) has been proposed as a mechanism for the increased fibroblast numbers and has been demonstrated to occur in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Whether other airway cell types also have the capability to undergo EMT has been less explored so far. A better understanding of the full extent of EMT in airways, and the underlying mechanisms, can provide important insights into airway disease pathology and enable the development of new therapies. The main aim of this study was to test whether primary human bronchial epithelial cells are able to undergo EMT in vitro and to investigate the effect of various profibrotic factors in the process.
Our data demonstrate that primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are able to undergo EMT in response to transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), as revealed by typical morphological alterations and EMT marker progression at the RNA level by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and, at the protein level, by western blot. By using pharmacological inhibitors we show that this is a Smad-dependent mechanism and is independent of extracellular signal-related kinase pathway activation. Additional cytokines and growth factors such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL1β) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were also tested, alone or in combination with TGF-β1. TNF-α markedly enhances the effect of TGF-β1 on EMT, whereas IL1β shows only a very weak effect and CTGF has no significant effect. We have also found that cell-matrix contact, in particular to fibronectin, an ECM component upregulated in fibrotic lesions, potentiates EMT in both human alveolar epithelial cells and HBECs. Furthermore, we also show that the collagen discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), generally expressed in epithelial cells, is downregulated during the EMT of bronchial epithelium whereas DDR2 is unaffected. Our results also suggest that bone morphogenetic protein-4 is likely to have a context dependent effect during the EMT of HBECs, being able to induce the expression of EMT markers and, at the same time, to inhibit TGF-β induced epithelial transdifferentiation.
The results presented in this study provide additional insights into EMT, a potentially very important mechanism in fibrogenesis. We show that, in addition to alveolar epithelial type II cells, primary HBECs are also able to undergo EMT in vitro upon TGF-β1 stimulation via a primarily Smad 2/3 dependent mechanism. The effect of TGF-β1 is potentiated on fibronectin matrix and in the presence of TNF-α, representing a millieu reminiscent of fibrotic lesions. Our results can contribute to a better understanding of lung fibrosis and to the development of new therapeutic approaches.
Rationale: In experimental models, lung fibrosis is dependent on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. TGF-β is secreted in a latent complex with its propeptide, and TGF-β activators release TGF-β from this complex. Because the integrin αvβ6 is a major TGF-β activator in the lung, inhibition of αvβ6-mediated TGF-β activation is a logical strategy to treat lung fibrosis.
Objectives: To determine, by genetic and pharmacologic approaches, whether murine radiation-induced lung fibrosis is dependent on αvβ6.
Methods: Wild-type mice, αvβ6-deficient (Itgb6−/−) mice, and mice heterozygous for a Tgfb1 mutation that eliminates integrin-mediated activation (Tgfb1+/RGE) were exposed to 14 Gy thoracic radiation. Some mice were treated with an anti-αvβ6 monoclonal antibody or a soluble TGF-β receptor fusion protein. αvβ6 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Fibrosis, inflammation, and gene expression patterns were assessed 20–32 weeks postirradiation.
Measurements and Main Results: β6 Integrin expression increased within the alveolar epithelium 18 weeks postirradiation, just before onset of fibrosis. Itgb6−/− mice were completely protected from fibrosis, but not from late radiation-induced mortality. Anti-αvβ6 therapy (1–10 mg/kg/wk) prevented fibrosis, but only higher doses (6–10 mg/kg/wk) caused lung inflammation similar to that in Itgb6−/− mice. Tgfb1-haploinsufficient mice were also protected from fibrosis.
Conclusions: αvβ6-Mediated TGF-β activation is required for radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Together with previous data, our results demonstrate a robust requirement for αvβ6 in distinct fibrosis models. Inhibition of αvβ6-mediated TGF-β activation is a promising new approach for antifibrosis therapy.
inflammation; lymphocyte; monoclonal antibody
A rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was used to examine the relationship between collagen synthesis and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) production, and cellular distribution. Total lung TGF-beta was elevated within 2 h of intratracheal bleomycin administration and peaked 7 d later at levels 30-fold higher than controls. This was followed by a gradual decline with lower but persistent levels of production in the late phase of the response between 21 and 28 d later. The peak TGF-beta levels preceded the maximum collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis measured by [3H]proline incorporation into lung fibroblast explants of bleomycin- treated rats. The pattern of immunohistochemical staining localized TGF- beta initially in the cytoplasm of bronchiolar epithelium cells and subepithelial extracellular matrix. The peak of lung TGF-beta levels at 7 d coincided with intense TGF-beta staining of macrophages dispersed in the alveolar interstitium and in organized clusters. Later in the course of the response. TGF-beta was primarily associated with extracellular matrix in regions of increased cellularity and tissue repair, and coincided with the maximum fibroblast collagen synthesis. This temporal and spatial relationship between collagen production and TGF-beta production by macrophages suggests an important if not primary role for TGF-beta in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fibrosis.
Fibrosis is a final stage of many lung diseases, with no effective treatment. Plasminogen activator inhibitor–1 (PAI-1), a primary inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA, respectively), plays a critical role in the development of fibrosis. In this study, we explored the therapeutic potential of an orally effective small molecule PAI-1 inhibitor, TM5275, in a model of lung fibrosis induced by transforming growth factor–β1 (TGF-β1), the most potent and ubiquitous profibrogenic cytokine, and in human lung fibroblasts (CCL-210 cells). The results show that an intranasal instillation of AdTGF-β1223/225, an adenovirus expressing constitutively active TGF-β1, increased the expression of PAI-1 and induced fibrosis in murine lung tissue. On the other hand, treating mice with 40 mg/kg of TM5275 for 10 days, starting 4 days after the instillation of AdTGF-β1223/225, restored the activities of uPA and tPA and almost completely blocked TGF-β1–induced lung fibrosis, as shown by collagen staining, Western blotting, and the measurement of hydroxyproline. No loss of body weight was evident under these treatment conditions with TM5275. Furthermore, we show that TM5275 induced apoptosis in both myofibroblasts (TGF-β1–treated) and naive (TGF-β1–untreated) human lung fibroblasts, and this apoptosis was associated with the activation of caspase-3/7, the induction of p53, and the inhibition of α–smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and PAI-1 expression. Such an inhibition of fibrotic responses by TM5275 occurred even in cells pretreated with TGF-β1 for 6 hours. Together, the results suggest that TM5275 is a relatively safe and potent antifibrotic agent, with therapeutic potential in fibrotic lung disease.
PAI-1 inhibitor; lung fibrosis therapy; (myo)fibroblast apoptosis; TGF-β1; animal model
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of vascular angiogenesis, permeability, and remodeling that also plays important roles in wound healing and tissue cytoprotection. To begin to define the roles of VEGF in diseases like asthma and COPD, we characterized the effects of lung-targeted transgenic VEGF165 and defined the innate immune pathways that regulate VEGF tissue responses. The former studies demonstrated that VEGF plays an important role in Th2 inflammation because, in addition to stimulating angiogenesis and edema, VEGF induced eosinophilic inflammation, mucus metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, myocyte hyperplasia, dendritic cell activation, and airways hyperresponsiveness via IL-13–dependent and -independent mechanisms. VEGF was also produced at sites of aeroallergen-induced Th2 inflammation, and VEGF receptor blockade ameliorated adaptive Th2 inflammation and Th2 cytokine elaboration. The latter studies demonstrated that activation of the RIG-like helicase (RLH) innate immune pathway using viral pathogen–associated molecular patterns such as Poly(I:C) or viruses ameliorated VEGF-induced tissue responses. In accord with these findings, Poly(I:C)-induced RLH activation also abrogated aeroallergen-induced Th2 inflammation. When viewed in combination, these studies suggest that VEGF excess can contribute to the pathogenesis of Th2 inflammatory disorders such as asthma and that abrogation of VEGF signaling via RLH activation can contribute to the pathogenesis of viral disorders such as virus-induced COPD exacerbations. They also suggest that RLH activation may be a useful therapeutic strategy in asthma and related disorders.
asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; virus; RIG-like helicase; mitochondrial antiviral signaling molecule
Rationale: Asthma is characterized by increases in airway resistance, pulmonary remodeling, and lung inflammation. The cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been shown to have a central role in asthma pathogenesis and in mouse models of allergic airway disease.
Objectives: To determine the contribution of TGF-β to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), we examined the time course, source, and isoform specificity of TGF-β production in an in vivo mouse asthma model. To then elucidate the function of TGF-β in AHR, inflammation, and pulmonary fibrosis, we examined the effects of blocking TGF-β signaling with neutralizing antibody.
Methods: Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to establish allergic airway disease. TGF-β activity was neutralized by intranasal administration of monoclonal antibody.
Measurements and Main Results: TGF-β1 protein levels were increased in OVA-challenged lungs versus naive controls, and airway epithelial cells were shown to be a likely source of TGF-β1. In addition, TGF-β1 levels were elevated in OVA-exposed IL-5–null mice, which fail to recruit eosinophils into the airways. Neutralization of TGF-β1 with specific antibody had no significant effect on airway inflammation and eosinophilia, although anti–TGF-β1 antibody enhanced OVA-induced AHR and suppressed pulmonary fibrosis.
Conclusions: These data show that TGF-β1 is the main TGF-β isoform produced after OVA challenge, with a likely cellular source being the airway epithelium. The effects of blocking TGF-β1 signaling had differential effects on AHR, fibrosis, and inflammation. While TGF-β neutralization may be beneficial to abrogating airway remodeling, it may be detrimental to lung function by increasing AHR.
lung; mice; hypersensitivity; cytokines
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, a member of the VEGF family, induces both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3 on the surface of endothelial cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been shown to stimulate VEGF-A expression in human lung fibroblast via the Smad3 signaling pathway and to induce VEGF-C in human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, the effects of TGF-β1 on VEGF-D regulation are unknown. To investigate the regulation of VEGF-D, human lung fibroblasts were studied under pro-fibrotic conditions in vitro and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 downregulates VEGF-D expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human lung fibroblasts. This TGF-β1 effect can be abolished by inhibitors of TGF-β type I receptor kinase and Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), but not by Smad3 knockdown. In addition, VEGF-D knockdown in human lung fibroblasts induces G1/S transition and promotes cell proliferation. Importantly, VEGF-D protein expression is decreased in lung homogenates from IPF patients compared with control lung. In IPF lung sections, fibroblastic foci show very weak VEGF-D immunoreactivity, whereas VEGF-D is abundantly expressed within alveolar interstitial cells in control lung. Taken together, our data identify a novel mechanism for downstream signal transduction induced by TGF-β1 in lung fibroblasts, through which they may mediate tissue remodeling in IPF.
Background and aims: Ingestion of paraquat (PQ), a widely used herbicide, can cause severe toxicity in humans, leading to a poor survival rate and prognosis. One of the main causes of death by PQ is PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis, for which there are no effective therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rapamycin (RAPA) on inhibiting PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice and to explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either saline (control group) or PQ (10 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally; test group). The test group was divided into four subgroups: a PQ group (PQ-exposed, non-treated), a PQ+RAPA group (PQ-exposed, treated with RAPA at 1 mg/kg intragastrically), a PQ+MP group (PQ-exposed, treated with methylprednisolone (MP) at 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally), and a PQ+MP+RAPA group (PQ-exposed, treated with MP at 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally and with RAPA at 1 mg/kg intragastrically). The survival rate and body weight of all the mice were recorded every day. Three mice in each group were sacrificed at 14 d and the rest at 28 d after intoxication. Lung tissues were excised and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson’s trichrome stain for histopathological analysis. The hydroxyproline (HYP) content in lung tissues was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Results: A mice model of PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis was established. Histological examination of lung tissues showed that RAPA treatment moderated the pathological changes of pulmonary fibrosis, including alveolar collapse and interstitial collagen deposition. HYP content in lung tissues increased soon after PQ intoxication but had decreased significantly by the 28th day after RAPA treatment. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting showed that RAPA treatment significantly down-regulated the enhanced levels of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in lung tissues caused by PQ exposure. However, RAPA treatment alone could not significantly ameliorate the lower survival rate and weight loss of treated mice. MP treatment enhanced the survival rate, but had no significant effects on attenuating PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis or reducing the expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that RAPA treatment effectively suppresses PQ-induced alveolar collapse and collagen deposition in lung tissues through reducing the expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA. Thus, RAPA has potential value in the treatment of PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
Paraquat; Pulmonary fibrosis; Rapamycin; Transforming growth factor-β1; α-Smooth muscle actin; Methylprednisolone
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is widely thought to promote the development of fibrosis in collaboration with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β; however, most of the evidence for its involvement comes from correlative and culture-based studies. In this study, the importance of CTGF in tissue fibrosis was directly examined in three murine models of fibrotic disease: a novel model of multiorgan fibrosis induced by repeated intraperitoneal injections of CTGF and TGF-β2; the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal fibrosis model; and an intratracheal bleomycin instillation model of pulmonary fibrosis.
Intraperitoneal coadministration of CTGF and TGF-β2 elicited a profound fibrotic response that was inhibited by the human anti-CTGF antibody FG-3019, as indicated by the ability of FG-3019 to ameliorate the histologic signs of fibrosis and reduce the otherwise increased hydroxyproline:proline (Hyp:Pro) ratios by 25% in kidney (P < 0.05), 30% in liver (P < 0.01) and 63% in lung (P < 0.05). Moreover, administration of either cytokine alone failed to elicit a fibrotic response, thus demonstrating that CTGF is both necessary and sufficient to initiate fibrosis in the presence of TGF-β and vice versa. In keeping with this requirement for CTGF function in fibrosis, FG-3019 also reduced the renal Hyp:Pro response up to 20% after UUO (P < 0.05). In bleomycin-injured animals, a similar trend towards a FG-3019 treatment effect was observed (38% reduction in total lung Hyp, P = 0.056). Thus, FG-3019 antibody treatment consistently reduced excessive collagen deposition and the pathologic severity of fibrosis in all models.
Cooperative interactions between CTGF and TGF-β signaling are required to elicit overt tissue fibrosis. This interdependence and the observed anti-fibrotic effects of FG-3019 indicate that anti-CTGF therapy may provide therapeutic benefit in different forms of fibroproliferative disease.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, the accumulation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling through its G protein–coupled receptors is critical for its various biological functions. Recently, LPA and LPA receptor 1 were implicated in lung fibrogenesis. However, the role of other LPA receptors in fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we use a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model to investigate the roles of LPA2 in pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, we found that LPA2 knockout (Lpar2−/−) mice were protected against bleomycin-induced lung injury, fibrosis, and mortality, compared with wild-type control mice. Furthermore, LPA2 deficiency attenuated the bleomycin-induced expression of fibronectin (FN), α–smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen in lung tissue, as well as levels of IL-6, transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β), and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In human lung fibroblasts, the knockdown of LPA2 attenuated the LPA-induced expression of TGF-β1 and the differentiation of lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, resulting in the decreased expression of FN, α-SMA, and collagen, as well as decreased activation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2, Akt, Smad3, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, the knockdown of LPA2 with small interfering RNA also mitigated the TGF-β1–induced differentiation of lung fibroblasts. In addition, LPA2 deficiency significantly attenuated the bleomycin-induced apoptosis of alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells in the mouse lung. Together, our data indicate that the knockdown of LPA2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, and this may be related to an inhibition of the LPA-induced expression of TGF-β and the activation and differentiation of fibroblasts.
lysophosphatidic acid; LPA2; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; transforming growth factor–β
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is the pivotal pro-fibrogenic cytokine in hepatic fibrosis. Reducing the over-produced expression of TGF-β1 or blocking its signaling pathways is considered to be a promising therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of attenuating hepatic fibrosis by vaccination against TGF-β1 with TGF-β1 kinoids. Two TGF-β1 kinoid vaccines were prepared by cross-linking TGF-β1-derived polypeptides (TGF-β125–[41-65] and TGF-β130–[83-112]) to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Immunization with the two TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently elicited the production of high-levels of TGF-β1-specific antibodies against in BALB/c mice as tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The antisera neutralized TGF-β1-induced growth-inhibition on mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and attenuated TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation, α-SMA, collagen type 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression in the rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line, HSC-T6. Vaccination against TGF-β1 with the kinoids significantly suppressed CCl4-induced collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA and desmin, attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in BALB/c mice. These results demonstrated that immunization with the TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and liver injury. Our study suggests that vaccination against TGF-β1 might be developed into a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic fibrotic liver diseases.