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1.  A comparison of quality and satisfaction experiences of patients attending chiropractic and physician offices in Ontario 
Introduction:
Improving the quality of healthcare is a common goal of consumers, providers, payer groups, and governments. There is evidence that patient satisfaction influences the perceptions of the quality of care received.
Methods:
This exploratory, qualitative study described and analyzed, the similarities and differences in satisfaction and dissatisfaction experiences of patients attending physicians (social justice) and chiropractors (market justice) for healthcare services in Niagara Region, Ontario. Using inductive content analysis the satisfaction and dissatisfaction experiences were themed to develop groups, categories, and sub-categories of quality judgments of care experiences.
Results:
Study participants experienced both satisfying and dissatisfying critical incidents in the areas of standards of practice, professional and practice attributes, time management, and treatment outcomes. Cost was not a marked source of satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
Conclusion:
Patients may be more capable of generating quality judgments on the technical aspects of medical and chiropractic care, particularly treatment outcomes and standards of practice, than previously thought.
PMCID: PMC3924505  PMID: 24587494
quality; satisfaction; chiropractic care; qualité; satisfaction; soins chiropratiques
2.  Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS): a randomised controlled trial 
Background
Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK).
Method/Design
The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service.
The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care) from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation) until 6 weeks after birth.
The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy) and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools.
A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level) to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will be by intention to treat.
Qualitative research will explore the POWs' daily work in context. This will complement the findings of the RCT through a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data on the process of the intervention, and identify other contextual factors that affect the implementation of the intervention.
Discussion
The trial will provide high quality evidence as to whether or not lay support (POW) offered to women identified with social risk factors improves engagement with maternity services and reduces numbers of women with depression.
MREC number
10/H1207/23
Trial registration number
ISRCTN: ISRCTN35027323
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-11
PMCID: PMC3349581  PMID: 22375895
3.  The quality of care and influence of double health care coverage in Catalonia (Spain) 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2000;83(3):211-214.
AIMS—To analyse inequalities by social class in children's access to and utilisation of health services in Catalonia (Spain), private health insurance coverage, and certain aspects of the quality of care received.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study using data from the 1994 Catalan Health Interview Survey.
SETTING—Child population of Catalonia.
PARTICIPANTS—A representative sample of non-institutionalised children younger than 15 years (n = 2433).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Health services utilisation, perceived health, type of health insurance (only National Health System (NHS) or both NHS and private health insurance), and social class.
RESULTS—No inequalities by social class were found for the utilisation of health care services provided by the NHS among children in most need. Double health care coverage does not influence the social pattern of visits. Nevertheless, social inequalities still remain in the use of those health services provided only partially by the NHS (dentist) and when characteristics of the last consultation are taken into account. That is, subjects who paid for a private service waited an average of 14.8 minutes less than those whose visit was paid for by the NHS only.
CONCLUSION—Equitable access and use of medical care services in relation to need, regardless of the type of insurance and social class of their children and families, has been achieved in this region of Spain; differences by social class remain for those services incompletely covered by national health insurance and aspects of the quality of care provided.


doi:10.1136/adc.83.3.211
PMCID: PMC1718466  PMID: 10952636
4.  Ethnic and social inequalities in women's experience of maternity care in England: results of a national survey 
Summary
Objective
To examine ethnic and social inequalities in women's experience of maternity care in England.
Design
A 2007 national survey of women (16 years or over) about their experience of maternity care. Multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for several maternal characteristics, was used to examine inequalities by ethnicity, partner status and education.
Setting
Sample of records of 149 NHS acute trusts and two primary care trusts (PCTs) providing maternity services in England.
Results
A total of 26,325 women responded to the survey (response rate 59%). Ethnic minority women were more likely than White British women to access services late, not have a scan by 20 weeks, and experience complications during pregnancy and birth. They were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and say they were treated with respect and dignity. Single women responded more negatively to almost all questions than women with a husband/partner. They were less likely to access care within 12 weeks of pregnancy (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.39–0.52), have a scan at 20 weeks (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.39–0.63), attend NHS antenatal classes (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49–0.65), have a postnatal check-up (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.60–0.75), and initiate breastfeeding (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.51–0.62), and were more likely to experience complications. Women completing education at 19+ years were more likely to access services early (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04–1.40), attend antenatal classes (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.31–1.67), have a postnatal check-up (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07–1.32) and initiate breastfeeding (OR 3.88, 95% CI 3.56–4.22) than those completing education at 16 years or younger, and were less likely to experience complications.
Conclusions
Ethnic minority women, single mothers, and those with an earlier age at completing education access maternity services late, have poorer outcomes, and report poorer experiences across some – though not all – dimensions of maternity care. Ethnic differences were absent or inconsistent between groups for some aspects of care. We recommend these findings are used by commissioners, trusts and healthcare professionals to inform improvements in maternity services for high-risk groups and reduce inequalities.
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2010.090460
PMCID: PMC2862068  PMID: 20436027
5.  Nurses’ Widespread Job Dissatisfaction, Burnout, And Frustration With Health Benefits Signal Problems For Patient Care 
Health affairs (Project Hope)  2011;30(2):202-210.
Job dissatisfaction among nurses contributes to costly labor disputes, turnover, and risk to patients. Examining survey data from 95,499 nurses, we found much higher job dissatisfaction and burnout among nurses who were directly caring for patients in hospitals and nursing homes than among nurses working in other jobs or settings, such as the pharmaceutical industry. Strikingly, nurses are particularly dissatisfied with their health benefits, which highlights the need for a benefits review to make nurses’ benefits more comparable to those of other white-collar employees. Patient satisfaction levels are lower in hospitals with more nurses who are dissatisfied or burned out—a finding that signals problems with quality of care. Improving nurses’ working conditions may improve both nurses’ and patients’ satisfaction as well as the quality of care.
doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0100
PMCID: PMC3201822  PMID: 21289340
6.  Continuity of midwifery care and gestational weight gain in obese women: a randomised controlled trial 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:174.
Background
The increased prevalence of obesity in pregnant women in Australia and other developed countries is a significant public health concern. Obese women are at increased risk of serious perinatal complications and guidelines recommend weight gain restriction and additional care. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity lifestyle interventions in preventing adverse perinatal outcomes and new strategies need to be evaluated. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of continuity of midwifery care on restricting gestational weight gain in obese women to the recommended range. The secondary aims of the study are to assess the impact of continuity of midwifery care on: women's experience of pregnancy care; women's satisfaction with care and a range of psychological factors.
Methods/Design
A two arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with primigravid women recruited from maternity services in Victoria, Australia. Participants will be primigravid women, with a BMI≥30 who are less than 17 weeks gestation. Women allocated to the intervention arm will be cared for in a midwifery continuity of care model and receive an informational leaflet on managing weight gain in pregnancy. Women allocated to the control group will receive routine care in addition to the same informational leaflet. Weight gain during pregnancy, standards of care, medical and obstetric information will be extracted from medical records. Data collected at recruitment (self administered survey) and at 36 weeks by postal survey will include socio-demographic information and the use of validated scales to measure secondary outcomes.
Discussion
Continuity of midwifery care models are well aligned with current Victorian, Australian and many international government policies on maternity care. Increasingly, midwifery continuity models of care are being introduced in low risk maternity care, and information on their application in high risk populations is required. There is an identified need to trial alternative antenatal interventions to reduce perinatal risk factors for women who are obese and the findings from this project may have application in other maternity services. In addition this study will inform a larger trial that will focus on birth and postnatal outcomes.
Trial Registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610001078044.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-174
PMCID: PMC3074543  PMID: 21426582
7.  Antenatal care and maternal demographic and social characteristics. Evolution in France between 1972 and 1976. 
A study was carried out on representative samples of 11 254 births in France in 1972 and 4685 births in 1976. Women were interviewed after delivery to obtain information about the medical care they had received during pregnancy. Inadequate antenatal care was defined as: first antenatal visit after the first trimester of pregnancy, or total number of visits fewer than the required minimum, or no visit to an obstetrician or the hospital maternity team. In 1972, the problem of inadequate care occurred mainly in very young women, or in those of high parity or with short birth intervals when the father's social class had been taken into account. Social status was also an important factor independently of a woman's demographic characteristics. These inequalities persisted in 1976 despite the policy adopted in 1972 to improve antenatal care for high-risk women.
PMCID: PMC1052068  PMID: 7441133
8.  Impact of prenatal care provider on the use of ancillary health services during pregnancy 
Background
Recent declines in the provision of prenatal care by family physicians and the integration of midwives into the Canadian health care system have led to a shift in the pattern of prenatal care provision; however it is unknown if this also impacts use of other health services during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the impact of the type of prenatal care provider on the self-reported use of ancillary services during pregnancy.
Methods
Data for this study was obtained from the All Our Babies study, a community-based prospective cohort study of women’s experiences during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to assess the association between type of prenatal care provider and use of ancillary health services in pregnancy.
Results
During pregnancy, 85.8% of women reported accessing ancillary health services. Compared to women who received prenatal care from a family physician, women who saw a midwife were less likely to call a nurse telephone advice line (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.50) and visit the emergency department (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89), but were more likely receive chiropractic care (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.49-6.67). Women who received their prenatal care from an obstetrician were more likely to visit a walk-in clinic (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.05) than those who were cared for by a family physician.
Conclusions
Prenatal care is a complex entity and referral pathways between care providers and services are not always clear. This can lead to the provision of fragmented care and create opportunities for errors and loss of information. All types of care providers have a role in addressing the full range of health needs that pregnant women experience.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-13-62
PMCID: PMC3599935  PMID: 23497179
Physician practice patterns; Pregnancy; Health services research
9.  Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey 
Background
Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more socioeconomically advantaged (SEA) postpartum women's health, health service needs and utilization patterns.
Methods
Data collected as part of a large Ontario cross-sectional mother-infant survey were analyzed. Women (N = 1000) who had uncomplicated vaginal births of single 'at-term' infants at four hospitals in two large southern Ontario, Canada cities were stratified into SED and SEA groups based on income, social support and a universally administered hospital postpartum risk screen. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire before hospital discharge and a telephone interview four weeks after discharge. Main outcome measures were self-reported health status, symptoms of postpartum depression, postpartum service needs and health service use.
Results
When compared to the SEA women, the SED women were more likely to be discharged from hospital within the first 24 hours after giving birth [OR 1.49, 95% CI (1.01–2.18)], less likely to report very good or excellent health [OR 0.48, 95% CI (0.35–0.67)], and had higher rates of symptoms of postpartum depression [OR 2.7, 95% CI(1.64–4.4)]. No differences were found between groups in relation to self reported need for and ability to access services for physical and mental health needs, or in use of physicians, walk-in clinics and emergency departments. The SED group were more likely to accept public health nurse home visits [OR 2.24, 95% CI(1.47–3.40)].
Conclusion
Although SED women experienced poorer mental and overall health they reported similar health service needs and utilization patterns to more SEA women. The results can assist policy makers, health service planners and providers to develop and implement necessary and accessible services. Further research is needed to evaluate SED postpartum women's health service needs and barriers to service use.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-203
PMCID: PMC2570364  PMID: 18834521
10.  The childbearing health and related service needs of newcomers (CHARSNN) study protocol 
Background
Refugee and asylum-seeking women in Canada may have significant harmful childbearing health outcomes and unmet health and social care needs. The most vulnerable of these women are: those who have left their countries by force (e.g., war, rape or abuse histories), are separated from their families, have limited knowledge of the host country languages, and are visible minorities. Asylum-seekers face additional stresses related to their unknown future status and are marginalized with regards to access to provincial health care systems. The prevalence and severity of health issues in this population is not known nor is the extent of response from social service and health care systems (including variation in provincial service delivery). Understanding the magnitude of health and social concerns of newcomers requires data from a representative sample of childbearing refugee and asylum-seeking women resettling in Canada to permit comparisons to be made with non-refugee immigrant and Canadian-born women. Our research questions are: (1) Do refugee or asylum-seeking women and their infants, experience a greater number or a different distribution of harmful health events during pregnancy, at birth, and during the postpartum period than non-refugee immigrant or Canadian-born women? (2) Are the harmful health events experienced postpartum by asylum-seeking women and their infants, addressed less often (compared to refugees, non-refugee immigrants, and Canadian-born women) by the Canadian health care system as delivered in each of the three major receiving cities for newcomers?
Methods/design
This is a four-year multi-site prospective cohort study (pregnancy to 4 months postpartum). We will seek to recruit 2400 women [200 in each of 4 groups (refugees, asylum-seekers, non-refugee immigrants, and Canadian-born) from 1 of 12 postpartum hospital units across the 3 largest receiving cities for newcomers to Canada – Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver].
Discussion
Knowledge of the extent of harmful health events occurring to asylum-seeking, refugee, immigrant, and Canadian-born women, and the response of the health care system to those events and group differences, if they exist, will inform immigration and health policy makers as well as providers of services.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-6-31
PMCID: PMC1797193  PMID: 17190589
11.  The associations of gender, sexual identity and competing needs with healthcare utilization among people with HIV/AIDS. 
Studies report gender differences in medical service utilization among persons with HIV, although most compare women to heterogeneous groups of men. Competing needs for medical care of women may contribute to those differences. We examined prospectively the role that competing social, economic and health needs, such as caring for others, play in gender differences in hospital, ambulatory and emergency room (ER) visits. We considered sexual identity to study women, gay/bisexual men and heterosexual men in the most recent wave (n = 1,385) of the HCSUS, a nationally representative sample of persons with HIV/AIDS in care in the United States. We considered gay/bisexual men and heterosexual men separately because their different resources and social networks may lead to disparate service utilization. Multivariate regression showed that women were more likely than gay/bisexual men to be hospitalized, while women and gay/bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to use the ER without subsequent hospitalization. Controlling for competing needs eliminated neither difference but predicted hospitalization and ER use. Findings suggest that addressing competing needs could reduce unnecessary hospitalization and ER use for both genders. Furthermore, examinations of gender differences in service use should include sexual identity.
PMCID: PMC2569651  PMID: 17444432
12.  The British Columbia Positive Women's Survey: a detailed profile of 110 HIV-infected women 
OBJECTIVE: To describe the health, social environment, medical care received and satisfaction with medical care of HIV-infected women in British Columbia. DESIGN: Self-administered 75-item questionnaire distributed by mail or in person between March 1994 and February 1996 through community AIDS organizations and physicians' offices. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 HIV-positive women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic data, risk factors for HIV infection, details about HIV testing, health status and medical treatment, use of health care services, degree of satisfaction with medical care and psychosocial stressors. RESULTS: Most of the women surveyed were aged 25 to 39 years (70.0%), were Canadian born (76.4%) and were white (80.9%). Over one-third did not complete high school, and half had an annual household income of less than $20,000. Of the 110 women 51.8% had children, who were HIV-positive in 12.3% of cases. The most frequently reported risk factor for HIV infection was sex with a man (49.1%); 19.1% reported both sex with a man and injection drug use, and 12.7% reported injection drug use only. Seventy-five women indicated that they had become infected through sex with a man, with or without injection drug use. Of these, 65 indicated whether or not this was the result of sexual assault or rape; 8 (12.3%) answered affirmatively. Of the 81 women who responded to the question regarding prior sexual assault or abuse, 43 (53.1%) reported being sexually assaulted as an adult, 35 (43.2%) reported being sexually abused as a child, and 22 (27.2%) reported being sexually abused or assaulted both as a child and as an adult. Women who were sexually abused as a child were more likely than those who were not abused as a child to have injection drug use as a risk factor (54.3% v. 7.5%). Menstrual cycle changes were reported by 70.1% of the respondents. Most women stated that they had not received adequate pre- or post-test counselling, and 47.0% were not satisfied with their doctor's care. Psychosocial concerns identified to be of greatest importance were financial problems, lack of intimacy or satisfying sexual relationship, and fear of rejection or discrimination. CONCLUSION: Several important concerns for HIV-positive women were identified, including dissatisfaction with medical care, fear of discrimination, violence and abuse, and poverty.
PMCID: PMC1228831  PMID: 9484255
13.  Health services experiences of parents of recently diagnosed visually impaired children 
Aim: To investigate the health service experiences and needs of parents in the period around diagnosis of ophthalmic disorders in their children.
Methods: Parents of children newly diagnosed with visual impairment and/or ophthalmic disorders at a tertiary level hospital in London participated in a questionnaire survey, using standard instruments, followed by in-depth individual interviews, to elicit their views about the processes of care, their overall level of satisfaction, and their unmet needs.
Results: 67% (147) of eligible families (135 mothers, 76 fathers) participated. Overall satisfaction with care was high, being greater among parents of children with milder visual loss or isolated ophthalmic disorders than those with more severe visual loss or multiple impairments. Nevertheless, parents’ reported greatest need was the provision of general information, including about their child’s ophthalmic disorder and educational and social services and support. Mothers reported greater information needs than fathers, as did white parents compared to those from ethnic minorities. White parents also regarded the processes of care to be less comprehensive and coordinated, as well as less enabling, than did parents from ethnic minorities.
Conclusions: Although parents reported high overall satisfaction with services, improving the medium, content, and scope of general information provided by professionals to parents of visually impaired children emerges as a priority. Equitable planning and provision of health services for families of children with visual impairment needs to take into account that informational and other needs vary by whether the parent is the primary carer or not and their ethnicity, as well as by the severity and complexity of their child’s visual loss.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2004.051409
PMCID: PMC1772503  PMID: 15665355
health services research; visual impairment; children; disability; families
14.  Dissatisfaction with the laboratory services in conducting HIV related testing among public and private medical personnel in Tanzania 
Background
A comprehensive care and treatment program requires a well functioning laboratory services. We assessed satisfaction of medical personnel to the laboratory services to guide process of quality improvement of the services.
Methodology
A cross-sectional survey in 24 randomly selected health facilities in Mainland Tanzania was conducted to assess the satisfaction of the medical personnel with the laboratory services.
Results
Of 235 medical personnel interviewed, 196 were valid for analysis and about one quarter were dissatisfied with the laboratory services. Personnel dissatisfied with the services were 38.3% in timely test result, 24.5% in correct and accurate results and 22.4% in clear complete results. The personnel in public laboratories were more dissatisfied with timely test results (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.8, 7.3), correct results (OR = 4.1, 95% CI 1.6, 10.8) and clear complete results (OR = 5.0 95% CI 1.6, 15.2). Personnel dissatisfied with the services in 15 laboratories sending specimens to referral laboratories, varied from 13% in availability of equipment to 57% in timely results feedback from the referral laboratories. Personnel dissatisfied with the services in 14 referral laboratories, varied from 28.6% in properly identified specimen to 42.9% in clear, accurate test request and communication.
Conclusion
About one quarter of medical personnel in sending or receiving laboratories were dissatisfied with the services. Comparing the personnel in public and private, the personnel in public laboratories were 4 times more dissatisfied with the timely test and correct results; and 5 times more dissatisfied with clear and complete test results.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-171
PMCID: PMC2518553  PMID: 18691442
15.  Can clinicians benefit from patient satisfaction surveys? Evaluating the NSF for Older People, 2005–2006 
Summary
Background
A transformation of healthcare is underway, from a sellers' market to a consumers' market, where the satisfaction of the patient's needs is part of the definition of quality. Patient satisfaction surveys are widely used to judge service quality, but clinicians are sceptical about them because they are too often poorly designed measures that do not lead to improvements in the quality of care.
Aim
To explore the use of patient satisfaction survey data in identifying problems with the provision of inpatient care for older people.
Methods
A case study using secondary analysis of postal survey data about older people's experiences of health and social care services, obtained during the evaluation of the National Service Framework for Older People in 2005–2006. The survey asked about experiences of inpatient care and of discharge from hospital, and sought perceptions of the avoidability of the admission.
Settings and participants
A total of 4170 people aged 50 years and over returned a postal questionnaire in six local authority areas of England. Responses from 584 who had experienced a recent overnight stay in hospital are reported and discussed.
Findings
The response rate was 35%, ranging from 26% to 44% in the six areas surveyed. The great majority of those who had recent direct experience of inpatient care reported that they had been engaged in decision-making, that staff promoted their independence and maintained their dignity. There were widespread examples, however, of the opposite experiences. Discharge from hospital was problematic for about one-third of survey respondents with this experience, and there were different accounts of poorly managed discharges from all areas.
Conclusions
Case studies using local survey data can be used as formative assessments of services. The response rate to the survey and the likelihood of responder bias mean that patient satisfaction survey data of this sort cannot be used to judge or compare services in a summative way, but can highlight areas where remedial action is needed. Small-scale local surveys may seem to lack the robustness of larger studies, but do identify similar areas of concern. Commissioners and clinicians could use the findings of such surveys to inform dialogues about the quality of hospital care for older people.
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080103
PMCID: PMC2625387  PMID: 19092030
16.  Social care services for patients with HIV at a London teaching hospital; an evaluation. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1992;68(6):382-385.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate outpatients' use of, and satisfaction with social care services in an HIV unit. DESIGN--Survey of patients with HIV infection using self administered questionnaire. SETTING--Outpatient HIV clinics at the Royal Free Hospital, London, March-April 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' social circumstances, use or intended use of social care services and satisfaction with social care services. RESULTS--The greatest demand was for counselling about coping with HIV (38% of respondents), available medical treatment (24%), counselling for the HIV test (33%), psychological support for emotional (24%) or relationship problems (16%), advice about housing (24%) and financial matters (20%). In general, the use of social care services by men and women was similar. Twice as many men, however, sought help with payment of domestic bills, compared with women. Women were more likely to seek advice about financial benefits, obtaining sterile injecting equipment and discuss sleep and relationship problems. Thirty eight percent of patients were unemployed. Overall, 84% thought the service was good or excellent. Although less than 40% of patients currently used any one service, 60% thought they would use these services in the future. CONCLUSION--The greatest demand for social care services was for coping with HIV, housing and financial matters, and HIV test counselling. More than half the patients stated that they would probably need social care services in future.
PMCID: PMC1194975  PMID: 1487259
17.  PATIENTS’ SATISFACTION WITH PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS SERVICES IN KUWAIT CITY, KUWAIT 
Background:
Assessment of patient satisfaction offers a way of optimizing health status and prevents waste of medical resources. The direct measurement of patient satisfaction is a new phenomenon in Kuwait.
Objective:
Assess patient satisfaction with respect to primary health care services and study any patterns of association of sociodemographic variables on the patient satisfaction level.
Methods:
The sample consisted of 301 patients selected systematically from five primary health care centers to represent various geographic areas in Kuwait City. Just over 56% of the sample were females, 59% were married, the great majority (70.4%) were government employees, more than 60% had a monthly income of less than 900 KD, more than 54% were intermediate and high secondary school graduates, and 37% were university graduates or had advanced degrees. The data was collected by personal interview using structured questionnaire.
Results:
The overall mean satisfaction was 3.1 points out of five (62%). The mean satisfaction scores were 3.64, 3.29, 3.08, 3.05, 2.21 for laboratory, pharmacy, radiology, dental and physician services, respectively. The highest mean score for physician services was obtained for communication skills (2.23); for pharmacy services, the availability of medicine (4.01); for laboratory services, the availability of lab materials (3.73); for radiology services, the waiting time for x-ray (3.60); and for dental services, the adequacy of dentists (3.27). The results indicated that gender, income, marital status and occupation were the most consistent demographic predictors of satisfaction, with females, those with lower income, lower education levels and the unemployed having higher mean satisfaction scores.
Conclusion:
There is a need for corrective intervention in some service areas and for an educational program to inform patients of the objectives and limitations of primary health services.
PMCID: PMC3439745  PMID: 23008652
Primary care; satisfaction; sociodemographics; Kuwait
18.  Women’s views and experiences of antenatal care in Iraq: a Q methodology study 
Background
Understanding women’s experiences and perspectives of antenatal care services is particularly critical for enhancing effectiveness of services delivery and addressing women’s needs and expectations. As part of a comprehensive assessment of the maternity care services in Iraq, this study aimed to explore the views and experiences of antenatal care in a sample of women.
Methods
This explorative study was conducted in Erbil governorate, Iraq. Data were collected using Q methodology, a technique for eliciting subjective views and identifying shared patterns among individuals. A sample of 38 women of different educational and socioeconomic statuses were invited to sort a set of 39 statements reflecting different aspects of the available antenatal care services and issues related to their last pregnancies into a distribution on a scale of nine from “disagree most” to “agree most”. By-person factor analysis was used to derive latent views through centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation of factors.
Results
Analysis of the participants’ Q sorts resulted in identifying four distinct views and experiences of pregnancy and antenatal care services: (i) public maternity services second best: preference for, and ability to afford, private care, (ii) dissatisfaction with public maternity services: poor information sharing and lack of health promotion, (iii) satisfaction with public maternity service but information gaps perceived and (iv) public maternity services second best: preference for private care but unaffordable. The typical characterizations that were associated with each view were highlighted.
Conclusions
This study revealed different patterns of views and experiences of women of pregnancy and antenatal care services and recognized the particular issues related to each pattern. Different patterns and types of problems and concerns related mainly to inadequate provision of information and poor interpersonal communication, poor utilization of public services and a general preference to use private services were identified in the different groups of women.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-43
PMCID: PMC3902000  PMID: 24450437
19.  Age differences in women's verdicts on the quality of primary health care services. 
The British Journal of General Practice  1998;48(429):1151-1154.
BACKGROUND: One aim of the Patients' Charter initiative is to ensure that general practitioner (GP) services become more sensitive to the expressed needs of patients. Most studies in this area have concentrated on the personal and professional attributes of the GP, and few studies have explored in detail the specific views of women patients. AIM: To examine age differences in the views of women under the age of 65 years on the quality of different aspects of primary health care services. METHOD: A random sample of 1251 women aged 16-65 years was surveyed by postal questionnaire on their use of and satisfaction with primary health care services. Analyses were undertaken of women's verdicts on the best and worst aspects of the services provided. RESULTS: There is a strong inverse relationship between age and negative evaluations of primary health care services. On each of 20 items ['what are the worst things about the GP surgery?'], older women consistently scored lower than younger women. The results were not so clear-cut among the 20 positive items ('what are the best things about the GP surgery'). On nine items, there was a significant positive association with age (the highest being on 'receptionists are approachable' and 'practice nurse is approachable and easy to talk to'). On nine items, there was no significant age difference, and on the item with the highest overall positive ranking, 'not far to travel to GP surgery', the association was in the opposite direction to that expected, i.e., a larger proportion of women under 40 years of age (72.5%) answered positively than did women over the age of 40 years (64.9%). CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the relationship between age and positive evaluations of primary health care service is less straightforward than has been assumed previously. Although older women are consistently less willing to criticize primary health care services across the board, they are more discriminating in giving and withholding praise.
PMCID: PMC1410033  PMID: 9667090
20.  Why do women consult doctors? Social factors and the use of the general practitioner. 
This study was designed to investigate personal and social factors associated with demand for care by women aged between 20 and 44 years, a group unlikely to suffer from chronic illness. A random sample of women was drawn from the age-sex register of a south London group practice, and information was obtained concerning their daily symptom perception, anxiety level, social and health characteristics, and their consultations for one year. Social class, family involvement, number of children in household, satisfaction with the housing, and use of other health and social services were not associated with demand for general practitioner care. Absence of basic housing amenities, difficulties in running the household, brevity of stay in the house or neighbourhood, and lack of attachment of the neighbourhood were related to a high patient-initiated consultation rate. Some of the possible interpretations of these results are discussed together with their implications for social policy planning.
PMCID: PMC479031  PMID: 597674
21.  Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:745.
Background
In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity
Methods
A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ).
Results
Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES). The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin.
Conclusions
The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-745
PMCID: PMC3195096  PMID: 21958069
22.  Patient Satisfaction Survey in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results 
Background:
Patient satisfaction is a useful indicator of the quality of health care, but there is no one universally acceptable tool for measuring it. In Saudi Arabia, such studies are, few.
Setting:
In-patients in a teaching hospital.
Methodology:
Opinions of hospital in-patients were sampled by means of a self-administered questionnaire over a period of 12 consecutive months. Fright areas were evaluated: professional services from medical, nursing anal admission staff, and four amenities, i.e. room and linen, meals, and provision for telephone and television.
Results:
A total of 1,319 patients were surveyed, forming 7.9% of the 17,536 admissions. Patients were satisfied with professional services from medical staff. However, they were dissatisfied with silence in wards during day, taste, temperature and variety of meals, as well as provisions for telephone and television. Remedial actions had been taken.
Conclusions:
We concluded that the results indicated areas of patients’ dissatisfaction in our hospital, and that such surveys are unique to the hospital involved. We recommend the method used here: it is easy to use, cost-effective, and beneficial to patients.
PMCID: PMC3437122  PMID: 23012220
Quality improvement; Patient satisfaction; Inpatients; Saudi Arabia
23.  Patient satisfaction surveys as a market research tool for general practices. 
BACKGROUND. Recent policy developments, embracing the notions of consumer choice, quality of care, and increased general practitioner control over practice budgets have resulted in a new competitive environment in primary care. General practitioners must now be more aware of how their patients feel about the services they receive, and patient satisfaction surveys can be an effective tool for general practices. AIM. A survey was undertaken to investigate the use of a patient satisfaction survey and whether aspects of patient satisfaction varied according to sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, social class, housing tenure and length of time in education. METHOD. A sample of 2173 adults living in Medway District Health Authority were surveyed by postal questionnaire in September 1991 in order to elicit their views on general practice services. RESULTS. Levels of satisfaction varied with age, with younger people being consistently less satisfied with general practice services than older people. Women, those in social classes 1-3N, home owners and those who left school aged 17 years or older were more critical of primary care services than men, those in social classes 3M-5, tenants and those who left school before the age of 17 years. CONCLUSION. Surveys and analyses of this kind, if conducted for a single practice, can form the basis of a marketing strategy aimed at optimizing list size, list composition, and service quality. Satisfaction surveys can be readily incorporated into medical audit and financial management.
PMCID: PMC1238869  PMID: 8204335
24.  Addressing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan: gender, class and exclusion 
Background
After more than two decades of the Safe Motherhood Initiative and Millennium Development Goals aimed at reducing maternal mortality, women continue to die in childbirth at unacceptably high rates in Pakistan. While an extensive literature describes various programmatic strategies, it neglects the rigorous analysis of the reasons these strategies have been unsuccessful, especially for women living at the economic and social margins of society. A critical gap in current knowledge is a detailed understanding of the root causes of disparities in maternal health care, and in particular, how gender and class influence policy formulation and the design and delivery of maternal health care services. Taking Pakistan as a case study, this research builds upon two distinct yet interlinked conceptual approaches to understanding the phenomenon of inequity in access to maternal health care: social exclusion and health systems as social institutions.
Methods/Design
This four year project consists of two interrelated modules that focus on two distinct groups of participants: (1) poor, disadvantaged women and men and (2) policy makers, program managers and health service providers. Module one will employ critical ethnography to understand the key axes of social exclusion as related to gender, class and zaat and how they affect women’s experiences of using maternal health care. Through health care setting observations, interviews and document review, Module two will assess policy design and delivery of maternal health services.
Discussion
This research will provide theoretical advances to enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women’s marginalization from health care systems in Pakistan. It will also provide empirical evidence to support formulation of maternal health care policies and health care system practices aimed at reducing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan. Lastly, it will enhance inter-disciplinary research capacity in the emerging field of social exclusion and maternal health and help reduce social inequities and achieve the Millennium Development Goal No. 5.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-80
PMCID: PMC3490894  PMID: 22871056
Social exclusion; Maternal health; Gender; Caste system; Pakistan; Health care system; Class; Health policy; Pregnancy and childbirth; Antenatal care
25.  Does Group Prenatal Care Affect Satisfaction And Prenatal Care Utilization in Iranian Pregnant Women? 
Background:
The need to provide high quality prenatal care services, which take account of women’s views and specifically address their need for information, support and communication, has been advocated and group prenatal care, had been suggested as one of the ways to achieve this objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of group versus individual prenatal care on satisfaction and prenatal care use.
Methods:
This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with the health center as the randomization unit that conducted in 2007. Satisfaction was measured through a standardized questionnaire, and the Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was used to measure prenatal care utilization.
Results:
We recruited 678 women (group prenatal care, (N= 344) and individual prenatal care, (N=334) in the study. Women in group prenatal care model were more satisfied than women in individual prenatal care model in all areas evaluated, including information, communication, co-ordination and quality of care. Group care women were significantly more likely to have adequate prenatal care than individual care women were (OR=1.35 95% CI=1.26–1.44).
Conclusions:
Group prenatal care was associated with a significant improvement in client satisfaction and prenatal care utilization. This model of care has implications for the planning and provision of prenatal services within public health system, which is moving toward a better quality health care, and increasing use of services.
PMCID: PMC3481751  PMID: 23113007
Group prenatal care; Satisfaction; Prenatal care utilization

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