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1.  Effectiveness of a simplified cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program for the non-medical staff of a university hospital 
Background
The 2010 Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations Statement recommended that short video/computer self-instruction courses, with minimal or no instructor coaching, combined with hands-on practice can be considered an effective alternative to instructor-led basic life support courses. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a simplified cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program for non-medical staff working at a university hospital.
Methods
Before and immediately after a 45-min CPR training program consisting of instruction on chest compression and automated external defibrillator (AED) use with a personal training manikin, CPR skills were automatically recorded and evaluated. Participants’ attitudes towards CPR were evaluated by a questionnaire survey.
Results
From September 2011 through March 2013, 161 participants attended the program. We evaluated chest compression technique in 109 of these participants. The number of chest compressions delivered after the program versus that before was significantly greater (110.8 ± 13.0/min vs 94.2 ± 27.4/min, p < 0.0001), interruption of chest compressions was significantly shorter (0.05 ± 0.34 sec/30 sec vs 0.89 ± 3.52 sec/30 sec, p < 0.05), mean depth of chest compressions was significantly greater (57.6 ± 6.8 mm vs 52.2 ± 9.4 mm, p < 0.0001), and the proportion of incomplete chest compressions of <5 cm among all chest compressions was significantly decreased (8.9 ± 23.2% vs 38.6 ± 42.9%, p < 0.0001). Of the 159 participants who responded to the questionnaire survey after the program, the proportion of participants who answered ‘I can check for a response,’ ‘I can perform chest compressions,’ and ‘I can absolutely or I think I can use an AED’ increased versus that before the program (81.8% vs 19.5%, 77.4% vs 10.1%, 84.3% vs 23.3%, respectively).
Conclusions
A 45-min simplified CPR training program on chest compression and AED use improved CPR quality and the attitude towards CPR and AED use of non-medical staff of a university hospital.
doi:10.1186/1757-7241-22-31
PMCID: PMC4024185  PMID: 24887037
2.  A randomized trial of video self-instruction in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for lay persons 
Background
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves outcomes after cardiac arrest. Much of the lay public is untrained in CPR skills. We evaluated the effectiveness of a compression-only CPR video self-instruction (VSI) with a personal manikin in the lay public.
Methods
Adults without prior CPR training in the past year or responsibility to provide medical care were randomized into one of three groups: 1) Untrained before testing, 2) 10-minute VSI in compressions-only CPR (CPR Anytime, American Heart Association, Dallas, TX), or 3) 22-minute VSI in compressions and ventilations (CPR Anytime). CPR proficiency was assessed using a sensored manikin. The primary outcome was composite skill competence of 90% during five minutes of skill demonstration. Evaluated were alternative cut-points for skill competence and individual components of CPR. 488 subjects (143 in untrained group, 202 in compressions-only group and 143 in compressions and ventilation group) were required to detect 21% competency with compressions-only versus 7% with untrained and 34% with compressions and ventilations.
Results
Analyzable data were available for the untrained group (n = 135), compressions-only group (n = 185) and the compressions and ventilation group (n = 119). Four (3%) achieved competency in the untrained group (p-value = 0.57 versus compressions-only), nine (4.9%) in the compressions-only group, and 12 (10.1%) in the compressions and ventilations group (p-value 0.13 vs. compressions-only). The compressions-only group had a greater proportion of correct compressions (p-value = 0.028) and compressions with correct hand placement (p-value = 0.0004) compared to the untrained group.
Conclusions
VSI in compressions-only CPR did not achieve greater overall competency but did achieve some CPR skills better than without training.
doi:10.1186/1757-7241-21-36
PMCID: PMC3700766  PMID: 23663288
Public; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Cardiac arrest; Education; Randomized trial
3.  Diffusion of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training to Chinese Immigrants with Limited English Proficiency 
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an effective intervention for prehospital cardiac arrest. Despite all available training opportunities for CPR, disparities exist in participation in CPR training, CPR knowledge, and receipt of bystander CPR for certain ethnic groups. We conducted five focus groups with Chinese immigrants who self-reported limited English proficiency (LEP). A bilingual facilitator conducted all the sessions. All discussions were taped, recorded, translated, and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed by content analysis guided by the theory of diffusion. The majority of participants did not know of CPR and did not know where to get trained. Complexity of CPR procedure, advantages of calling 9-1-1, lack of confidence, and possible liability discourage LEP individuals to learn CPR. LEP individuals welcome simplified Hands-Only CPR and are willing to perform CPR with instruction from 9-1-1 operators. Expanding the current training to include Hands-Only CPR and dispatcher-assisted CPR may motivate Chinese LEP individuals to get trained for CPR.
doi:10.1155/2011/685249
PMCID: PMC3200204  PMID: 22046544
4.  Medical Students Teaching Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to Middle School Brazilian Students 
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia  2013;101(4):328-335.
Background
Diseases of the circulatory system are the most common cause of death in Brazil. Because the general population is often the first to identify problems related to the circulatory system, it is important that they are trained. However, training is challenging owing to the number of persons to be trained and the maintenance of training.
Objectives
To assess the delivery of a medical-student led cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program and to assess prior knowledge of CPR as well as immediate and delayed retention of CPR training among middle school students.
Methods
Two public and two private schools were selected. CPR training consisted of a video class followed by practice on manikins that was supervised by medical students. Multiple choice questionnaires were provided before, immediately after, and at 6 months after CPR training. The questions were related to general knowledge, the sequence of procedures, and the method to administer each component (ventilation, chest compression, and automated external defibrillation). The instructors met in a focus group after the sessions to identify the potential problems faced.
Results
In total, 147 students completed the 6-month follow-up. The public school students had a lower prior knowledge, but this difference disappeared immediately after training. After the 6-month follow-up period, these public school students demonstrated lower retention. The main problem faced was teaching mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Conclusions
The method used by medical students to teach middle school students was based on the watch-and-practice technique. This method was effective in achieving both immediate and late retention of acquired knowledge. The greater retention of knowledge among private school students may reflect cultural factors. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2013;101(4):328-335)
doi:10.5935/abc.20130165
PMCID: PMC4062369  PMID: 23949324
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / education; Students, Medical; Education, Primary and Secondary
5.  Low-Dose, High-Frequency CPR Training Improves Skill Retention of In-Hospital Pediatric Providers 
Pediatrics  2011;128(1):e145-e151.
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the effectiveness of brief bedside cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training to improve the skill retention of hospital-based pediatric providers. We hypothesized that a low-dose, high-frequency training program (booster training) would improve CPR skill retention.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
CPR recording/feedback defibrillators were used to evaluate CPR quality during simulated arrest. Basic life support–certified, hospital-based providers were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 study arms: (1) instructor-only training; (2) automated defibrillator feedback only; (3) instructor training combined with automated feedback; and (4) control (no structured training). Each session (time: 0, 1, 3, and 6 months after training) consisted of a pretraining evaluation (60 seconds), booster training (120 seconds), and a posttraining evaluation (60 seconds). Excellent CPR was defined as chest compression (CC) depth ≥ one-third anterior-posterior chest depth, rate ≥ 90 and ≤120 CC per minute, ≤20% of CCs with incomplete release (>2500 g), and no flow fraction ≤ 0.30.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:
Eighty-nine providers were randomly assigned; 74 (83%) completed all sessions. Retention of CPR skills was 2.3 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–4.5; P = .02) more likely after 2 trainings and 2.9 times (95% CI: 1.4–6.2; P = .005) more likely after 3 trainings. The automated defibrillator feedback only group had lower retention rates compared with the instructor-only training group (odds ratio: 0.41 [95% CI: 0.17–0.97]; P = .043).
CONCLUSIONS:
Brief bedside booster CPR training improves CPR skill retention. Our data reveal that instructor-led training improves retention compared with automated feedback training alone. Future studies should investigate whether bedside training improves CPR quality during actual pediatric arrests.
doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2105
PMCID: PMC3387915  PMID: 21646262
pediatric; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; quality appraisal
6.  A behavioral system for assessing and training cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills among emergency medical technicians. 
Many deaths from cardiopulmonary arrest can be prevented by the prompt and effective administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In this study, we examined the standard training program for teaching CPR to emergency medical technicians (EMTs). We developed an alternative experimental program whereby the behaviors involved in CPR were assessed easily and in greater detail. This assessment provided the basis for a system in which effective CPR skills were reinforced and problems were corrected. Subjects who were trained in CPR according to this experimental program performed more effectively than subjects in the standard program. In addition, retention (maintenance) measures indicated that experimental subjects continued to perform well, often more effectively than professionally employed EMTs.
doi:10.1901/jaba.1986.19-125
PMCID: PMC1308052  PMID: 3733584
7.  Effect of Crew Size on Objective Measures of Resuscitation for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest 
Background
There is no consensus among emergency medical services (EMS) systems as to the optimal numbers and training of EMS providers who respond to the scene of prehospital cardiac arrests. Increased numbers of providers may improve the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but this has not been studied as part of a comprehensive resuscitation scenario.
Objective
To compare different all-paramedic crew size configurations on objective measures of patient resuscitation using a high-fidelity human simulator.
Methods
We compared two-, three-, and four- person all-paramedic crew configurations in the effectiveness and timeliness of performing basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS) skills during the first 8 minutes of a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Crews were compared to determine differences in no-flow fraction (NFF) as a measure of effectiveness of CPR and time to defibrillation, endotracheal intubation, establishment of intravenous access, and medication administration.
Results
There was no significant difference in mean NFF among the two-, three-, and four-provider crew configurations (0.32, 0.26, and 0.27, respectively; p = 0.105). More three- and four-person groups completed ALS procedures during the scenario, but there was no significant difference in time to performance of BLS or ALS procedures among the crew size configurations for completed procedures. There was a trend toward lower time to intubation with increasing group size, though this was not significant using a Bonferroni-corrected p-value of 0.01 (379, 316, and 263 seconds, respectively; p = 0.018).
Conclusion
This study found no significant difference in effectiveness of CPR or in time to performance of BLS or ALS procedures among crew size configurations, though there was a trend toward decreased time to intubation with increased crew size. Effectiveness of CPR may be hindered by distractions related to the performance of ALS procedures with increasing group size, particularly with an all-paramedic provider model. We suggest a renewed emphasis on the provision of effective CPR by designated providers independent of any ALS interventions being performed.
doi:10.3109/10903120903572293
PMCID: PMC2902150  PMID: 20128704
cardiac arrest; emergency medical services; crew configuration; cardiopulmonary resuscitation
8.  Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training of Family Members Before Hospital Discharge Using Video Self-Instruction: A Feasibility Trial 
BACKGROUND
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), yet rates of bystander CPR are low. This is especially the case for SCA occurring in the home setting, as family members of at-risk patients are often not CPR trained.
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the feasibility of a novel hospital-based CPR education program targeted to family members of patients at increased risk for SCA.
DESIGN
Prospective, multicenter, cohort study.
SETTING
Inpatient wards at 3 hospitals.
SUBJECTS
Family members of inpatients admitted with cardiac-related diagnoses.
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS
Family members were offered CPR training via a proctored video-self instruction (VSI) program. After training, CPR skills and participant perspectives regarding their training experience were assessed. Surveys were conducted one month postdischarge to measure the rate of “secondary training” of other individuals by enrolled family members. At the 3 study sites, 756 subjects were offered CPR instruction; 280 agreed to training and 136 underwent instruction using the VSI program. Of these, 78 of 136 (57%) had no previous CPR training. After training, chest compression performance was generally adequate (mean compression rate 90 ± 26/minute, mean depth 37 ± 12 mm). At 1 month, 57 of 122 (47%) of subjects performed secondary training for friends or family members, with a calculated mean of 2.1 persons trained per kit distributed.
CONCLUSIONS
The hospital setting offers a unique “point of capture” to provide CPR instruction to an important, undertrained population in contact with at-risk individuals.
doi:10.1002/jhm.847
PMCID: PMC4091628  PMID: 21916007
9.  Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training of family members before hospital discharge using video self-instruction: a feasibility trial 
BACKGROUND
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), yet rates of bystander CPR are low. This is especially the case for SCA occurring in the home setting, as family members of at-risk patients are often not CPR trained.
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the feasibility of a novel hospital-based CPR education program targeted to family members of patients at increased risk for SCA.
DESIGN
Prospective, multicenter, cohort study.
SETTING
Inpatient wards at three hospitals.
SUBJECTS
Family members of inpatients admitted with cardiac-related diagnoses.
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS
Family members were offered CPR training via a proctored video-self instruction (VSI) program. After training, CPR skills were assessed, in addition to participant perspectives regarding their training experience. Surveys were conducted one month post-discharge to measure the rate of “secondary training” of other individuals by enrolled family members. At the three study sites, 756 subjects were offered CPR instruction; 280 agreed to training and 136 underwent instruction using the VSI program. Of these, 78/136 (57%) had no previous CPR training. After training, chest compression performance was generally adequate (mean compression rate 90±26 /min, mean depth 37± 12 mm). At one month, 57/122 (47%) of subjects performed secondary training for friends or family members, with a calculated mean of 2.1 persons trained per kit distributed.
CONCLUSIONS
The hospital setting offers a unique “point of capture” to provide CPR instruction to an important, undertrained population in contact with at-risk individuals.
doi:10.1002/jhm.791
PMCID: PMC3116026  PMID: 20717891
cardiac arrest; patient education; discharge planning
10.  Retention, retention, retention: targeting the young in CPR skills training! 
Critical Care  2009;13(5):185.
The usefulness of basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in school systems has been questioned, considering that young students may not have the physical or cognitive skills required to perform complex tasks correctly. In the study conducted by Fleishhackl and coworkers, students as young as 9 years were able to successfully and effectively learn basic CPR skills, including automated external defibrillator deployment, correct recovery position, and emergency calling. As in adults, physical strength may limit the depth of chest compressions and ventilation volumes given by younger individuals with low body mass index; however, skill retention is good. Training all persons across an entire community in CPR may have a logarithmic improvement in survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest because bystanders, usually family members, are more likely to know CPR and can perform it immediately, when it is physiologically most effective. Training captured audiences of trainees, such as the entire work-force of the community or the local school system, are excellent mechanisms to help achieve that goal. In addition to better retention with new half hour training kits, a multiplier effect can be achieved through school children. In addition, early training not only sets the stage for subsequent training and better retention, but it also reinforces the concept of a social obligation to help others.
doi:10.1186/cc7997
PMCID: PMC2784341  PMID: 19769783
11.  Effects of training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on competence and patient outcome. 
Between 1981 and 1985 we carried out a study in two medium-sized nonteaching community hospitals to determine the rate of deterioration of knowledge and skills in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among physicians and nurses, the accuracy of their perceptions of their knowledge and skills, the effects of practice on retention and the effect of CPR training on mortality. The participants' knowledge and skills were measured before training and immediately after, 6 months after and 12 months after training. Information on all attempts at CPR involving hospital staff was collected from medical records and from interviews with the participants. A total of 31 physicians and 54 nurses were followed during the study. Six months after training there was no difference in CPR knowledge or skills between the physicians and the nurses. In both groups CPR skills had deteriorated to near pretraining levels. By 6 months the physicians' knowledge had deteriorated to a level not significantly different from that before training. The nurses maintained a significant improvement in knowledge test scores at 12 months over those before training (p = 0.037). The physicians had an accurate perception of their knowledge but not their skills 6 months and 12 months after training, whereas the nurses did not accurately perceive either their knowledge or their skills after training. Experience with CPR did not contribute to post-training knowledge or skills in either group. There was no evidence that death rates were lower when basic life support (BLS) was begun by trained staff than when it was begun by untrained staff. The probability of survival was greater when BLS was begun within 4 minutes of arrest than when it was begun after 4 minutes, regardless of whether advanced cardiac life support was begun within 10 minutes.
PMCID: PMC1492673  PMID: 3651910
12.  Physicians' and nurses' retention of knowledge and skill after training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 
Physicians and nurses in a community hospital who successfully completed the standard 1-day training program in basic life support cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were retested 6 and 12 months after training. Their perceptions of their knowledge of and skill in CPR were recorded along with an account of the roles they had taken in CPR incidents. The physicians and nurses initially had the same level of knowledge of CPR, but the physicians learned significantly more and retained it longer. After training, the nurses participated much more in CPR incidents, limiting themselves to basic life support functions. The physicians' participation, however, remained at about the same level and was limited to advanced life support functions. By 12 months after training the scores in both groups were similar to the pretraining scores, which suggests that practice with feedback is necessary during the 1-year period before retraining and recertification. It may be that the two groups require different training programs.
PMCID: PMC1874955  PMID: 6825021
13.  The effect of time on CPR and automated external defibrillator skills in the Public Access Defibrillation Trial 
Resuscitation  2007;74(1):52-62.
Background
The time to skill deterioration between primary training/retraining and further retraining in Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillation (AED) for lay-persons is unclear. The Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) Trial was a multi-center randomized controlled trial evaluating survival after CPR-only vs. CPR+AED delivered by onsite non-medical volunteer responders in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Aims
This sub-study evaluated the relationship of time between primary training/retraining and further retraining on volunteer performance during pretest AED and CPR skill evaluation.
Methods
Volunteers at 1260 facilities in 24 North American regions underwent training/retraining according to facility randomization, which included an initial session and a refresher session at approximately 6 months. Before the next retraining, a CPR and AED skill test was completed for 2729 volunteers. Primary outcome for the study was assessment of global competence of CPR or AED performance (adequate vs not adequate) using Chi-square tests for trends by time interval (3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Confirmatory (GEE) logistic regression analysis, adjusted for site and potential confounders.
Results
The proportion of volunteers judged to be competent did not diminish by interval (3,6,9,12 months) for either CPR or AED skills. After adjusting for site and potential confounders, longer intervals before to further retraining was associated with a slightly lower likelihood of performing adequate CPR but not with AED scores.
Conclusions
After primary training/retraining, the CPR skills of targeted lay responders deteriorate nominally but 80% remain competent up to one year. AED skills do not significantly deteriorate and 90% of volunteers remain competent up to one year.
doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2006.11.005
PMCID: PMC2718839  PMID: 17303309
automated external defibrillator (AED); bystander CPR; cardiac arrest; cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); skill retention; training; public access defibrillation
14.  Exploring Virtual Worlds for Scenario-Based Repeated Team Training of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Medical Students 
Background
Contemporary learning technologies, such as massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW), create new means for teaching and training. However, knowledge about the effectiveness of such training is incomplete, and there are no data regarding how students experience it. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a field within medicine in high demand for new and effective training modalities.
Objective
In addition to finding a feasible way to implement CPR training, our aim was to investigate how a serious game setting in a virtual world using avatars would influence medical students’ subjective experiences as well as their retention of knowledge.
Methods
An MMVW was refined and used in a study to train 12 medical students in CPR in 3-person teams in a repeated fashion 6 months apart. An exit questionnaire solicited reflections over their experiences. As the subjects trained in 4 CPR scenarios, measurements of self-efficacy, concentration, and mental strain were made in addition to measuring knowledge. Engagement modes and coping strategies were also studied. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were carried out according to distribution of the data.
Results
The majority of the subjects reported that they had enjoyed the training, had found it to be suitable, and had learned something new, although several asked for more difficult and complex scenarios as well as a richer virtual environment. The mean values for knowledge dropped during the 6 months from 8.0/10 to 6.25/10 (P = .002). Self-efficacy increased from before to after each of the two training sessions, from 5.9/7 to 6.5/7 (P = .01) after the first and from 6.0/7 to 6.7/7 (P = .03) after the second. The mean perceived concentration value increased from 54.2/100 to 66.6/100 (P = .006), and in general the mental strain was found to be low to moderate (mean = 2.6/10).
Conclusions
Using scenario-based virtual world team training with avatars to train medical students in multi-person CPR was feasible and showed promising results. Although we found no evidence of stimulated recall of CPR procedures in our test-retest study, the subjects were enthusiastic and reported increased concentration during the training. We also found that subjects’ self-efficacy had increased after the training. Despite the need for further studies, these findings imply several possible uses of MMVW technology for future emergency medical training.
doi:10.2196/jmir.1426
PMCID: PMC2956337  PMID: 20813717
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; concentration; educational technology; medical students; MMVW; avatars; patient simulation; self-efficacy
15.  CPR Training for Nurses: How often Is It Necessary? 
Background
The ability to respond quickly and effectively to a cardiac arrest situation rests on nurses being competent, prepared and up-to-date in the emergency life-saving procedure of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study aimed to determine the extent to which nurses acquire and retain CPR cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills following CPR training courses.
Methods
A quasi-experiment was used. CPR knowledge of 112 nurses was assessed via a questionnaire using valid multiple-choice questions. An observatory standard checklist was used and CPR performance on manikins was evaluated to assess psychomotor skills (before the course baseline, after the course, after 10 weeks and then 2 years after the 4 hours CPR training course). Scores were based on a scale of 1 to 20.
Results
A mean baseline score of 10.67 (SD=3.06), a mean score of 17.81 (SD=1.41) after the course, 15.26 (SD=3.17) 10 weeks after and 12.86 (SD=2.25), 2 years after the 4 hours CPR training course was noticed. Acquisition of knowledge and psychomotor skills of the nurses following a four-hour training program was significant. However, significant deterioration in both CPR knowledge and psychomotor skills was observed 2 years after the training program among 42 nurses.
Conclusion
The study findings present strong evidence to support the critical role of repetitive periodic CPR training courses to ensure that nurses were competent, up to date and confident responders in the event of a cardiac arrest.
PMCID: PMC3372042  PMID: 22737563
Training; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); Knowledge; Skill; Nurse
16.  Functions of standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival 
BMC Emergency Medicine  2013;13(Suppl 1):S3.
Background
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a sudden emergency procedure that requires a rapid and efficient response, and personnel training in lifesaving procedures. Regular practice and training are necessary to improve resuscitation skills and reduce anxiety among the staff. As one of the most important skills mastered by medical volunteers serving for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, we randomly selected some of them to evaluate the quality of CPR operation and compared the result with that of the untrained doctors and nurses. In order to evaluate the functions of repeating standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, their performance qualities of CPR were compared with those of the untrained medical workers working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian.
Methods
The CPR performance qualities of 52 medical volunteers (Standard Training Group), who had continually taken part in standard CPR technical training for six months, were tested at random and were compared with those of 68 medical workers (Compared Group) working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian who hadn’t attended CPR training within a year. The QCPR 3535 monitor (provided by Philips Company) was used to measure the standard degree of single simulated CPR performance, including the chest compression depth, frequency, released pressure between compressions and performance time of compression and ventilation, the results of which were recorded in the table and the number of practical compression per minute was calculated. The data were analyzed by x2 Test and t Test. The factors which would influence CPR performance, including gender, age, placement, hand skill, posture of compression and frequency of training, were classified and given parameters, and were put to Logistic repression analysis.
Results
The CPR performance qualities of volunteers were much higher than those of the compared group. The overall pass rates were respectively 86.4% and 31.9%; the pass rates of medical volunteers in terms of the chest compression depth, frequency, released pressure between compressions were higher than those of the compared group, which were 89.6%, 94.2%, 95.8% vs 50.3%, 53.0%, 83.1%, P<0.01; there were few differences in overall performance time, which were (118.4±13.5s) vs (116.0±10.4s), P>0.05; the duration time of ventilation in each performance section was much shorter than that in the compared group, which were (6.38±1.2) vs (7.47±1.7), P<0.01; there were few differences in the number of practical compression per minute, which were (78.2±3.5) vs (78.8±12.2), P>0.05); the time proportion of compression and ventilation was 2.6:1 vs 2.1:1. The Logistic repression analysis showed that CPR performance qualities were clearly related to hand skill, posture of compression and repeating standard training, which were respectively OR 13.12 and 95%CI (2.35~73.2); OR 30.89, 95%CI (3.62~263.5); OR 4.07,95%CI (1.16~14.2).
Conclusion
The CPR performance qualities of volunteers who had had repeating standard training were much higher than those of untrained medical workers, which proved that standard training helped improve CPR performance qualities.
doi:10.1186/1471-227X-13-S1-S3
PMCID: PMC3701466  PMID: 23902568
17.  Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial 
Background
Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills.
Methods
The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training.
Results
Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two) did not have a significant effect on any outcomes.
Conclusions
There was no consistent evidence for the superiority of novel refreshers as compared with a traditional mailed brochure, but the low degree of actual exposure to the materials does not allow a definitive conclusion. An online web-based approach seems to have the most promise for future research on electronic CPR refreshers.
doi:10.1186/1471-227X-12-18
PMCID: PMC3536583  PMID: 23170816
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; CPR; CPR refreshers; Prehospital emergency care; Cardiac arrest
18.  Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; use, training and self-confidence in skills. A self-report study among hospital personnel 
Background
Immediate start of basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation have been highlighted as crucial for survival from cardiac arrest, but despite new knowledge, new technology and massive personnel training the survival rates from in-hospital cardiac arrest are still low. National guidelines recommend regular intervals of CPR training to make all hospital personnel able to perform basic CPR till advanced care is available. This study investigates CPR training, resuscitation experience and self-confidence in skills among hospital personnel outside critical care areas.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was performed at three Norwegian hospitals. Data on CPR training and CPR use were collected by self-reports from 361 hospital personnel.
Results
A total of 89% reported training in CPR, but only 11% had updated their skills in accordance with the time interval recommended by national guidelines. Real resuscitation experience was reported by one third of the respondents. Both training intervals and use of skills in resuscitation situations differed among the professions. Self-reported confidence decreased only after more than two years since last CPR training.
Conclusion
There is a gap between recommendations and reality in CPR training among hospital personnel working outside critical care areas.
doi:10.1186/1757-7241-16-18
PMCID: PMC2633269  PMID: 19087259
19.  Occupational affiliation does not influence practical skills in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for in-hospital healthcare professionals 
Background
D-CPR (Defibrillator Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) is a technique for optimal basic life support during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Guidelines recommend that healthcare professionals can perform CPR with competence. How CPR training and provision is organized varies between hospitals, and it is our impression that in Sweden this has generally improved during the last 15-20 years. However, some hospitals still do not have any AED (Automated External Defibrillators). The aim was to investigate potential differences in practical skills between different healthcare professions before and after training in D-CPR.
Methods
Seventy-four healthcare professionals were video recorded and evaluated for adherence to a modified Cardiff Score. A Laerdal Resusci Anne manikin in connection to PC Skill reporting System was used to evaluate CPR quality. A simulated CPR situation was accomplished during a 5-10 min scenario of ventricular fibrillation. Paired and unpaired statistical methods were used to examine differences within and between occupations with respect to the intervention.
Results
There were no differences in skills among the different healthcare professions, except for compressions per minute. In total, the number of compression per minute and depth improved for all groups (P < 0.001). In total, 41% of the participants used AED before and 96% of the participants used AED after the intervention (P < 0.001). Before intervention, it took a median time of 120 seconds until the AED was used; after the intervention, it took 82 seconds.
Conclusion
Nearly all healthcare professionals learned to use the AED. There were no differences in CPR skill performances among the different healthcare professionals.
doi:10.1186/1757-7241-19-3
PMCID: PMC3026050  PMID: 21235765
20.  Is the public equipped to act in out of hospital cardiac emergencies? 
Methods: A cross sectional telephone survey, which contained sections regarding participant demographics, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training, knowledge of CPR, and the emergency contact number and potential barriers to performing chest compressions and mouth to mouth.
Results: A total of 1489 people completed the questionnaire. Only 11% of the population had recently (<12 months) trained in CPR. When presented with a cardiac arrest scenario most participants stated that they would telephone 000. Significantly more respondents believed that they would give mouth to mouth to a family member compared with a stranger. A bleeding victim and fear of not having the skills were the most common barriers that reduced the participants perceived willingness to perform chest compressions and mouth to mouth.
Conclusion: This study suggests that a low percentage of the public is currently trained in CPR and also that they are unprepared to act in a cardiac emergency.
doi:10.1136/emj.20.1.85
PMCID: PMC1726017  PMID: 12533383
21.  Heart-Alert: emergency resuscitation training in the community 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1977;117(12):1399-1403.
One approach to reducing avoidable mortality from coronary artery disease is to provide resuscitation capability in the community. In Manitoba this is the function of the Heart-Alert program, sponsored by the Manitoba Heart Foundation. The program is based on public and professional education dealing with the recognition and immediate care of cardiac emergencies, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The three components to the program are (a) training in basic CPR for all health care and community rescue groups; (b) training in definitive CPR for physicians, critical care nurses and advanced emergency medical technicians; and (c) education of the public to recognize the signs of impending or actual cardiac emergencies and to take appropriate action to summon quickly an emergency rescue team.
The initial emphasis of the program has been on developing an organizational structure and a training network for basic CPR. A corps of instructor-trainers and instructors has been certified to implement CPR training in the medical and community target groups. Developmental problems include problems of quality control, of providing for self-sustaining and continued expansion, and of evaluation of the overall results.
It is suggested that widespread implementation of CPR training is facilitated by the incorporation of CPR into existing training activities, particularly those of the medical, nursing and other health care disciplines, those of community protection agencies such as police, fire and ambulance departments, and those of volunteer groups concerned with rescue work and first-aid. If the impetus, organizational structure and instructor training are provided by a strategic agency, wide dissemination of CPR training is then possible at relatively modest cost.
PMCID: PMC1880425  PMID: 589540
22.  Knowledge and Skill Retention of In-Service versus Preservice Nursing Professionals following an Informal Training Program in Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Repeated-Measures Quasiexperimental Study 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:403415.
Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses) and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses) using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants—28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals—were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P = 0.08) while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P < 0.001). Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups—in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P = 0.01) and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P < 0.001). Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills.
doi:10.1155/2013/403415
PMCID: PMC3736513  PMID: 23971033
23.  A survey of resuscitation training in Canadian undergraduate medical programs. 
OBJECTIVES: To establish a national profile of undergraduate training in resuscitation at Canadian medical schools, to compare the resuscitation training programs of the schools and to determine the cost of teaching seven resuscitation courses. DESIGN: Mail survey in 1989 and follow-up telephone interviews in 1991 to update and verify the information. SUBJECTS: The undergraduate deans of the 16 Canadian medical schools. INTERVENTION: The mail survey asked five questions: (a) Is completion of a standard first aid or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) course a requirement for admission to medical school? (b) Are these courses and those in basic and advanced cardiac, trauma and neurologic life support for children and adults provided to undergraduate students? (c) During which undergraduate year are these courses offered? (d) Is their successful completion required for graduation? and (e) Who funds the training courses? RESULTS: The medical schools placed emphasis on the seven courses differently. More than half the schools required the completion of courses before admission or taught some courses but did not require the completion of the courses for graduation. On average, fewer than three of the seven courses were taught, and the completion of fewer than two was required for graduation. About half of the courses were funded by the universities. The annual projected maximum cost of teaching the seven courses was $1790 per medical student. CONCLUSION: The seven resuscitation courses have not been fully implemented at the undergraduate level in Canadian medical schools.
PMCID: PMC1335559  PMID: 2049693
24.  Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies 
Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field.
doi:10.4103/0974-2700.70764
PMCID: PMC2966573  PMID: 21063563
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; leadership; team behavior
25.  A counterbalanced cross-over study of the effects of visual, auditory and no feedback on performance measures in a simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation 
BMC Nursing  2011;10:15.
Background
Previous research has demonstrated that trained rescuers have difficulties achieving and maintaining the correct depth and rate of chest compressions during both in and out of hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Feedback on rate and depth mitigate decline in performance quality but not completely with the residual performance decline attributed to rescuer fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feedback (none, auditory only and visual only) on the quality of CPR and rescuer fatigue.
Methods
Fifteen female volunteers performed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR in each of three feedback conditions: none, auditory only, and visual only. Visual feedback was displayed continuously in graphic form. Auditory feedback was error correcting and provided by a voice assisted CPR manikin. CPR quality measures were collected using SkillReporter® software. Blood lactate (mmol/dl) and perceived exertion served as indices of fatigue. One-way and two way repeated measures analyses of variance were used with alpha set a priori at 0.05.
Results
Visual feedback yielded a greater percentage of correct compressions (78.1 ± 8.2%) than did auditory (65.4 ± 7.6%) or no feedback (44.5 ± 8.1%). Compression rate with auditory feedback (87.9 ± 0.5 compressions per minute) was less than it was with both visual and no feedback (p < 0.05). CPR performed with no feedback (39.2 ± 0.5 mm) yielded a shallower average depth of compression and a lower percentage (55 ± 8.9%) of compressions within the accepted 38-50 mm range than did auditory or visual feedback (p < 0.05). The duty cycle for auditory feedback (39.4 ± 1.6%) was less than it was with no feedback (p < 0.05). Auditory feedback produced lower lactate concentrations than did visual feedback (p < 0.05) but there were no differences in perceived exertion.
Conclusions
In this study feedback mitigated the negative effects of fatigue on CPR performance and visual feedback yielded better CPR performance than did no feedback or auditory feedback. The perfect confounding of sensory modality and periodicity of feedback (visual feedback provided continuously and auditory feedback provided to correct error) leaves unanswered the question of optimal form and timing of feedback.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-10-15
PMCID: PMC3162914  PMID: 21810239

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