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1.  Determinants of staff job satisfaction of caregivers in two nursing homes in Pennsylvania 
Background
Job satisfaction is important for nursing home staff and nursing home management, as it is associated with absenteeism, turnover, and quality of care. However, we know little about factors associated with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction for nursing home workers.
Methods
In this investigation, we use data from 251 caregivers (i.e., Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses, and Nurse Aides) to examine: job satisfaction scores of these caregivers and what characteristics of these caregivers are associated with job satisfaction. The data were collected from two nursing homes over a two and a half year period with five waves of data collection at six-month intervals. The Job Description Index was used to collect job satisfaction data.
Results
We find that, overall nursing home caregivers are satisfied with the work and coworkers, but are less satisfied with promotional opportunities, superiors, and compensation. From exploratory factor analysis three domains represented the data, pay, management, and work. Nurse aides appear particularly sensitive to the work domain. Of significance, we also find that caregivers who perceived the quality of care to be high have higher job satisfaction on all three domains than those who do not.
Conclusion
These results may be important in guiding caregiver retention initiatives in nursing homes. The finding for quality may be especially important, and indicates that nursing homes that improve their quality may have a positive impact on job satisfaction of staff, and thereby reduce their turnover rates.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-60
PMCID: PMC1524956  PMID: 16723022
2.  How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes 
The Gerontologist  2009;50(3):327-339.
Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care from the perspectives of NH stakeholders, including residents and interdisciplinary team members. Data were collected through participant observation, interviews, and archival records. Results: Human relations dimensions of organizational culture influenced continence care by affecting institutional missions, admissions and hiring practices, employee tenure, treatment strategies, interdisciplinary teamwork, and group decision making. Closed system approaches, parochial identity, and an employee focus stabilized staff turnover, fostered evidence-based practice, and supported hierarchical toileting programs in one facility. Within a more dynamic environment, open system approaches, professional identity, and job focus allowed flexible care practices during periods of staff turnover. Neither organizational culture fully supported interdisciplinary team efforts to maximize the bladder and bowel health of residents. Implications: Organizational culture varies in NHs, shaping the continence care practices of interdisciplinary teams and leading to the selective use of treatments across facilities. Human relations dimensions of organizational culture, including open or closed systems, professional or parochial identity, and employee or job focus are critical to the success of quality improvement initiatives. Evidence-based interventions should be tailored to organizational culture to promote adoption and sustainability of resident care programs.
doi:10.1093/geront/gnp157
PMCID: PMC2867496  PMID: 20008040
Organizational culture; Incontinence; Interdisciplinary teams; Qualitative research
3.  Changing Unit Culture and Fostering Well-being of Staff 
Global Advances in Health and Medicine  2014;3(Suppl 1):BPA04.
Introduction:
The key role of healthcare leaders is to create and sustain an environment that optimizes high-quality, safe, and effective patient-centered care. The leader's role is to ensure the best possible physical environment and provide a culture that supports healthcare team members in the stressful work of providing direct care. A positive approach is to empower nurses and other health team members with effective skills and techniques to help them transform stressful situations into more therapeutic scenarios.
Methods:
The nursing leadership team decided to test an approach to positive coping and resiliency designed to teach individuals on the oncology unit to recognize their stress symptoms and to use learned skills to counteract the negative impact of stress. Sixty-three participants voluntarily participated in the HeartMath educational class where they were taught techniques that could be used “in the moment” and throughout the day. A champions group was then identified to develop tools that would be used on the oncology unit to keep these techniques at the forefront of the staff's mind throughout each day. Staff members were encouraged to use the tools every day.
Results:
Staff members were surveyed using the Personal and Organizational Quality Assessment survey pre-intervention, post-intervention, and again at 7 months post-intervention. Results at the 7-month post-intervention showed statistically significant differences for each of the personal indicators (positive outlook, gratitude, motivation, calmness, fatigue, anxiety, depression, anger management, resentfulness, and stress symptoms). The organizational indicators at the 7 month post-intervention all trended in the expected direction, but only statistically significant differences were found in the indicators of goal clarity, productively, communication effectiveness, and time pressure. Other areas of improvement noted were decreased turnover on the oncology unit, improved employee satisfaction scores, and patient satisfaction scores with nursing care.
Conclusion:
Changing unit culture and fostering well-being of staff begins with nursing leadership. Recognizing that nurses and health team members are stressed, we implemented HeartMath as a team approach with staff taking an active role as champions to bring out ideas to keep the techniques at the forefront of everyone's mind everyday. By encouraging use of these tools at work, personal and organizational gains were found that were beneficial for the staff as well as the organization.
doi:10.7453/gahmj.2014.BPA04
PMCID: PMC3923281
Personal quality assessment; organizational quality assessment; stress reduction; HeartMath; biofeedback
4.  Navigating a Changing Continuum of Care With Heart 
Global Advances in Health and Medicine  2014;3(Suppl 1):BPA06.
Background:
The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is the most significant change in healthcare since the implementation of Medicare. In the face of reductions in reimbursement, healthcare organizations are seeking creative ways to reduce the cost of care delivery. The Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) mission is to provide high-quality, affordable healthcare and to improve the health of the members and the communities it serves. In alignment with this work, KPNC values the importance of excellence in care as well as the nurturing of the mind and spirit. The continuum of care, including home health and hospice services, are at the center of the evolving environment. Uncertainties and fast-paced innovations create tension and stress for home care leaders responsible for responding to and implementing change. Meeting these challenges requires incredible creativity and resilience. The framework that best meets these diverse needs is CaritasHeart.1 CaritasHeart brings together the philosophy, theory and framework of Watson's Caring Science,2 the “heart” of Caritas, and the scientifically validated methods of HeartMath.3
Methods:
To support the cultural change inherent in CaritasHeart, education was provided to management and staff in Caring Science and HeartMath. The management teams participated in a four-part “Leading with Care” series. Managers also participated with staff in half-day sessions that introduced the philosophy, theory, and framework of the Caring Science as well as self-care practices. The 7-hour HeartMath “Revitalizing Care” program was provided to 200 managers and staff members to enhance self-care, creativity, ease, and resilience and the understanding of how to be authentically present when providing care.
Personal outcomes of participants were measured assessed using the HeartMath validated Personal and Organizational Quality Assessment-R2 (POQA) instrument. Participants completed the initial POQA self-assessment during part 1 and 2 weeks later during part II of the Revitalizing Care program. Reference values for the POQA are results from 5900 healthcare workers. Member satisfaction with care was measured using the Home Health Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers & Services (HH-CAHPS) percent “rate agency 9 or 10” score and the Family Evaluation of Hospice Services (FEHS) “Overall, how would you rate the care the patient received while under the care of hospice?” percent “excellent” score.
Results:
POQA results demonstrated each of the positive characteristics were above average at baseline and significantly improved in three areas: positive outlook (P < .001), gratitude (P < .01) and motivation (P < .001). Each of the six stress-related measures were below average at baseline and significantly improved (P < .001) and above average following 2 weeks of HeartMath use. HH-CAHPS “rate agency 9 or 10” scores improved 1.7 percentage points to 83.6%. FEHS scores for the period were not yet available at the time of this report.
Conclusion:
CaritasHeart was an effective leadership strategy to support the continuum and its staff within a constantly evolving healthcare environment.
doi:10.7453/gahmj.2014.BPA06
PMCID: PMC3923283
Affordable Care Act (ACA); employee self-care stress reduction; Personal and Organizational Quality Assessment; HeartMath; biofeedback
5.  e-Health, m-Health and healthier social media reform: the big scale view 
Introduction
In the upcoming decade, digital platforms will be the backbone of a strategic revolution in the way medical services are provided, affecting both healthcare providers and patients. Digital-based patient-centered healthcare services allow patients to actively participate in managing their own care, in times of health as well as illness, using personally tailored interactive tools. Such empowerment is expected to increase patients’ willingness to adopt actions and lifestyles that promote health as well as improve follow-up and compliance with treatment in cases of chronic illness. Clalit Health Services (CHS) is the largest HMO in Israel and second largest world-wide. Through its 14 hospitals, 1300 primary and specialized clinics, and 650 pharmacies, CHS provides comprehensive medical care to the majority of Israel’s population (above 4 million members). CHS e-Health wing focuses on deepening patient involvement in managing health, through personalized digital interactive tools. Currently, CHS e-Health wing provides e-health services for 1.56 million unique patients monthly with 2.4 million interactions every month (August 2011). Successful implementation of e-Health solutions is not a sum of technology, innovation and health; rather it’s the expertise of tailoring knowledge and leadership capabilities in multidisciplinary areas: clinical, ethical, psychological, legal, comprehension of patient and medical team engagement etc. The Google Health case excellently demonstrates this point. On the other hand, our success with CHS is a demonstration that e-Health can be enrolled effectively and fast with huge benefits for both patients and medical teams, and with a robust business model.
CHS e-Health core components
They include:
1. The personal health record layer (what the patient can see) presents patients with their own medical history as well as the medical history of their preadult children, including diagnoses, allergies, vaccinations, laboratory results with interpretations in layman’s terms, medications with clear, straightforward explanations regarding dosing instructions, important side effects, contraindications, such as lactation etc., and other important medical information. All personal e-Health services require identification and authorization.
2. The personal knowledge layer (what the patient should know) presents patients with personally tailored recommendations for preventative medicine and health promotion. For example, diabetic patients are push notified regarding their yearly eye exam. The various health recommendations include: occult blood testing, mammography, lipid profile etc. Each recommendation contains textual, visual and interactive content components in order to promote engagement and motivate the patient to actually change his health behaviour.
3. The personal health services layer (what the patient can do) enables patients to schedule clinic visits, order chronic prescriptions, e-consult their physician via secured e-mail, set SMS medication reminders, e-consult a pharmacist regarding personal medications. Consultants’ answers are sent securely to the patients’ personal mobile device.
On December 2009 CHS launched secured, web based, synchronous medical consultation via video conference. Currently 11,780 e-visits are performed monthly (May 2011). The medical encounter includes e-prescription and referral capabilities which are biometrically signed by the physician. On December 2010 CHS launched a unique mobile health platform, which is one of the most comprehensive personal m-Health applications world-wide. An essential advantage of mobile devices is their potential to bridge the digital divide. Currently, CHS m-Health platform is used by more than 45,000 unique users, with 75,000 laboratory results views/month, 1100 m-consultations/month and 9000 physician visit scheduling/month.
4. The Bio-Sensing layer (what physiological data the patient can populate) includes diagnostic means that allow remote physical examination, bio-sensors that broadcast various physiological measurements, and smart homecare devices, such as e-Pill boxes that gives seniors, patients and their caregivers the ability to stay at home and live life to its fullest. Monitored data is automatically transmitted to the patient’s Personal Health Record and to relevant medical personnel.
The monitoring layer is embedded in the chronic disease management platform, and in the interactive health promotion and wellness platform. It includes tailoring of consumer-oriented medical devices and service provided by various professional personnel—physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dieticians and more.
5. The Social layer (what the patient can share). Social media networks triggered an essential change at the humanity ‘genome’ level, yet to be further defined in the upcoming years. Social media has huge potential in promoting health as it combines fun, simple yet extraordinary user experience, and bio-social-feedback. There are two major challenges in leveraging health care through social networks:
a. Our personal health information is the cornerstone for personalizing healthier lifestyle, disease management and preventative medicine. We naturally see our personal health data as a super-private territory. So, how do we bring the power of our private health information, currently locked within our Personal Health Record, into social media networks without offending basic privacy issues?
b. Disease management and preventive medicine are currently neither considered ‘cool’ nor ‘fun’ or ‘potentially highly viral’ activities; yet, health is a major issue of everybody’s life. It seems like we are missing a crucial element with a huge potential in health behavioural change—the Fun Theory. Social media platforms comprehends user experience tools that potentially could break current misconception, and engage people in the daily task of taking better care of themselves.
CHS e-Health innovation team characterized several break-through applications in this unexplored territory within social media networks, fusing personal health and social media platforms without offending privacy. One of the most crucial issues regarding adoption of e-health and m-health platforms is change management. Being a ‘hot’ innovative ‘gadget’ is far from sufficient for changing health behaviours at the individual and population levels.
CHS health behaviour change management methodology includes 4 core elements:
1. Engaging two completely different populations: patients, and medical teams. e-Health applications must present true added value for both medical teams and patients, engaging them through understanding and assimilating “what’s really in it for me”. Medical teams are further subdivided into physicians, nurses, pharmacists and administrative personnel—each with their own driving incentive. Resistance to change is an obstacle in many fields but it is particularly true in the conservative health industry. To successfully manage a large scale persuasive process, we treat intra-organizational human resources as “Change Agents”. Harnessing the persuasive power of ~40,000 employees requires engaging them as the primary target group. Successful recruitment has the potential of converting each patient-medical team interaction into an exposure opportunity to the new era of participatory medicine via e-health and m-health channels.
2. Implementation waves: every group of digital health products that are released at the same time are seen as one project. Each implementation wave leverages the focus of the organization and target populations to a defined time span. There are three major and three minor implementation waves a year.
3. Change-Support Arrow: a structured infrastructure for every implementation wave. The sub-stages in this strategy include:
Cross organizational mapping and identification of early adopters and stakeholders relevant to the implementation wave
Mapping positive or negative perceptions and designing specific marketing approaches for the distinct target groups
Intra and extra organizational marketing
Conducting intensive training and presentation sessions for groups of implementers
Running conflict-prevention activities, such as advanced tackling of potential union resistance
Training change-agents with resistance-management behavioural techniques, focused intervention for specific incidents and for key opinion leaders
Extensive presence in the clinics during the launch period, etc.
The entire process is monitored and managed continuously by a review team.
4. Closing Phase: each wave is analyzed and a “lessons-learned” session concludes the changes required in the modus operandi of the e-health project team.
PMCID: PMC3571141
e-Health; mobile health; personal health record; online visit; patient empowerment; knowledge prescription
6.  Association between medical home characteristics and staff professional experiences in pediatric practices 
Archives of Public Health  2014;72(1):36.
Background
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model has been touted as a potential way to improve primary care. As more PCMH projects are undertaken it is critical to understand professional experiences as staff are key in implementing and maintaining the necessary changes. A paucity of information on staff experiences is available, and our study aims to fill that critical gap in the literature.
Methods
Eligible pediatric practices were invited to participate in the Florida Pediatric Medical Home Demonstration Project out which 20 practices were selected. Eligibility criteria included a minimum of 100 children with special health care needs and participation in Medicaid, a Medicaid health plan, or Florida KidCare. Survey data were collected from staff working in these 20 pediatric practices across Florida. Ware’s seven-point scale assessed satisfaction and burnout was measured using the six-point Maslach scale. The Medical Home Index measured the practice’s medical home characteristics. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted. In total, 170 staff members completed the survey and the response rate was 42.6%.
Results
Staff members reported high job satisfaction (mean 5.54; SD 1.26) and average burnout. Multivariate analyses suggest that care coordination is positively associated (b = 0.75) and community outreach is negatively associated (b = -0.18) with job satisfaction. Quality improvement and organizational capacity are positively associated with increased staff burnout (OR = 1.37, 5.89, respectively). Chronic condition and data management are associated with lower burnout (OR = 0.05 and 0.20, respectively). Across all models adaptive reserve, or the ability to make and sustain change, is associated with higher job satisfaction and lower staff burnout.
Conclusions
Staff experiences in the transition to becoming a PCMH are important. Although our study is cross-sectional, it provides some insight about how medical home, staff and practice characteristics are associated with job satisfaction and burnout. Many PCMH initiatives include facilitation and it should assist staff on how to adapt to change. Unless staff needs are addressed a PCMH may be threatened by fatigue, burnout, and low morale.
doi:10.1186/2049-3258-72-36
PMCID: PMC4216343  PMID: 25364502
Medical home; Pediatrics; CHIPRA; Staff; Survey
7.  Pressure ulcer prevention knowledge among Jordanian nurses: a cross- sectional study 
BMC Nursing  2014;13:6.
Background
Pressure ulcer remains a significant problem in the healthcare system. In addition to the suffering it causes patients, it bears a growing financial burden. Although pressure ulcer prevention and care have improved in recent years, pressure ulcer still exists and occurs in both hospital and community settings. In Jordan, there are a handful of studies on pressure ulcer. This study aims to explore levels of knowledge and knowledge sources about pressure ulcer prevention, as well as barriers to implementing pressure ulcer prevention guidelines among Jordanian nurses.
Methods
Using a cross-sectional study design and a self-administered questionnaire, data was collected from 194 baccalaureate and master’s level staff nurses working in eight Jordanian hospitals. From September to October of 2011, their knowledge levels about pressure ulcer prevention and the sources of this knowledge were assessed, along with the barriers which reduce successful pressure ulcer care and prevention.
ANOVA and t-test analysis were used to test the differences in nurses’ knowledge according to participants’ characteristics. Means, standard deviation, and frequencies were used to describe nurses’ knowledge levels, knowledge sources, and barriers to pressure ulcer prevention.
Results
The majority (73%, n = 141) of nurses had inadequate knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention. The mean scores of the test for all participants was 10.84 out of 26 (SD = 2.3, range = 5–17), with the lowest score in themes related to PU etiology, preventive measures to reduce amount of pressure/shear, and risk assessment. In-service training was the second source of education on pressure ulcer, coming after university training. Shortage of staff and lack of time were the most frequently cited barriers to carrying out pressure ulcer risk assessment, documentation, and prevention.
Conclusions
This study highlights concerns about Jordanian nurses’ knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention. The results of the current study showed inadequate knowledge among Jordanian nurses about pressure ulcer prevention based on National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel guidelines. Also, the low level of nurses’ pressure ulcer knowledge suggests poor dissemination of pressure ulcer knowledge in Jordan, a suggestion supported by the lack of relationship between years of experience and pressure ulcer knowledge.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-13-6
PMCID: PMC3946597  PMID: 24565372
Pressure ulcer; Knowledge; Sources; Barriers; Nurses; Jordan
8.  The role of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics in explaining variation in use of information technologies in evidence based practice 
Background
There is growing awareness of the role of information technology in evidence-based practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of organizational context and nurse characteristics in explaining variation in nurses’ use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile Tablet PCs for accessing evidence-based information. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model provided the framework for studying the impact of providing nurses with PDA-supported, evidence-based practice resources, and for studying the organizational, technological, and human resource variables that impact nurses’ use patterns.
Methods
A survey design was used, involving baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The setting included 24 organizations representing three sectors: hospitals, long-term care (LTC) facilities, and community organizations (home care and public health). The sample consisted of 710 participants (response rate 58%) at Time 1, and 469 for whom both Time 1 and Time 2 follow-up data were obtained (response rate 66%). A hierarchical regression model (HLM) was used to evaluate the effect of predictors from all levels simultaneously.
Results
The Chi square result indicated PDA users reported using their device more frequently than Tablet PC users (p = 0.001). Frequency of device use was explained by ‘breadth of device functions’ and PDA versus Tablet PC. Frequency of Best Practice Guideline use was explained by ‘willingness to implement research,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ ‘organizational slack time,’ ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects), and ‘slack staff’ (negative effect). Frequency of Nursing Plus database use was explained by ‘culture,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ and ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects), and ‘slack staff’ (negative). ‘Organizational culture’ (positive), ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive), and ‘slack staff ‘(negative) were associated with frequency of Lexi/PEPID drug dictionary use.
Conclusion
Access to PDAs and Tablet PCs supported nurses’ self-reported use of information resources. Several of the organizational context variables and one individual nurse variable explained variation in the frequency of information resource use.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-7-122
PMCID: PMC3543384  PMID: 23276201
Health information technologies; Mobile technology; Personal digital assistant; Nursing informatics; Information-seeking; Organizational context; Evidence-based practice; PARIHS model
9.  Improving person-centred care in nursing homes through dementia-care mapping: design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial 
BMC Geriatrics  2012;12:1.
Background
The effectiveness and efficiency of nursing-home dementia care are suboptimal: there are high rates of neuropsychiatric symptoms among the residents and work-related stress among the staff. Dementia-care mapping is a person-centred care method that may alleviate both the resident and the staff problems. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dementia-care mapping in nursing-home dementia care.
Methods/Design
The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial, with nursing homes grouped in clusters. Studywise minimisation is the allocation method. Nursing homes in the intervention group will receive a dementia-care-mapping intervention, while the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome measure is resident agitation, to be assessed with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. The secondary outcomes are resident neuropsychiatric symptoms, assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Nursing Homes and quality of life, assessed with Qualidem and the EQ-5D. The staff outcomes are stress reactions, job satisfaction and job-stress-related absenteeism, and staff turnover rate, assessed with the Questionnaire about Experience and Assessment of Work, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and the Maastricht Job Satisfaction Scale for Health Care, respectively. We will collect the data from the questionnaires and electronic registration systems. We will employ linear mixed-effect models and cost-effectiveness analyses to evaluate the outcomes. We will use structural equation modelling in the secondary analysis to evaluate the plausibility of a theoretical model regarding the effectiveness of the dementia-care mapping intervention. We will set up process analyses, including focus groups with staff, to determine the relevant facilitators of and barriers to implementing dementia-care mapping broadly.
Discussion
A novelty of dementia-care mapping is that it offers an integral person-centred approach to dementia care in nursing homes. The major strengths of the study design are the large sample size, the cluster-randomisation, and the one-year follow-up. The generalisability of the implementation strategies may be questionable because the motivation for person-centred care in both the intervention and control nursing homes is above average. The results of this study may be useful in improving the quality of care and are relevant for policymakers.
Trial registration
The trial is registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register: NTR2314.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-12-1
PMCID: PMC3267673  PMID: 22214264
10.  The Relationship Among Evidence-Based Practice and Client Dyspnea, Pain, Falls, and Pressure Ulcer Outcomes in the Community Setting 
Background
There are gaps in knowledge about the extent to which home care nurses’ practice is based on best evidence and whether evidence-based practice impacts patient outcomes.
Aim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between evidence-based practice and client pain, dyspnea, falls, and pressure ulcer outcomes in the home care setting. Evidence-based practice was defined as nursing interventions based on best practice guidelines.
Methods
The Nursing Role Effectiveness model was used to guide the selection of variables for investigation. Data were collected from administrative records on percent of visits made by Registered Nurses (RN), total number of nursing visits, and consistency of visits by principal nurse. Charts audits were used to collect data on nursing interventions and client outcomes. The sample consisted of 338 nurses from 13 home care offices and 939 de-identified client charts. Hierarchical generalized linear regression approaches were constructed to explore which variables explain variation in client outcomes.
Results
The study found documentation of nursing interventions based on best practice guidelines was positively associated with improvement in dyspnea, pain, falls, and pressure ulcer outcomes. Percent of visits made by an RN and consistency of visits by a principal nurse were not found to be associated with improved client outcomes, but the total number of nursing visits was.
Linking Evidence to Action
Implementation of best practice is associated with improved client outcomes in the home care setting. Future research needs to explore ways to more effectively foster the documentation of evidence-based practice interventions.
doi:10.1111/wvn.12051
PMCID: PMC4240472  PMID: 25099877
11.  Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians, radiographers, nurses and physicists working in radiotherapy: a multicenter analysis by the DEGRO Quality of Life Work Group 
Background
Ongoing changes in cancer care cause an increase in the complexity of cases which is characterized by modern treatment techniques and a higher demand for patient information about the underlying disease and therapeutic options. At the same time, the restructuring of health services and reduced funding have led to the downsizing of hospital care services. These trends strongly influence the workplace environment and are a potential source of stress and burnout among professionals working in radiotherapy.
Methods and patients
A postal survey was sent to members of the workgroup "Quality of Life" which is part of DEGRO (German Society for Radiooncology). Thus far, 11 departments have answered the survey. 406 (76.1%) out of 534 cancer care workers (23% physicians, 35% radiographers, 31% nurses, 11% physicists) from 8 university hospitals and 3 general hospitals completed the FBAS form (Stress Questionnaire of Physicians and Nurses; 42 items, 7 scales), and a self-designed questionnaire regarding work situation and one question on global job satisfaction. Furthermore, the participants could make voluntary suggestions about how to improve their situation.
Results
Nurses and physicians showed the highest level of job stress (total score 2.2 and 2.1). The greatest source of job stress (physicians, nurses and radiographers) stemmed from structural conditions (e.g. underpayment, ringing of the telephone) a "stress by compassion" (e.g. "long suffering of patients", "patients will be kept alive using all available resources against the conviction of staff"). In multivariate analyses professional group (p < 0.001), working night shifts (p = 0.001), age group (p = 0.012) and free time compensation (p = 0.024) gained significance for total FBAS score. Global job satisfaction was 4.1 on a 9-point scale (from 1 – very satisfied to 9 – not satisfied). Comparing the total stress scores of the hospitals and job groups we found significant differences in nurses (p = 0.005) and physicists (p = 0.042) and a borderline significance in physicians (p = 0.052).
In multivariate analyses "professional group" (p = 0.006) and "vocational experience" (p = 0.036) were associated with job satisfaction (cancer care workers with < 2 years of vocational experience having a higher global job satisfaction). The total FBAS score correlated with job satisfaction (Spearman-Rho = 0.40; p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Current workplace environments have a negative impact on stress levels and the satisfaction of radiotherapy staff. Identification and removal of the above-mentioned critical points requires various changes which should lead to the reduction of stress.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-4-6
PMCID: PMC2661891  PMID: 19200364
12.  Randomized Multilevel Intervention to Improve Outcomes of Residents in Nursing Homes in Need of Improvement 
Purpose
A comprehensive multilevel intervention was tested to build organizational capacity to create and sustain improvement in quality of care and subsequently improve resident outcomes in nursing homes in need of improvement. Intervention facilities (n=29) received a two-year multilevel intervention with monthly on-site consultation from expert nurses with graduate education in gerontological nursing. Attention control facilities (n=29) that also needed to improve resident outcomes received monthly information about aging and physical assessment of elders.
Design and Methods
Randomized clinical trial of nursing homes in need of improving resident outcomes of bladder and bowel incontinence, weight loss, pressure ulcers, and decline in activities of daily living (ADL). It was hypothesized that following the intervention, experimental facilities would have better resident outcomes, higher quality of care, higher staff retention, more organizational attributes of improved working conditions than control facilities, similar staffing and staff mix, and lower total and direct care costs.
Results
The intervention did improve quality of care (p=0.02); there were improvements in pressure ulcers (p=0.05), weight loss (p=0.05). Staff retention, organizational working conditions, staffing, and staff mix and most costs were not affected by the intervention. Leadership turnover was surprisingly excessive in both intervention and control groups.
Implications
Some facilities that are in need of improving quality of care and resident outcomes are able to build the organizational capacity to improve while not increasing staffing or costs of care. Improvement requires continuous supportive consultation and leadership willing to involve staff and work together to build the systematic improvements in care delivery needed.
doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2011.06.012
PMCID: PMC3379965  PMID: 21816681
randomized clinical trial; nursing homes; outcomes of care; cost analysis; quality improvement; staff retention; working conditions
13.  Organization-wide adoption of computerized provider order entry systems: a study based on diffusion of innovations theory 
Background
Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems have been introduced to reduce medication errors, increase safety, improve work-flow efficiency, and increase medical service quality at the moment of prescription. Making the impact of CPOE systems more observable may facilitate their adoption by users. We set out to examine factors associated with the adoption of a CPOE system for inter-organizational and intra-organizational care.
Methods
The diffusion of innovation theory was used to understand physicians' and nurses' attitudes and thoughts about implementation and use of the CPOE system. Two online survey questionnaires were distributed to all physicians and nurses using a CPOE system in county-wide healthcare organizations. The number of complete questionnaires analyzed was 134 from 200 nurses (67.0%) and 176 from 741 physicians (23.8%). Data were analyzed using descriptive-analytical statistical methods.
Results
More nurses (56.7%) than physicians (31.3%) stated that the CPOE system introduction had worked well in their clinical setting (P < 0.001). Similarly, more physicians (73.9%) than nurses (50.7%) reported that they found the system not adapted to their specific professional practice (P = < 0.001). Also more physicians (25.0%) than nurses (13.4%) stated that they did want to return to the previous system (P = 0.041). We found that in particular the received relative advantages of the CPOE system were estimated to be significantly (P < 0.001) higher among nurses (39.6%) than physicians (16.5%). However, physicians' agreements with the compatibility of the CPOE and with its complexity were significantly higher than the nurses (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Qualifications for CPOE adoption as defined by three attributes of diffusion of innovation theory were not satisfied in the study setting. CPOE systems are introduced as a response to the present limitations in paper-based systems. In consequence, user expectations are often high on their relative advantages as well as on a low level of complexity. Building CPOE systems therefore requires designs that can provide rather important additional advantages, e.g. by preventing prescription errors and ultimately improving patient safety and safety of clinical work. The decision-making process leading to the implementation and use of CPOE systems in healthcare therefore has to be improved. As any change in health service settings usually faces resistance, we emphasize that CPOE system designers and healthcare decision-makers should continually collect users' feedback about the systems, while not forgetting that it also is necessary to inform the users about the potential benefits involved.
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-9-52
PMCID: PMC2809050  PMID: 20043843
14.  Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.
Methods
A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585) was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows.
Results
Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area). Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging in their workplaces. Significant differences were found according to gender, age, marital status, dependent children, dependent adults, nationality, nursing tenure, organizational tenure, positional tenure, and payment per month. No significant differences were found according to education level of PHC nurses and location of PHC.
Conclusions
These findings can be used by PHC managers and policy makers for developing and appropriately implementing successful plans to improve the QWL. This will help to enhance the home and work environments, improve individual and organization performance and increase the commitment of nurses.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-10-30
PMCID: PMC3543175  PMID: 22971150
Nurse; Nursing workforce; Primary health care; Quality of work life (QWL); Saudi Arabia
15.  The effects of dementia care mapping on nursing home residents’ quality of life and staff attitudes: design of the quasi-experimental study Leben-QD II 
BMC Geriatrics  2013;13:53.
Background
The main objective of care for people with dementia is the maintenance and promotion of quality of life (Qol). Most of the residents in nursing homes have challenging behaviors that strongly affect their Qol. Person-centered care (PCC) is an approach that aims to achieve the best possible Qol and to reduce challenging behaviors. Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) is a method of implementing PCC that has been used in Germany for several years. However, there are no data on the effectiveness of DCM or the challenges of implementation of DCM in German nursing homes.
Methods/design
In this quasi-experimental non-randomized cluster-controlled study, the effects of DCM will be compared to 2 comparison groups. 9 nursing homes will take part: 3 will implement DCM, 3 will implement a comparison intervention using an alternative Qol assessment, and 3 have already implemented DCM. The main effect outcomes are Qol, challenging behaviors, staff attitudes toward dementia, job satisfaction and burnout of caregivers. These outcomes will be measured on 3 data points. Different quantitative and qualitative data sources will be collected through the course of the study to investigate the degree of implementation as well as facilitators of and barriers to the implementation process.
Discussion
This study will provide new information about the effectiveness of DCM and the implementation process of DCM in German nursing homes. The study results will provide important information to guide the national discussion about the improvement of dementia-specific Qol, quality of care in nursing homes and allocation of resources. In addition, the study results will provide information for decision-making and implementation of complex psychosocial interventions such as DCM. The findings will also be important for the design of a subsequent randomized controlled trial (e.g. appropriateness of outcomes and measurements, inclusion criteria for participating nursing homes) and the development of a successful implementation strategy.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43916381.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-53
PMCID: PMC3691737  PMID: 23725292
16.  Pressure Ulcer Prevention 
Executive Summary
In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers.
Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series.
Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis
The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation)
Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009)
Purpose
A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1)
In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1).
Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers*
CI indicates confidence interval.
Nonacute care included sub-acute care, chronic care, complex continuing care, long-term care, and nursing home care.
Mixed health care includes a mixture of acute, nonacute, and/or community care health care delivery settings.
Pressure ulcers have a considerable economic impact on health care systems. In Australia, the cost of treating a single stage IV ulcer has been estimated to be greater than $61,000 (AUD) (approximately $54,000 CDN), (3) while in the United Kingdom the total cost of pressure ulcers has been estimated at £1.4–£2.1 billion annually or 4% of the National Health Service expenditure. (4)
Because of the high physical and economic burden of pressure ulcers, this review was undertaken to determine which interventions are effective at preventing the development of pressure ulcers in an at-risk population.
Review Strategy
The main objective of this systematic review is to determine the effectiveness of pressure ulcer preventive interventions including Risk Assessment, Distribution Devices, Nutritional Supplementation, Repositioning, and Incontinence Management.
A comprehensive literature search was completed for each of the above 5 preventive interventions. The electronic databases searched included MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. As well, the bibliographic references of selected studies were searched. All studies meeting explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria for each systematic review section were retained and the quality of the body of evidence was determined using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. (5) Where appropriate, a meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the overall estimate of effect of the preventive intervention under review.
Summary of Findings
Risk Assessment
There is very low quality evidence to support the hypothesis that allocating the type of pressure-relieving equipment according to the person’s level of pressure ulcer risk statistically decreases the incidence of pressure ulcer development. Similarly, there is very low quality evidence to support the hypothesis that incorporating a risk assessment into nursing practice increases the number of preventative measures used per person and that these interventions are initiated earlier in the care continuum.
Pressure Redistribution Devices
There is moderate quality evidence that the use of an alternative foam mattress produces a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 69% in the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with a standard hospital mattress. The evidence does not support the superiority of one particular type of alternative foam mattress.
There is very low quality evidence that the use of an alternating pressure mattress is associated with an RRR of 71% in the incidence of grade 1 or 2 pressure ulcers. Similarly, there is low quality evidence that the use of an alternating pressure mattress is associated with an RRR of 68% in the incidence of deteriorating skin changes.
There is moderate quality evidence that there is a statistically nonsignificant difference in the incidence of grade 2 pressure ulcers between persons using an alternating pressure mattress and those using an alternating pressure overlay.
There is moderate quality evidence that the use of an Australian sheepskin produces an RRR of 58% in the incidence of pressure ulcers grade 1 or greater. There is also evidence that sheepskins are uncomfortable to use. The Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel noted that, in general, sheepskins are not a useful preventive intervention because they bunch up in a patient’s bed and may contribute to wound infection if not properly cleaned, and this reduces their acceptability as a preventive intervention.
There is very low quality evidence that the use of a Micropulse System alternating pressure mattress used intra operatively and postoperatively produces an RRR of 79% in the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with a gel-pad used intraoperatively and a standard hospital mattress used postoperatively (standard care). It is unclear if this effect is due to the use of the alternating pressure mattress intraoperatively or postoperatively or if indeed it must be used in both patient care areas.
There is low quality evidence that the use of a vesico-elastic polymer pad (gel pad) on the operating table for surgeries of at least 90 minutes’ duration produces a statistically significant RRR of 47% in the incidence of pressure ulcers grade 1 or greater compared with a standard operating table foam mattress.
There is low quality evidence that the use of an air suspension bed in the intensive care unit (ICU) for stays of at least 3 days produces a statistically significant RRR of 76% in the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with a standard ICU bed.
There is very low quality evidence that the use of an alternating pressure mattress does not statistically reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with an alternative foam mattress.
Nutritional Supplementation
There is very low quality evidence supporting an RRR of 15% in the incidence of pressure ulcers when nutritional supplementation is added to a standard hospital diet.
Repositioning
There is low quality evidence supporting the superiority of a 4-hourly turning schedule with a vesico-elastic polyurethane foam mattress compared with a 2-hourly or 3-hourly turning schedule and a standard foam mattress to reduce the incidence of grade 1 or 2 pressure ulcers.
Incontinence Management
There is very low quality evidence supporting the benefit of a structured skin care protocol to reduce the incidence of grade 1 or 2 pressure ulcers in persons with urinary and/or fecal incontinence.
There is low quality evidence supporting the benefit of a pH-balanced cleanser compared with soap and water to reduce the incidence of grade 1 or 2 pressure ulcers in persons with urinary and fecal incontinence.
Conclusions
There is moderate quality evidence that an alternative foam mattress is effective in preventing the development of pressure ulcers compared with a standard hospital foam mattress.
However, overall there remains a paucity of moderate or higher quality evidence in the literature to support many of the preventive interventions. Until better quality evidence is available, pressure ulcer preventive care must be guided by expert opinion for those interventions where low or very low quality evidence supports the effectiveness of such interventions.
Abbreviations
Confidence interval
Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation
Intensive care unit
Medical Advisory Secretariat
National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel
Risk assessment scale
Randomized controlled trial
Registered Nurses Association of Ontario
Relative risk
Relative risk reduction
PMCID: PMC3377566  PMID: 23074524
17.  The impact on nurses and nurse managers of introducing PEPFAR clinical services in urban government clinics in Uganda 
Background
Improving provider performance is central to strengthening health services in developing countries. Because of critical shortages of physicians, many clinics in sub-Saharan Africa are led by nurses. In addition to clinical skills, nurse managers need practical managerial skills and adequate resources to ensure procurement of essential supplies, quality assurance implementation, and productive work environment. Giving nurses more autonomy in their work empowers them in the workplace and has shown to create positive influence on work attitudes and behaviors. The Infectious Disease Institute, an affiliate of Makerere University College of Health Science, in an effort to expand the needed HIV services in the Ugandan capital, established a community-university partnership with the Ministry of Health to implement an innovative model to build capacity in HIV service delivery. This paper evaluates the impact on the nurses from this innovative program to provide more health care in six nurse managed Kampala City Council (KCC) Clinics.
Methods
A mixed method approach was used. The descriptive study collected key informant interviews from the six nurse managers, and administered a questionnaire to 20 staff nurses between September and December 2009. Key themes were manually identified from the interviews, and the questionnaire data were analyzed using SPSS.
Results
Introducing new HIV services into six KCC clinics was positive for the nurses. They identified the project as successful because of perceived improved environment, increase in useful in-service training, new competence to manage patients and staff, improved physical infrastructure, provision of more direct patient care, motivation to improve the clinic because the project acted on their suggestions, and involvement in role expansion. All of these helped empower the nurses, improving quality of care and increasing job satisfaction.
Conclusions
This community-university HIV innovative model was successful from the point of view of the nurses and nurse managers. This model shows promise in increasing effective, quality health service; HIV and other programs can build capacity and empower nurses and nurse managers to directly implement such services. It also demonstrates how MakCHS can be instrumental through partnerships in designing and testing effective strategies, building human health resources and improving Ugandan health outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1472-698X-11-S1-S8
PMCID: PMC3059480  PMID: 21411008
18.  Insights about the process and impact of implementing nursing guidelines on delivery of care in hospitals and community settings 
Background
Little is known about the impact of implementing nursing-oriented best practice guidelines on the delivery of patient care in either hospital or community settings.
Methods
A naturalistic study with a prospective, before and after design documented the implementation of six newly developed nursing best practice guidelines (asthma, breastfeeding, delirium-dementia-depression (DDD), foot complications in diabetes, smoking cessation and venous leg ulcers). Eleven health care organisations were selected for a one-year project. At each site, clinical resource nurses (CRNs) worked with managers and a multidisciplinary steering committee to conduct an environmental scan and develop an action plan of activities (i.e. education sessions, policy review). Process and patient outcomes were assessed by chart audit (n = 681 pre-implementation, 592 post-implementation). Outcomes were also assessed for four of six topics by in-hospital/home interviews (n = 261 pre-implementation, 232 post-implementation) and follow-up telephone interviews (n = 152 pre, 121 post). Interviews were conducted with 83/95 (87%) CRN's, nurses and administrators to describe recommendations selected, strategies used and participants' perceived facilitators and barriers to guideline implementation.
Results
While statistically significant improvements in 5% to 83% of indicators were observed in each organization, more than 80% of indicators for breastfeeding, DDD and smoking cessation did not change. Statistically significant improvements were found in > 50% of indicators for asthma (52%), diabetes foot care (83%) and venous leg ulcers (60%). Organizations with > 50% improvements reported two unique implementation strategies which included hands-on skill practice sessions for nurses and the development of new patient education materials. Key facilitators for all organizations included education sessions as well as support from champions and managers while key barriers were lack of time, workload pressure and staff resistance.
Conclusion
Implementation of nursing best practice guidelines can result in improved practice and patient outcomes across diverse settings yet many indicators remained unchanged. Mobilization of the nursing workforce to actively implement guidelines and to monitor the delivery of their care is important so that patients may learn about and receive recommended healthcare.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-29
PMCID: PMC2279128  PMID: 18241349
19.  A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Prevalence of Undertreatment of Nonpain Symptoms and Factors Associated With Undertreatment in Older Nursing Home Hospice/Palliative Care Patients 
Background
Approximately 25% of all US deaths occur in the long-term care setting, and this figure is projected to rise to 40% by the year 2040. Currently, there is limited information on nonpain symptoms and their appropriate treatment in this setting at the end of life.
Objective
This study evaluated the prevalence of undertreatment of nonpain symptoms and factors associated with undertreatment in older nursing home hospice/palliative care patients.
Methods
This study used a cross-sectional sample of older (≥65 years) hospice/palliative care patients to represent all patients from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nonpain symptoms were determined from facility staff, who used the medical records to answer questions about the residents. Data on medication use were derived from medication administration records. Undertreatment was defined as the omission of a necessary medication for a specific nonpain symptom and was evaluated as a dichotomous variable (yes = the nonpain symptom was not treated with a medication; no = the nonpain symptom was treated with a medication). Cross-sectional bivariate analyses were conducted using χ2 and regression coefficient tests to determine factors potentially associated with undertreatment of nonpain symptoms.
Results
The cross-sectional sample included 303 older nursing home hospice/palliative care patients from among the 33,413 (weighted) patients from the 2004 NNHS. Overall, most of the patients were white (91.4% [277/303]) and female (71.9% [218/303]), and nearly half were aged ≥85 years (47.9% [145/303]). One or more nonpain symptoms occurred in 82 patients (22.0% weighted). The most common nonpain symptoms (weighted percentages) were constipation/fecal impaction in 35 patients (8.8%), cough in 34 patients (9.2%), nausea/vomiting in 26 patients (7.2%), fever in 11 patients (3.1%), and diarrhea in 9 patients (1.9%). Medication undertreatment of any of the above symptoms was seen in 47 of 82 patients (60.0% weighted), ranging from a low of 26.4% for constipation/fecal impaction to a high of 88.0% for nausea/vomiting. Undertreated patients had significantly more problems with bed mobility (n [weighted %], 43 [92.3%] vs 21 [67.2%]; P = 0.013), mood (21 [44.7%] vs 7 [19.7%]; P = 0.017), and pressure ulcers (12 [25.7%] vs 2 [6.1%]; P = 0.023) than did treated patients. The undertreated group also had a significantly greater number of secondary diagnoses (weighted mean [SD], 6.5 [0.7] vs 5.2 [0.5]; P = 0.004) but had a shorter length of stay in hospice/palliative care (120.5 [20.1] vs 219.4 [51.8] days; P < 0.001) or in the nursing home (552.0 [96.5] vs 1285.4 [268.3] days; P = 0.001).
Conclusions
The prevalence of nonpain symptoms was low (22.0% weighted) in older nursing home hospice/palliative care patients. However, medication undertreatment of nonpain symptoms was seen in more than half of these patients. Future quality-improvement initiatives for nursing home hospice/palliative care patients are needed beyond the management of pain symptoms.
doi:10.1016/j.amjopharm.2010.05.002
PMCID: PMC2929128  PMID: 20624612
long-term care; nursing homes; palliative care; hospice care; aged
20.  Implementing evidence-based practice: effectiveness of a structured multifaceted mentorship programme 
Journal of advanced nursing  2010;66(12):2761-2771.
Aim
This paper is a report of the effectiveness of a structured multifaceted mentorship programme designed to implement evidence-based practice in a clinical research intensive environment.
Background
Barriers to implementing evidence-based practice are well-documented in the literature. Evidence-based practice is associated with higher quality care and better patient outcomes than care that is steeped in tradition. However, the integration of evidence-based practice implementation into daily clinical practice remains inconsistent, and the chasm between research and bedside practice remains substantial.
Methods
This quasi-experimental mixed methods study included three focused discussions with nursing leadership and shared governance staff as well as pre- (N=159) and post-intervention (N=99) questionnaires administered between June 2006 and February 2007. Online questionnaires included measures of organizational readiness, evidence-based practice beliefs, evidence-based practice implementation, job satisfaction, group cohesion and intent to leave nursing and the current job.
Results
Participants in the evidence-based practice mentorship programme had a larger increase in perceived organizational culture and readiness for evidence-based practice and in evidence-based practice belief scores than those who did not participate. Qualitative findings suggested that leadership support of a culture for evidence-based practice and the dedication of resources for sustainability of the initiative needed to be a priority for engaging staff at all levels.
Conclusion
These findings corroborate other studies showing that nurses’ beliefs about evidence-based practice are significantly correlated with evidence-based practice implementation and that having a mentor leads to stronger beliefs and greater implementation by nurses as well as greater group cohesion, which is a potent predictor of nursing turnover rates.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05442.x
PMCID: PMC2981621  PMID: 20825512
Evidence-based practice; mentors; mentorship programme; nursing; quasi-experiment
21.  Worklife and Satisfaction of Hospitalists: Toward Flourishing Careers 
ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND
The number of hospitalists in the US is growing rapidly, yet little is known about their worklife to inform whether hospital medicine is a viable long-term career for physicians.
OBJECTIVE
Determine current satisfaction levels among hospitalists.
DESIGN
Survey study.
METHODS
A national random stratified sample of 3,105 potential hospitalists plus 662 hospitalist employees of three multi-state hospitalist companies were administered the Hospital Medicine Physician Worklife Survey. Using 5-point Likert scales, the survey assessed demographic information, global job and specialty satisfaction, and 11 satisfaction domains: workload, compensation, care quality, organizational fairness, autonomy, personal time, organizational climate, and relationships with colleagues, staff, patients, and leader. Relationships between global satisfaction and satisfaction domains, and burnout symptoms and career longevity were explored.
RESULTS
There were 816 hospitalist responses (adjusted response rate, 25.6%). Correcting for oversampling of pediatricians, 33.5% of respondents were women, and 7.4% were pediatricians. Overall, 62.6% of respondents reported high satisfaction (≥4 on a 5-point scale) with their job, and 69.0% with their specialty. Hospitalists were most satisfied with the quality of care they provided and relationships with staff and colleagues. They were least satisfied with organizational climate, autonomy, compensation, and availability of personal time. In adjusted analysis, satisfaction with organizational climate, quality of care provided, organizational fairness, personal time, relationship with leader, compensation, and relationship with patients predicted job satisfaction. Satisfaction with personal time, care quality, patient relationships, staff relationships, and compensation predicted specialty satisfaction. Job burnout symptoms were reported by 29.9% of respondents who were more likely to leave and reduce work effort.
CONCLUSIONS
Hospitalists rate their job and specialty satisfaction highly, but burnout symptoms are common. Hospitalist programs should focus on organizational climate, organizational fairness, personal time, and compensation to improve satisfaction and minimize attrition.
doi:10.1007/s11606-011-1780-z
PMCID: PMC3250553  PMID: 21773849
hospital medicine; survey research; workforce; satisfaction; worklife
22.  WHO Essential Medicines Policies and Use in Developing and Transitional Countries: An Analysis of Reported Policy Implementation and Medicines Use Surveys 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(9):e1001724.
Kathleen Holloway and David Henry evaluate whether countries that report having implemented WHO essential medicines policies have higher quality use of medicines.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Suboptimal medicine use is a global public health problem. For 35 years the World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted essential medicines policies to improve quality use of medicines (QUM), but evidence of their effectiveness is lacking, and uptake by countries remains low. Our objective was to determine whether WHO essential medicines policies are associated with better QUM.
Methods and Findings
We compared results from independently conducted medicines use surveys in countries that did versus did not report implementation of WHO essential medicines policies. We extracted survey data on ten validated QUM indicators and 36 self-reported policy implementation variables from WHO databases for 2002–2008. We calculated the average difference (as percent) for the QUM indicators between countries reporting versus not reporting implementation of specific policies. Policies associated with positive effects were included in a regression of a composite QUM score on total numbers of implemented policies. Data were available for 56 countries. Twenty-seven policies were associated with better use of at least two percentage points. Eighteen policies were associated with significantly better use (unadjusted p<0.05), of which four were associated with positive differences of 10% or more: undergraduate training of doctors in standard treatment guidelines, undergraduate training of nurses in standard treatment guidelines, the ministry of health having a unit promoting rational use of medicines, and provision of essential medicines free at point of care to all patients. In regression analyses national wealth was positively associated with the composite QUM score and the number of policies reported as being implemented in that country. There was a positive correlation between the number of policies (out of the 27 policies with an effect size of 2% or more) that countries reported implementing and the composite QUM score (r = 0.39, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.59, p = 0.003). This correlation weakened but remained significant after inclusion of national wealth in multiple linear regression analyses. Multiple policies were more strongly associated with the QUM score in the 28 countries with gross national income per capita below the median value (US$2,333) (r = 0.43, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.69, p = 0.023) than in the 28 countries with values above the median (r = 0.22, 95% CI −0.15 to 0.56, p = 0.261). The main limitations of the study are the reliance on self-report of policy implementation and measures of medicine use from small surveys. While the data can be used to explore the association of essential medicines policies with medicine use, they cannot be used to compare or benchmark individual country performance.
Conclusions
WHO essential medicines policies are associated with improved QUM, particularly in low-income countries.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
The widespread availability of effective medicines, particularly those used to treat infectious diseases, has been largely responsible for a doubling in the average global life expectancy over the past century. However, the suboptimal use (overuse and underuse) of medicines is an ongoing global public health problem. The unnecessary use of medicines (for example, the use of antibiotics for sore throats caused by viruses) needlessly consumes scarce resources and has undesirable effects such as encouraging the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Conversely, underuse deprives people of the undisputed benefits of many medicines. Since 1977, to help optimize medicine use, the World Health Organization (WHO) has advocated the concept of “essential medicines” and has developed policies to promote the quality use of medicines (QUM). Essential medicines are drugs that satisfy the priority needs of the human population and that should always be available to communities in adequate amounts of assured quality, in the appropriate dosage forms, and at an affordable price. Policies designed to promote QUM include recommendations that medicines should be free at the point of care and that all health care professionals should be educated about the WHO list of essential medicines (which is revised every two years) throughout their careers.
Why Was This Study Done?
Surveys of WHO member countries undertaken in 2003 and 2007 suggest that the implementation of WHO policies designed to promote QUM is patchy. Moreover, little is known about whether these policies are effective, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. For most of these countries, it is not known whether any of the policies affect validated QUM indicators such as the percentage of patients prescribed antibiotics (a lower percentage indicates better use of medicines) or the percentage of patients treated in compliance with national treatment guidelines (a higher percentage indicates better use of medicines). Here, the researchers analyze data from policy implementation questionnaires and medicine use surveys to determine whether implementation of WHO essential medicines policies is associated with improved QUM in low- and middle-income countries.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers extracted data on ten validated QUM indicators and on implementation of 36 policy variables from WHO databases for 2002–2008 and compared the average differences for the QUM indicators between low- and middle-income countries that did versus did not report implementation of specific WHO policies for QUM. Among 56 countries for which data were available, 27 policies were associated with improved QUM. Four policies were particularly effective, namely, doctors' undergraduate training in standard treatment guidelines, nurses' undergraduate training in standard treatment guidelines, the existence of a ministry of health department promoting the rational use of medicines, and the provision of essential medicines free to all patients at point of care. The researchers also analyzed correlations between how many of the 27 effective policies were implemented in a country and a composite QUM score. As national wealth increased, both the composite QUM score of a country and the reported number of policies implemented by the country increased. There was also a positive correlation between the numbers of policies that countries reported implementing and their composite QUM score. Finally, the implementation of multiple policies was more strongly associated with the composite QUM score in countries with a gross national income per capita below the average for the study countries than in countries with a gross national income above the average.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that between 2002 and 2008, the reported implementation of WHO essential medicines policies was associated with better QUM across low- and middle-income countries. These findings also reveal a positive correlation between the number of policies that countries report implementing and their QUM. Notably, this correlation was strongest in the countries with the lowest per capita national wealth levels, which underscores the importance of essential medicines policies in low-income countries. Because of the nature of the data available to the researchers, these findings do not show that the implementation of WHO policies actually causes improvements in QUM. Moreover, the age of the data, the reliance on self-report of policy implementation, and the small sample sizes of the medicine use surveys may all have introduced some inaccuracies into these findings. Nevertheless, overall, these findings suggest that WHO should continue to develop its medicine policies and to collect data on medicine use as part of its core functions.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001724.
The World Health Organization provides information about essential medicines; its latest lists of essential medicines are available on the Internet; information about WHO policies to improve the quality use of medicines is also available (in several languages)
The International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs designs, tests, and disseminates effective strategies to improve the way drugs are prescribed, dispensed, and used, particularly in resource-poor countries
The essentialdrugs.org website helps health care professionals, researchers, and policy makers obtain and discuss current information on essential drugs, policy, program activities, education, and training (available in several languages); the website is run by Satellife, which aims to use technology to connect health workers in resource-limited countries to each other and to up-to-date clinical and public health content
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001724
PMCID: PMC4165598  PMID: 25226527
23.  Communication skills training in a nursing home: effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides 
Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides’ communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides’ (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides’ communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents’ psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S73053
PMCID: PMC4309793  PMID: 25653513
dementia; psychopathology; agitation; caregiver distress; job satisfaction
24.  Effects of person-centered care on residents and staff in aged-care facilities: a systematic review 
Background
Several residential aged-care facilities have replaced the institutional model of care to one that accepts person-centered care as the guiding standard of practice. This culture change is impacting the provision of aged-care services around the world. This systematic review evaluates the evidence for an impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and nursing staff.
Methods
We searched Medline, Cinahl, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Proquest, and Expanded Academic ASAP databases for studies published between January 1995 and October 2012, using subject headings and free-text search terms (in UK and US English spelling) including person-centered care, patient-centered care, resident-oriented care, Eden Alternative, Green House model, Wellspring model, long-term care, and nursing homes.
Results
The search identified 323 potentially relevant articles. Once duplicates were removed, 146 were screened for inclusion in this review; 21 were assessed for methodological quality, resulting in nine articles (seven studies) that met our inclusion criteria. There was only one randomized, controlled trial. The majority of studies were quasi-experimental pre-post test designs, with a control group (n = 4). The studies in this review incorporated a range of different outcome measures (ie, dependent variables) to evaluate the impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and staff. One person-centered intervention, ie, the Eden Alternative, was associated with significant improvements in residents’ levels of boredom and helplessness. In contrast, facility-specific person-centered interventions were found to impact nurses’ sense of job satisfaction and their capacity to meet the individual needs of residents in a positive way. Two studies found that person-centered care was actually associated with an increased risk of falls. The findings from this review need to be interpreted cautiously due to limitations in study designs and the potential for confounding bias.
Conclusion
Typically, person-centered interventions are multifactorial, comprising: elements of environmental enhancement; opportunities for social stimulation and interaction; leadership and management changes; staffing models focused on staff empowerment; and assigning residents to the same care staff and an individualized philosophy of care. The complexity of the interventions and range of outcomes examined makes it difficult to form accurate conclusions about the impact of person-centered care interventions adopted and implemented in aged-care facilities. The few negative consequences of the introduction of person-centered care models suggest that the introduction of person-centered care is not always incorporated within a wider “hierarchy of needs” structure, where safety and physiological need are met before moving onto higher level needs. Further research is necessary to establish the effectiveness of these elements of person-centered care, either singly or in combination.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S38589
PMCID: PMC3540911  PMID: 23319855
individualized care; nursing homes; culture change in care homes; residential aged-care facilities
25.  Association of race and site of care with pressure ulcers in high-risk nursing home residents 
Context
Varied nursing home quality improvement programs have been implemented over the last decade; their implications for racial disparities in quality are unknown.
Objective
To determine the longitudinal trend of racial disparities in pressure ulcer prevalence among long-term nursing home residents during 2003-2008, and whether persistent disparities are related to where residents received care.
Design
Using US nursing home resident assessment files, On-line Survey, Certification, and Reporting files, and Area Resource Files, we examined pressure ulcer rate for high-risk residents. We categorized nursing homes according to their proportions of black residents. We determined risk-adjusted racial disparities between and within sites of care, and the risk-adjusted odds of pressure ulcers for black and white residents receiving care in different facilities.
Setting and participants
Observational cohort of 2,136,764 white and 346,808 black residents in 12,473 certified nursing homes.
Main outcome measure
Risk-adjusted odds of pressure ulcers of stages 2 to 4.
Results
Overall pressure ulcer rates decreased over years but black residents showed persistently higher rates than white residents: 16.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.6-17.0%) vs 11.4% (95% CI 11.3-11.5%) in 2003, and 14.6% (95% CI 14.4-14.8%) vs 9.6% (95% CI 9.5-9.7%) in 2008 (p>0.05 for trend of disparities). Both black (unadjusted rate 15.5% in 2008; adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-1.67) and white (unadjusted rate 12.1%; adjusted OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.26-1.40) residents in nursing homes with the highest concentrations of black residents (≥35%) showed higher risk of pressure ulcers than white residents (unadjusted rate 8.8%) in nursing homes serving essentially white residents (black residents<5%).
Conclusions
From 2003 to 2008, the prevalence of pressure ulcers among high-risk nursing home residents was higher in black residents that in white residents. This disparity was in part related to the site of nursing home care.
doi:10.1001/jama.2011.942
PMCID: PMC4108174  PMID: 21750295
pressure ulcer; racial disparity; nursing home; long-term care; trend

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