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1.  Correlation between dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy in detecting haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state in Ilorin, Nigeria 
Haematuria is one of the clinical manifestations of sickle cell nephropathy. Although dipstick urinalysis detects haemoglobin and by extension haematuria; it does not confirm haematuria. Urine sediment microscopy confirms haematuria and constitutes a non-invasive “renal biopsy”. The need to correlate dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy findings becomes important because of the cheapness, quickness and simplicity of the former procedure.
Dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy were carried (both on first contact and a month after) among consecutive steady state sickle cell anaemia children attending sickle cell clinic at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital between October 2004 and July 2005.
A total of 75 sickle cell anemia children aged between 1-17 years met the inclusion criteria. Haematuria was found in 12 children (16.0%) and persistent haematuria in 10 children 13.3%. Age and gender did not have significant relationship with haematuria both at first contact (p values 0.087 and 0.654 respectively) and at follow-up (p values 0.075 and 0.630 respectively). Eumorphic haematuria was confirmed in all the children with persistent haematuria with Pearson correlation +0.623 and significant p value of 0.000.
The study has revealed a direct significant correlation for haematuria detected on dipstick urinalysis and at urine sediment microscopy. It may therefore be inferred that dipstick urinalysis is an easy and readily available tool for the screening of haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia and should therefore be done routinely at the sickle cell clinics.
PMCID: PMC3852513  PMID: 24319525
Sickle cell nephropathy; children; haematuria; dipstick urinalysis; urine sediment microscopy
2.  Dipstick haematuria and bladder cancer in men over 60: results of a community study. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1989;299(6706):1010-1012.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence and relevance of dipstick haematuria in a group of men in the community. DESIGN--Prospective study of elderly men invited to attend a health centre for urine screening as part of a health check. SETTING--An inner city health centre in Leeds. SUBJECTS--578 Of 855 men aged 60-85 responding to an invitation to participate. INTERVENTIONS--The subjects had their urine tested with a dipstick (Multistix) for the presence of blood and then tested their urine once a week for the next 10 weeks. Those with one or more positive test results were offered full urological investigation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The prevalence of urological disease in those subjects with dipstick haematuria. RESULTS--78 Men (13%) had dipstick haematuria on a single test and a further 54 (9%) had evidence of dipstick haematuria when testing their urine once a week during a subsequent 10 week period. Investigation of 87 men disclosed urological disease in 45, including four with a bladder tumour and seven with epithelial dysplasia. CONCLUSION--Dipstick haematuria is a common incidental finding in men over 60 and is associated with appreciable urological disease. The introduction of less invasive methods of investigation, particularly flexible cystoscopy and ultrasonography, has made investigation of these patients simple and safe and makes screening for bladder cancer in the community more feasible.
PMCID: PMC1837876  PMID: 2511941
3.  A study of microscopical and chemical tests for the rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infections in general practice. 
Aids to the rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infection were assessed by the examination of 325 consecutive urine samples taken in the normal course of work in a general practice. Of these samples 103 produced a pure growth of at least 10(5) organisms per ml. The appearance and smell of each sample was noted and it was then tested by simple low-power microscopy of a drop of urine and by a dipstick which measured leucocyte esterase and nitrite, together with protein, blood and pH. In addition, pus cell counts per mm3 were performed on 272 of the samples using a cytometer chamber. This method is too time-consuming for routine use in the surgery. Neither a cloudy appearance nor haematuria were sufficiently specific to be of much use in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. In the prediction of a 'positive' culture the sensitivity and specificity of the other tests were as follows: drop method microscopy 95% and 76%, respectively; cytometer count 95% and 81%; leucocyte-esterase estimation 89% and 68%; and nitrite 57% and 96%. These figures may underestimate the true values of the tests in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection because infection may be present in some cases producing growths of less than 10(5) organisms per ml. It is concluded that the most useful aid to the diagnosis of urinary tract infection is low-power microscopy of a drop of urine.
PMCID: PMC1371381  PMID: 2271260
4.  Haematuria. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1997;73(857):129-136.
Many serious and potentially treatable diseases of the urinary tract may have haematuria as their only manifestation. However, asymptomatic microscopic haematuria detected by dipstick testing may be seen in up to 16% of screening populations. The great majority of such cases will have no sinister underlying cause, particularly in those under 40 years of age, and so the schedule of further investigations, some of which may be invasive, time-consuming and expensive, needs to be rationalised. In addition, the increasing popularity of 'fast track' clinics for the investigation of haematuria enhances the need for a clear strategy of investigation. Analysis of the epidemiology of asymptomatic haematuria and its causes combined with a consideration of the risk-benefit profile of the available investigations, makes it possible to set out an algorithm for the initial management of this common finding. Careful clinical assessment and basic laboratory tests for renal function, analysis of the urinary sediment and cytological examination of the urine are followed by ultrasound and plain radiography of the urinary tract. Flexible cystoscopy under local anaesthetic is central to the algorithm in patients of all ages. The importance of a nephrological opinion and consideration of renal biopsy, especially in younger patients with other evidence of glomerular disease, is stressed. The role of intravenous urography in excluding pathology of the upper urinary tract, especially in patients over the age of 40, is also considered.
PMCID: PMC2431247  PMID: 9135826
5.  The haematuria clinic--referral patterns in Northern Ireland. 
The Ulster Medical Journal  1998;67(1):25-28.
One hundred consecutive patients with haematuria were seen over a three month period at the haematuria clinic, Belfast City Hospital. 14% of patients were found to have transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder; all of these presented with frank haematuria and were over 50 years of age. No malignancy was detected in the microscopic haematuria group. 14% of patients with macroscopic haematuria held back for longer than one month before seeking advice from their general practitioner. 23% with macroscopic and 30% with microscopic haematuria had their symptoms noted by the general practitioner for more than a month before they were referred for investigation. The waiting time for initial investigation at the haematuria clinic took longer than six weeks in 52% with macroscopic and 39% with microscopic haematuria. Our study has identified a high-risk group who need immediate referral and investigation. The importance of patient education, rapid referral by general practitioners and also the need to increase the capacity of the haematuria clinic are emphasized.
PMCID: PMC2448693  PMID: 9652195
6.  Sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests and infection prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium estimated from data on adults in villages northwest of Accra in Ghana 
Substantial uncertainties surround the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic techniques for urinary schistosomiasis. We used Latent Class (LC) modeling to address this problem. In this study 220 adults in three villages northwest of Accra in Ghana were examined using five Schistosoma haematobium diagnostic measures: microscopic examination of urine for detection of S. haematobium eggs, dipsticks for detection of haematuria, tests for circulating antigens, serological antibody tests and ultrasound scans of the urinary system. Testing of the LC model indicated non-invariance of the performance of the diagnostic tests across different age groups while measurement invariance held for males and females and for the three villages. We therefore recommend the use of LC models for comparison between, and the identification of, the most accurate schistosomiasis diagnostic tests. Furthermore, microscopy and haematuria dipsticks were indicated through these models as the most appropriate techniques for detection of S. haematobium infection.
PMCID: PMC2726788  PMID: 19270295
7.  Importance of occult haematuria found at screening. 
A retrospective study of the results of dipstick testing and microscopical examination of urine from 10 050 men undergoing health screening showed a prevalence of occult haematuria of 2.5%. Those patients with occult haematuria who were resident in the United Kingdom and registered with a general practitioner were identified and a questionnaire sent to their general practitioners asking what further investigations had been performed. The response rate was 92% (152/165 inquiries). Fifty nine general practitioners (39%) had not instigated any investigations. Among the 76 patients who underwent some further investigations abnormalities were found in 21 (28%); and among those fully investigated by examination of midstream urine, intravenous urography, and cystoscopy abnormalities were found in 12(50%). These included bladder neoplasms (two; one in a patient aged 37), epithelial dysplasia (one), staghorn calculi (one), and chronic reflux nephropathy (one). It is proposed that occult haematuria should be fully investigated regardless of the age of the patient.
PMCID: PMC1339660  PMID: 3081223
8.  Urinary red-cell morphology during exercise. 
Midstream urine samples were examined by phase-contrast microscopy before and immediately after 48 subjects participated in a long-distance run. Minor abnormalities were found in six samples before exercise. Eighteen subjects developed proteinuria and five haematuria on dipstick testing after exercise. Forty-four subjects had increased urinary red-cell counts after exercise; of these, 33 had counts above the normal range (800/ml). In all subjects urinary red cells were dysmorphic both before and after exercise, indicating a glomerular source. Ten subjects developed red-cell casts and 42 showed an increase in hyaline and hyaline-granular casts after exercise. There were modest increases in urinary white-cell counts in 35 subjects but little change in urine pH or osmolality with exercise. This study confirms that urinary red-cell counts commonly increase appreciably after exercise. The dysmorphic appearance of the red cells together with the presence of red-cell casts indicates a glomerular source for this common form of exercise haematuria.
PMCID: PMC1500573  PMID: 6814599
9.  Use of Ames SG10 Urine Dipstick for diagnosis of abdominal pain in the accident and emergency department. 
In a prospective study of 1112 patients presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department with abdominal pain; the SG10 Ames Urine Dipsticks were shown to be a valuable screening test for the detection of infected urine. Introducing this technique would reduce by at least 37% the number of urgent requests for microscopy of midstream urines (MSUs). Dipstick testing however was not a reliable screening test for microscopic haematuria.
PMCID: PMC1285653  PMID: 2135176
10.  A prospective study of renal disease in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2001;60(4):327-331.
OBJECTIVES—This prospective study was designed to clarify the frequency, causes, and clinical course of renal disease in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—235 patients (185 women, mean age 49.4 years) with early RA of less than one year's duration were enrolled and assessed monthly. Proteinuria was defined as a positive dipstick result and microscopic haematuria was defined as the presence of ⩾5 red blood cells per high power field. Urinary abnormalities lasting three months or longer were defined as persistent abnormalities.
RESULTS—At entry, 40 patients exhibited haematuria, two had a raised serum creatinine concentration, and none had proteinuria. During the observation period (average 42 months), persistent haematuria was found in 43, persistent proteinuria in 17, and a raised serum creatinine concentration in 14 patients. Persistent proteinuria was caused by drugs in 14 of 17 patients and disappeared in most cases. Risk factors for drug induced proteinuria included a raised C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age over 50 at entry. Drugs resulted in a raised serum creatinine concentration in eight of 14 patients. The incidence of haematuria at entry did not differ among patients who had been treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, or no drugs. In some patients with isolated haematuria, the haematuria appeared when the activity of RA was high and resolved when it was low.
CONCLUSIONS—This study suggests that a raised serum creatinine concentration or persistent proteinuria in patients with early RA is predominantly drug related whereas, in contrast, isolated haematuria is more directly associated with the activity of the disease process.

PMCID: PMC1753620  PMID: 11247860
11.  Community-based study on CKD subjects and the associated risk factors 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2009;24(7):2117-2123.
Background. The study was performed to investigate the prevalence, awareness and the risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the community population in Shanghai, China.
Methods. A total of 2596 residents were randomly recruited from the community population in Shanghai, China. All were screened for albuminuria, haematuria, morning spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and renal function. Serum creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, triglyceride and haemoglobin were assessed. A simplified MDRD equation was used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). All studied subjects were screened by kidney ultrasound. Haematuria, if present in the morning spot urine dipstick test, was confirmed by microscopy. The associations among the demographic characteristics, health characteristics and indicators of kidney damage were examined.
Results. Two thousand five hundred and fifty-four residents (n = 2554), after giving informed consent and with complete data, were entered into this study. Albuminuria and haematuria were detected in 6.3% and 1.2% of all the studied subjects, respectively, whereas decreased kidney function was found in 5.8% of all studied subjects. Approximately 11.8% of subjects had at least one indicator of kidney damage. The rate of awareness of CKD was 8.2%. The logistic regression model showed that age, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, hyperuricaemia and nephrolithiasis each contributed to the development of CKD.
Conclusion. This is the first Shanghai community-based epidemiological study data on Chinese CKD patients. The prevalence of CKD in the community population in Shanghai is 11.8%, and the rate of awareness of CKD is 8.2%. All the factors including age, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, hyperuricaemia and nephrolithiasis are positively correlated with the development of CKD in our studied subjects.
PMCID: PMC2698090  PMID: 19193736
awareness; chronic kidney disease; epidemiology; prevalence; risk factors
12.  Can urine dipstick testing for urinary tract infection at point of care reduce laboratory workload? 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2005;58(9):951-954.
Aim: The University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust microbiology laboratory receives 150 000 urine samples each year, approximately 80% of which prove to be culture negative. The aim of this study was to reduce the proportion of culture negative urines arriving in the laboratory, by producing local evidence based guidelines for the use of urine dipstick testing at point of care within the trust’s three acute hospitals.
Methods: One thousand and seventy six unborated urine samples were dipstick tested at the point of care using an automatic strip reader. Quantitative results for the four infection associated markers—leucocyte esterase, nitrite, blood, and protein—were compared with the results of conventional laboratory microscopy and culture.
Results: The performance of different marker combinations was calculated against the routine laboratory methods. One hundred and seventy five (16.3%) samples were negative for all four markers. Of these dipstick negative samples, only three (1.7% of all true positives) were positive by culture. The absence of all four infection associated markers was found to have a greater than 98% negative predictive value and a sensitivity and specificity of 98.3% and 19.2%, respectively.
Conclusions: A urinary dipstick testing algorithm for infection associated markers was derived for use in hospital patients to screen out negative urines. Two years after distributing the algorithm and promoting access to reagent strips and strip readers, a reduction in the urine workload has been seen against an otherwise increasing laboratory specimen load.
PMCID: PMC1770822  PMID: 16126876
algorithm; infection associated markers; urinary tract infection; urine dipstick testing; workload
13.  Routine dipstick urinalysis in daily practice of Belgian occupational physicians 
Archives of Public Health  2012;70(1):15.
Little work has been done to assess the quality of health care and the use of evidence-based methods by occupational physicians in Belgium. Therefore, the main objective is to describe one aspect of occupational health assessments, namely the common use of dipstick urinalysis, and to compare the current practice with international guidelines.
A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 211 members of the Scientific Association of Occupational Medicine in the Dutch speaking part of Belgium.
A total of 120 occupational physicians responded, giving a response rate of 57%. Dipstick urinalysis was a routine investigation for the vast majority of physicians (69%). All test strips screened for protein and in 90% also for blood. Occupational health services offered clinical tests to satisfy customer wants as international guidelines do not recommend screening for haematuria and proteinuria in asymptomatic adults. A lack of knowledge concerning positive testing and referral criteria was demonstrated in almost half of the study participants.
Belgian occupational physicians still routinely perform dipstick testing although there is no evidence to support this screening in healthy workers. To practice evidence-based medicine, occupational physicians need more instruction and training. Development and implementation of more guidelines is not only of use for the individual practitioner, it may also enhance professionalization and efficiency of occupational health care.
PMCID: PMC3436716  PMID: 22958323
Evidence-based practice; Occupational health; Guidelines; Health surveillance
14.  Ultrasonography compared with intravenous urography in the investigation of adults with haematuria. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;301(6760):1074-1076.
OBJECTIVE--To compare ultrasonography with intravenous urography in the investigation of adults with haematuria. DESIGN--Prospective study entailing the examination of all patients with both investigations concurrently. The investigations were performed independently on routine lists by different duty radiologists. Each was aware of the details of the request form but not of the findings of the other investigation. SETTING--Radiology department of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS--155 Consecutive adult patients (aged 18-93) referred from general practitioners and hospital outpatient clinics with a history of haematuria. FOLLOW UP--When results of both examinations proved normal no clinical or radiological follow up was sought. All abnormal findings of either investigation were correlated with results of subsequent imaging studies or operative findings. RESULTS--81 Patients (52%) had normal findings on urography and ultrasonography. Overall, the findings of ultrasonography concurred with those of urography in 144 cases (93%). Among the discrepant findings of the two investigations ultrasonography missed two ureteric calculi; one was in a non-dilated ureter, and in the other case ultrasonography detected the secondary ureteric dilatation. Ultrasound examination alone detected four bladder tumours not visible on urography with sizes ranging from 5 to 21 mm, representing one fifth of the 20 cystoscopically proved bladder tumours detected in the series. Ultrasonography detected all the 22 neoplastic lesions discovered in the study (20 bladder, two renal). Ultrasonography clarified the nature of renal masses evident in three urograms (simple cysts). CONCLUSIONS--Ultrasonography is a safe and accurate method of investigating the urinary tract in adults with haematuria. When combined with a single plain abdominal radiograph it proved to be superior to urography as the primary imaging study in this series. Ultrasonography should certainly be preferred to urography if cystoscopy is not planned. No urothelial tumours of the upper urinary tract were found in the series, reflecting their rarity. For those patients in whom ultrasonography and plain radiography have shown no abnormality and in whom cystoscopic appearances are normal urography would be advisable to exclude urothelial tumours of the upper urinary tract.
PMCID: PMC1664237  PMID: 2249070
15.  Urinary Schistosomiasis in Urban and Semi-Urban Communities in South-Eastern Nigeria 
Iranian Journal of Parasitology  2013;8(3):467-473.
In view of the massive rural-to-urban migration in Nigeria, investigations on transmission of urinary schistosomiasis were carried out in urban and semi-urban communities in Nike Lake area of Enugu State, Nigeria.
Urine samples of school children were tested for micro-haematuria using reagent strips followed by microscopic examination for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Water contact sites were also identified and sampled for snails.
The overall prevalence of S. haematobium eggs in school children was 4.64%. The mean intensity of infection was 1.14 ± 0.41 eggs/10ml urine. Males had insignificantly higher prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection than females. The youngest age group (4-7 years) had no infection. The prevalence of micro-haematuria (6.2%) was higher than that of microscopy, and this correlated positively with prevalence (r = 0.65, P < 0.01) and intensity (r = 0.50, P < 0.01) of the infection. Potential intermediate host of human shistosome collected were: Bulinus globosus, B. senegalensis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. However, only B. globosus shed cercariae of S. haematobium, with a snail infection rate of 0.73%. Transmission was in the dry season coinciding with the drying of wells.
The results revealed that urinary schistosomiasis is prevalent, and that B. globosus and not B. truncatus as previously reported is the main intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis in this part of Enugu State.
PMCID: PMC3887250  PMID: 24454442
Prevalence; S. haematobium; Bulinus globosus; Micro-haematuria; Nigeria
16.  Danish general practitioners' estimation of urinary albumin concentration in the detection of proteinuria and microalbuminuria. 
BACKGROUND. Microalbuminuria may predict proteinuria and increased mortality in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Early detection of microalbuminuria may therefore be essential. AIM. The primary objective of this study was to describe the association between the presence of albuminuria in diabetic patients as detected by general practitioners using conventional reagent strip dipstick tests for albumin, and the urinary albumin concentration as measured in a hospital laboratory. METHOD. A total of 675 newly diagnosed diabetic patients aged 40 years or over were included in the Danish study, diabetes care in general practice. Data for urinary albumin concentration from a morning urine sample and the results of three consecutive dipstick tests for albumin were collected for 417 patients. RESULTS. When defining elevated urinary albumin concentration as 200 mg l-1 or more (proteinuria) the finding of at least one positive test out of the three dipstick tests for albumin had a diagnostic sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 89%. When the microalbuminuric range (15.0 to 199.9 mg l-1) was added to the definition of renal involvement, the sensitivity of the dipstick test became as low as 28% with a specificity of 96%. CONCLUSION. It is essential for general practitioners to be able to identify proteinuric patients. To achieve this by means of the conventional dipstick test, general practice procedures need to be improved. As it is becoming increasingly well-documented that microalbuminuric non-insulin dependent diabetic patients may benefit from pharmacological treatment of even slight arterial hypertension and heart failure, it seems reasonable to suggest that the use of dipsticks for albumin in general practice be replaced by laboratory quantitative determination of urinary albumin concentration in a morning urine sample.
PMCID: PMC1239138  PMID: 7702885
17.  Importance of red patches diagnosed in cystoscopy for haematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2007;83(975):62-63.
Biopsy of the red patches in the bladder, when found at cystoscopy, is routinely performed in urological practice. This is done to establish the sinister diagnosis of carcinoma‐in‐situ among other causes.
To analyse the pathology of the red patches and to determine if routine biopsy of these patches is warranted.
Patients and methods
This was a retrospective study conducted over a period of 36 months, in which 50 patients were identified, who underwent biopsies of their red patches. All patients with a history of bladder carcinoma and obvious bladder tumours were excluded from this study.
The mean age of the patients was 60.8 years. 25 patients had cystoscopy for lower urinary tract symptoms, 21 for haematuria and 4 for recurrent urinary tract infection. Carcinoma in situ was found in 4 (8%) patients, of whom only 2 had positive urine cytology.
It is prudent to perform a biopsy of all incidentally diagnosed red patches because of a major yield rate of carcinoma in situ. This procedure also picks up other important pathologies, which help in further management.
PMCID: PMC2599966  PMID: 17267681
CIS; LUTS; red patches
18.  PA01.37. Safety and efficacy of UNEX capsules in management of ureteric calculi: A prospective, randomised placebo-controlled study 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S87.
Urinary stones have occupied a major place in the urological practices. It is one of the most common and painful urologic disorder of the urinary tract. Generally, the age between 20 to 40 years is more prone to it. As it has a high rate of recurrence, it is affecting economy and general health of the people.
This study was a prospective, placebo controlled, double blind study. The study incorporated a matched pairs design. Each patient has received a single treatment of either the control or investigational product (UNEX). The goal was to enrol approximately 80 patients in order of having 60 patients (30 in each group) to complete the trial and provide data for analysis.
Total 72 patients were enrolled in the study, out of which 64 patients completed There was extremely significant results obtained in case of urine analysis of patients for infection, bacteriuria and haematuria, at the end of 6 months, value as compared to before treatment value the study, With the treatment with UNEX capsule, significant relief was observed in case of X ray KUB shows that renal calculi disappeared in 18 patients at the end of 6 months out of 32 patients, whereas USG of renal pelvis shows disappearance in 16 patients out of 32, which is extremely significant as compared to before treatment value where 32 patients showed presence of renal calculi. However, in placebo, only three patients out of 32 showed absence of renal calculi at the end of 6 months of treatment.
Considering the excellent results of the clinical trial, it can be concluded that UNEX is effective in the treatment of Ureteric calculi, without producing any undesirable side effects. No clinically significant adverse reactions were reported or observed, the clinical trial of UNEX, an Ayurvedic preparation, has proved its efficacy and safety in upper ureteric calculi.
PMCID: PMC3800969
19.  Problems of basing patient recruitment for primary care studies on routine laboratory submissions 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2007;60(11):1290-1293.
Use of routine urine submission rates for estimation of patient enrolment in primary care studies of acute urinary symptoms may overestimate patient recruitment rate.
To compare the rates of submission of urines and significant bacteriuria from patients presenting with acute urinary symptoms in study general practices to routine microbiology laboratory urines.
Routine laboratory urine submissions were determined by counting all mid‐stream urine specimens submitted to the laboratory from 12 large general practitioner (GP) practices served by Gloucester and Southmead microbiology departments over two years (2000–02). Urine specimens were requested from all patients with acute urinary symptoms referred at research nurse practice visits over the same time period. The annual study urine submission was calculated using the ratio of the number of nurse practice visits to the annual number of possible consulting sessions. Significant bacteriuria was defined as a urine growing a single organism reported as >105 colony forming units/ml. Rates per 1000 patients were calculated using practice population data.
The urine submission rate from study patients with acute urinary symptoms was one‐third the routine urine submission rate from the same practices. The significant bacteriuria rate attained from the study was less than half the routine significant bacteriuria rate.
Two‐thirds of routine urine samples submitted by GPs are probably not for the investigation of acute urinary symptoms. Basing consultation sample size power calculations for primary care studies or sentinel practice‐based surveillance in urinary tract infection on routine laboratory submissions is unreliable and will lead to significant overestimation of recruitment rate.
PMCID: PMC2095479  PMID: 17337588
20.  Thin basement membranes in minimally abnormal glomeruli. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1990;43(1):32-38.
The light microscopic, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic appearances of renal biopsy specimens were reviewed and correlated with the clinical and laboratory findings in 61 patients in whom the findings were initially considered to be either normal or to show only minor non-specific abnormalities. In all cases this reassessment included quantitative measurement of glomerular basement membrane thickness by an orthogonal intercept technique. On the basis of the indication for biopsy, patients were classified into three groups: those with haematuria (group I, n = 41); those with a minor degree of proteinuria (group II, n = 16); and those without any urinary abnormality but in whom possible renal disease as a result of systemic disease was suspected (group III, n = 6). About half of the patients with haematuria had significantly thinner glomerular basement membranes than those in the other two groups, irrespective of the variable selected for assessment, and in three this was confirmed in follow up biopsy specimens. Follow up for up to eight years showed that in patients either with or without thin basement membranes haematuria commonly persisted, but the long term outlook in all three groups was otherwise good and no patient developed impaired renal function.
PMCID: PMC502220  PMID: 2312748
21.  Renal function in men with lower urinary tract symptoms at first presentation to urology out-patient department. 
AIM: Current national guidelines state that it is mandatory to perform an estimation of renal function in all males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). As national audit evidence suggests this is not general practice, we have carried out a study to assess the value of routine testing of renal function in this group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum creatinine or urea was measured in 213 consecutive men presenting to the urology out-patient department with lower urinary tract symptoms. Risk factors for renal dysfunction such as large post-void residual volume, proteinuria, microscopic haematuria, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease were noted. RESULTS: Twelve of 213 patients had abnormal results. One 90-year-old had a raised serum urea but was found to have a normal creatinine level. Ten of the remaining 11 patients would have had their renal dysfunction predicted by history, examination or bedside tests. CONCLUSIONS: Routine measurement of creatinine or urea in men presenting with LUTS with no other risk factors could be considered purely a health screening test. It is suggested that it should no longer be considered as mandatory, in this situation, but used only if specifically indicated. A urine flow rate would be a more useful test in reaching a diagnosis and planning treatment.
PMCID: PMC1964183  PMID: 15140303
22.  Phase contrast microscopic examination of urinary erythrocytes to localise source of bleeding: an overlooked technique? 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1993;46(7):642-645.
AIMS--To localise the source of bleeding in the urinary tract in patients presenting with haematuria. METHODS--Urine samples were obtained from 109 patients with symptoms referable to the urinary tract. The sample was examined for the presence of red blood cells by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and the proportion of dysmorphic and isomorphic red blood cells was determined. If more than 20% of the red blood cells were dysmorphic a glomerular origin for the site of bleeding was suspected; if less than 20% of the red blood cells were isomorphic a non-glomerular origin was suspected. Phase contrast microscopy and clinical findings were correlated. RESULTS--The correct bleeding site was shown in 27 of 30 (90%) patients with glomerulopathy and in all 17 patients with bleeding from the lower urinary tract, indicating that this method of analysis has a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 100% for detecting the glomerular source of bleeding. CONCLUSIONS--The examination of urine for dysmorphic and isomorphic red blood cells by phase contrast microscopy is strongly recommended in routine clinical practice for the detection of glomerular and non-glomerular lesions. This technique may avoid unnecessary investigations for the diagnosis of the site of bleeding in patients with haematuria.
PMCID: PMC501394  PMID: 8157752
23.  Low quality of routine microscopy for malaria at different levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam 
Malaria Journal  2011;10:332.
Laboratory capacity to confirm malaria cases in Tanzania is low and presumptive treatment of malaria is being practiced widely. In malaria endemic areas WHO now recommends systematic laboratory testing when suspecting malaria. Currently, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) is recommended for the diagnosis of malaria in lower level peripheral facilities, but not in health centres and hospitals. In this study, the following parameters were evaluated: (1) the quality of routine microscopy, and (2) the effects of RDT implementation on the positivity rate of malaria test results at three levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
During a baseline cross-sectional survey, routine blood slides were randomly picked from 12 urban public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Sensitivity and specificity of routine slides were assessed against expert microscopy. In March 2007, following training of health workers, RDTs were introduced in nine public health facilities (three hospitals, three health centres and three dispensaries) in a near-to-programmatic way, while three control health facilities continued using microscopy. The monthly malaria positivity rates (PR) recorded in health statistics registers were collected before (routine microscopy) and after (routine RDTs) the intervention in all facilities.
At baseline, 53% of blood slides were reported as positive by the routine laboratories, whereas only 2% were positive by expert microscopy. Sensitivity of routine microscopy was 71.4% and specificity was 47.3%. Positive and negative predictive values were 2.8% and 98.7%, respectively. Median parasitaemia was only three parasites per 200 white blood cells (WBC) by routine microscopy compared to 1226 parasites per 200 WBC by expert microscopy. Before RDT implementation, the mean test positivity rates using routine microscopy were 43% in hospitals, 62% in health centres and 58% in dispensaries. After RDT implementation, mean positivity rates using routine RDTs were 6%, 7% and 8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RDTs using expert microscopy as reference were 97.0% and 96.8%. The positivity rate of routine microscopy remained the same in the three control facilities: 71% before versus 72% after. Two cross-sectional health facility surveys confirmed that the parasite rate in febrile patients was low in Dar es Salaam during both the rainy season (13.6%) and the dry season (3.3%).
The quality of routine microscopy was poor in all health facilities, regardless of their level. Over-diagnosis was massive, with many false positive results reported as very low parasitaemia (1 to 5 parasites per 200 WBC). RDTs should replace microscopy as first-line diagnostic tool for malaria in all settings, especially in hospitals where the potential for saving lives is greatest.
PMCID: PMC3217957  PMID: 22047131
24.  High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in South Darfur: implication for interventions 
Parasites & Vectors  2011;4:14.
There are few data on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Darfur. We conducted this study in response to reports of 15 laboratory confirmed cases of schistosomiasis and visible haematuria among children from two communities in South Darfur. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the area and to decide on modalities of intervention.
A cross-sectional survey involving 811 children and adults from schools and health facilities was conducted in two communities of South Darfur in March 2010. Urine samples were collected and examined for ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a sedimentation technique. A semi-structured format was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the participants.
Eight hundred eleven (811) urine samples were collected, 415 from Alsafia and 396 from Abuselala. Of the collected samples in 56.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI); 52.6-59.4) Schistosoma eggs were found. The prevalence was high in both Abuselala 73.3% (95% CI; 68.9-77.6) and Alsafia 39.5% (95% CI; 34.8-44.2). More males (61.7%, 95%CI; 56.5-64.9) were infected than females (52.1%, 95%CI; 48.2-56.0). Children in the age group 10-14 has the highest (73.0%, 95%CI; 68.7-77.2) infection rate. School age children (6-15 years) are more likely to be infected than those >15 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.70, 95% CI; 1.80-4.06). Individuals in Abuselala are more likely to be infected than those who live in Alsafia (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI; 3.2-5.9).
The findings of this study indicate that S. hematobium is endemic in Alsafia and Abuselala South Darfur in Sudan with a high prevalence of infection among older children. This signifies the importance of urgent intervention through Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to halt the infection cycle and tailored health messages to targeted groups. Based on the findings MDA was conducted in the villages.
PMCID: PMC3042003  PMID: 21299881
25.  AB 74. Recurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis in a patient with undiagnosed kidney tuberculosis 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB74.
Tuberculosis of the urinary system commonly complicates post-primary tuberculosis. In patients with active kidney tuberculosis, coincident lung disease often prevails in clinical picture, thus the diagnosis of urinary disease often escapes. Presentation of an interesting case of lung and kidney tuberculosis.
Patients and Methods
A 32 year-old female was referred to our clinic for investigation of possible kidney and lung tuberculosis. The patient reported two years of dysuric symptoms, with recurrent episodes of painless macroscopic haematuria. From recent history the patient reported two hospitalizations over a month due to fever and malaise, with laboratory findings of normochromic normocytic anemia, high ESR and microscopic hematuria and aseptic pyuria with normal renal function. Chest CT revealed scattered infiltrates in the middle and upper lung fields, ground-glass opacities and tree-in-bud pattern. CT scan of the abdomen showed hydronephrosis and hypodense areas in the left and right kidney, findings we also confirmed by kidney ultrasonography. Patient presented in our clinic with low grade fever and satisfactory respiratory function, while findings from the physical examination of the chest were insignificant. Mantoux test showed an infiltration of 15 mm. Direct sputum examination by Ziehl-Nielsen staining and PCR for M.Tuberculosis were negative. Ultimately, the diagnosis of lung disease and urinary tuberculosis were confirmed by positive Gen-probe results of gastric fluid and urine specimens and subsequent positive cultures. Prompt initiation of antituberculous therapy was followed by the patient’s marked clinical improvement within a few days and subsequent negative urine examination by Ziehl-Nielsen staining.
Due to suspected hematogenous spread, the patient underwent fundoscopy and CT scan of the brain which revealed no pathological findings. To address hydronephrosis, a Pig-tail catheter was inserted in the left kidney. The patient received anti-tuberculous therapy for a year. During the follow-up period she remained in excellent general condition, with negative sputum and urine cultures and improvement of the imaging findings in the lungs and kidneys.
The initial presentation of urinary tract tuberculosis may be vague and the false interpretation of symptoms can result in great harm to the patient.
PMCID: PMC3537391

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