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1.  Valve replacement in patients with critical aortic stenosis and depressed left ventricular function: predictors of operative risk, left ventricular function recovery, and long term outcome 
Heart  2005;91(10):1324-1329.
Objectives: To identify predictors of operative and postoperative mortality and of functional reversibility after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction.
Methods and results: Between 1990 and 2000, 155 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age 72 (9) years) in New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure functional class III or IV (n  =  138) and with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ⩽ 30% underwent AVR for critical AS (mean (SD) valve area index 0.35 (0.09) cm2/m2). Thirty day mortality was 12%. NYHA class (3.7 (0.6) v 3.2 (0.7), p  =  0.004), cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) (0.63 (0.07) v 0.56 (0.06), p < 0.0001), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (63 (25) v 50 (19) mm Hg, p  =  0.03), and prevalence of complete left bundle branch block (22% v 8%, p  =  0.03) and of renal insufficiency (p  =  0.001) were significantly higher in 18 non-survivors than in 137 survivors. In multivariate analysis, the only independent predictor of operative mortality was a CTR ⩾ 0.6 (odds ratio (OR) 12.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.4 to 27.4, p  =  0.002). The difference between preoperative and immediate postoperative LVEF (early-ΔEF) was > 10 ejection fraction units (EFU) in 55 survivors. In multivariate analysis, CTR (OR 5.95, 95% CI 3.0 to 11.6, p  =  0.006) and mean transaortic gradient (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.1, p < 0.05) were independent predictors of an early-ΔEF > 10 EFU. During a mean (SD) follow up of 4.6 (3) years, 50 of 137 (36%) 30 day survivors died, 31 of non-cardiac causes. Diabetes (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.4 to 6.0, p  =  0.003), age ⩾ 75 years (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.5, p  =  0.004), and early-ΔEF ⩽ 10 EFU (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.97, p  =  0.01) were independent predictors of long term mortality. Among 127 survivors, the percentage of patients in NYHA functional class III or IV decreased from 89% preoperatively to 3% at one year. The decrease in functional class was significantly greater in patients with an early-ΔEF > 10 EFU than patients with an early-ΔEF ⩽ 10 EFU (p  =  0.02). In addition, the mean (SD) LVEF at one year was 53 (11)% in patients with an early-ΔEF > 10 EFU and 42 (11)% in patients with early-ΔEF ⩽ 10 EFU (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Despite a relatively high operative mortality, AVR for AS and severely depressed LVEF was beneficial in the majority of patients. Early postoperative recovery of LV function was associated with significantly greater relief of symptoms and longer survival.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.044099
PMCID: PMC1769144  PMID: 16162627
aortic stenosis; valvar heart disease; left ventricular dysfunction; aortic gradient; aortic valve replacement
2.  Left Ventricular Dynamics after Aortic Valve Replacement 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  1992;19(2):97-106.
Between January 1985 and July 1990, we studied 71 patients at our institution who underwent aortic valve replacement for either aortic valve regurgitation (40 patients) or stenosis (31 patients). The following prostheses were implanted: 25 St. Jude Medical valves (bileaflet), 16 Björk-Shiley (monoleaflet, tilting disc, 60° convexo-concave), 16 Medtronic-Hall (monoleaflet, tilting disc), and 14 Starr-Edwards (caged ball). The patients were evaluated pre-and postoperatively by means of gated blood-pool scintigraphy and Doppler echocardiography. Postoperatively, each patient was studied at 6 months, 1 year, and then annually. The evaluations focused upon 1) scintigraphically assessed left ventricular performance indicators (end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, as well as resting and exercise ejection fraction) and 2) Doppler-derived hemodynamic indexes (peak and mean transvalvular pressure gradient, effective orifice area, regurgitant flow, and systolic wall stress).
Early after aortic valve replacement, 55 (77.5%) of the patients had substantial symptomatic relief, with normal hemodynamic values both at rest and during exercise (New York Heart Association functional class I or II); another 6 patients (8.5%) maintained their preoperative status in those classes. Within a year after surgery, a majority of patients showed a significant reduction in left ventricular dimensions. The patients with preoperative aortic valve stenosis had a significantly reduced end-diastolic and end-systolic volume (p<0.05), a moderately reduced left ventricular mass index (p<0.01), and a significantly increased exercise ejection fraction (p<0.05); moreover, in all 31 of these cases, systolic wall stress returned to normal or lower-than-control values (p<0.005). The patients with preoperative aortic valve regurgitation had a significant reduction in end-diastolic and end-systolic volume (p<0.005), diastolic wall stress (p<0.005), and a significant increase in exercise ejection fraction (p<0.01); however, their left ventricular mass index was not significantly reduced.
Optimal long-term survival was afforded by the St. Jude valve in the small size (21 mm) and the Starr-Edwards valve in the large size (27 mm).
This study represents the first reported use of a serial, combined radionuclide and echocardiographic procedure for the follow-up of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. During the 5½-year follow-up period, this combined technique proved highly accurate for collecting follow-up data, often complementing or correcting simple ultrasound results. This diagnostic approach enabled us to 1) obtain information comparable to or better than that provided by cardiac catheterization, 2) identify complications early, 3) differentiate between valvular and ventricular failure, and 4) suggest the valve of choice (not always that with the best hemodynamic performance) in patients with different cardiac variables. Further research is needed to confirm this study, the results of which could change many medical and surgical strategies for clinical management of the diseased aortic valve. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1992; 19:97-106)
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PMCID: PMC326262  PMID: 15227421
Aortic valve insufficiency; aortic valve stenosis; echocardiography, Doppler; heart valve diseases; heart valve prosthesis; hemodynamics; radionuclide angiography; ventricular function, left
3.  Outcome of left heart mechanical valve replacement in West African children - A 15-year retrospective study 
Background
The West African sub-region has poor health infrastructure. Mechanical valve replacement in children from such regions raises important postoperative concerns; among these, valve-related morbidity and complications of lifelong anticoagulation are foremost. Little is known about the long-term outcome of mechanical valve replacement in West Africa. We sought to determine the outcome of mechanical valve replacement of the left heart in children from this sub-region.
Method
We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive left heart valve replacements in children (< 18 years old) from January 1993 - December 2008. The study end-points were mortality, valve-related morbidity, and reoperation.
Results
One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR), aortic valve replacement (AVR) or mitral and aortic valve replacements (MAVR). Their ages ranged from 6-18 years (13.3 ± 3.1 years). All patients were in NYHA class III or IV. Median follow up was 9.1 years. MVR was performed in 91 (79.8%) patients, AVR in 13 (11.4%) and MAVR in 10 (8.8%) patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed concomitantly in 45 (39.5%) patients.
There were 6 (5.3%) early deaths and 6 (5.3%) late deaths. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 45%) was the most important factor contributing to both early and late mortality. Actuarial survival at 1 and 15 years were 98.1% and 94.0% respectively. Prosthetic valve thrombosis occurred in 5 patients at 0.56% per patient-year. There was 1(0.9%) each of major bleeding event and prosthetic valve endocarditis. Two reoperations were performed at 0.22% per patient-year. Actuarial freedom from reoperation was 99.1% at 1 and 10 years, and 85.1% at 15 years.
Conclusion
Mechanical valve replacement in West African children has excellent outcomes in terms of mortality, valve-related events, and reoperation rate. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is the primary determinant of mortality within the first 2 years of valve replacement. The risk of valve-related complications is acceptably low. Anticoagulation is well tolerated with a very low risk of bleeding even in this socioeconomic setting.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-6-57
PMCID: PMC3107788  PMID: 21504613
mechanical valve replacement; rheumatic heart disease; mitral valve; aortic valve; anticoagulation; West Africa; children
4.  Obesity and the risk of late mortality after aortic valve replacement with small prosthesis 
Background
Whether obesity is related to late mortality with implantation of small aortic prosthesis remains to be clarified. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of obesity on late survival of patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with implantation of small aortic prosthesis (size ≤ 21 mm).
Methods
From January 1998 to December 2008, 307 patients in our institution who underwent primary AVR with smaller prostheses survived the 30 days after surgery. Patients were defined as normal if body mass index (BMI) was < 24 kg/m2, as overweight if BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2, and as obese if BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2. Data of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), effective orifice area index (EOAI), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the patients collected at the 3rd month (M), 6th M, 1st year (Y), 3rd Y, 5th Y, 8th Y after operation respectively.
Results
By multivariable analysis, obesity was an independent factor of late mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.62; P = 0.01). The obesity and overweight group had more poor survival (p < 0.001) and higher proportion of NYHA class III/IV (p < 0.01) compared with the normal group. Lower EOAI and higher LVMI were found in obesity and overweight group, but we saw no significant difference about LVEF among the three groups.
Conclusions
Obesity was associated with increased late mortality of patients after AVR with implantation of small aortic prosthesis. Being obese or and overweight may also affect the NYHA classification, even in the longer term. EOAI should be improved where possible, as it may reduce late mortality and improve quality of life in obese or overweight patients.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-8-174
PMCID: PMC3765481  PMID: 23856275
Aortic valve replacement; Small aortic root; Obesity; Body mass index
5.  Aortic Valve Replacement in Septuagenarians 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  1985;12(4):295-299.
To evaluate the risk factors of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the elderly, 35 patients over the age of 70 who had undergone this procedure were reviewed. Twenty-four patients had isolated AVR, three had double valve replacement, seven had a combined procedure of AVR and aortocoronary bypass, and one had AVR and open mitral commissurotomy. There were 27 elective and eight emergency operations. Nineteen patients were in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III, and 16 patients were in NYHA Class IV preoperatively.
Hospital mortality was 7.4% (two cases) in the elective group, and 337.5% (three cases) in the emergency group. The major risk factors were found to be the urgency of operation and left ventricular failure associated with severe pulmonary hypertension. There was no postoperative mortality among the seven patients who underwent the combined procedures of AVR and aortocoronary bypass. Follow-up of survivors revealed that 90% returned to NYHA Class I or II, and have an improved lifestyle.
Our data suggest that elective AVR is a safe beneficial operation in septuagenarians. Emergency surgery and severe left ventricular failure contribute to high mortality; therefore, AVR should be performed in septuagenarians as early as indicated.
PMCID: PMC341878  PMID: 15226983
6.  Long term follow up of patients with endomyocardial fibrosis: effects of surgery 
Heart  1998;79(4):362-367.
Aims—To determine the long term outcome of patients with endomyocardial fibrosis and to compare echocardiographic and haemodynamic data before and after ventricular endocardial resection.
Patients—Seventeen patients (11 women and six men; mean age 35.5 years) diagnosed with endomyocardial fibrosis at the University Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland from 1971 to 1995. Twelve patients (70%) had partial obliteration of both ventricles and in five patients (30%) the fibrotic lesions were limited to the left ventricle. 
Methods—Fourteen of the 17 patients had surgical resection: fibrosis was resected from both ventricles in five patients and from the left ventricle only in nine patients. Ten patients had mitral valve replacement and two had tricuspid valve replacement. Left ventricle endocardial resection was done without reconstruction or replacement of the atrioventricular valve in three patients. Preoperative and postoperatve echocardiographic data were available for 11 patients and haemodynamic data for six patients. Patients were followed up for 0.4-19 years (mean 8.6).
Results—Preoperatively four patients were NYHA functional class IV and 10 were class III; postoperatively one patient was class III, seven class II, and six class I. Preoperatively, echocardiography showed obliteration of the left ventricular apex and inflow tract in all patients, which decreased or disappeared after surgery. Left ventricular end diastolic pressure decreased from 25 mm Hg before surgery to 14 mm Hg after successful resection of the fibrosis. Left ventricular end diastolic volume (normal 93 (17) ml/m2) increased from 65 ml/m2 to 97 ml/m2 (p < 0.05) after surgery. Ejection fraction was normal preoperatively (57%) and decreased slightly (52%) after surgery. One patient died five months after surgery from heart failure. Four surgically treated patients died during the follow up period: one each from systolic dysfunction, recurrence of endomyocardial fibrosis, pneumonia, and food poisoning. Overall survival was 65% at five years and 59% at 10 years; the survival rates of the operated patients was 72% and 68%, respectively. Only one of the medically treated patients survived longer than three years from diagnosis.
Conclusions— Endomyocardial fibrosis is a rare disease in European countries and is found mainly in women. The clinical picture is characterised by severe congestive heart failure but heart size is only moderately increased. Systolic performance is normal or only slightly depressed despite severe restriction to filling, atrioventricular valve regurgitation or both. Partial obliteration of the right and/or left ventricle may be detected by echocardiography. Endocardial resection with atrioventricular valve replacement is the treatment of choice with appreciable postoperative improvement and 10 year survival of approximately 70%.

 Keywords: endomyocardial fibrosis;  atrioventricular valve regurgitation;  endocardial resection;  hypereosinophilic syndrome
PMCID: PMC1728653  PMID: 9616343
7.  Impact of energy loss index on left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement 
Background
Recently, the energy loss index (ELI) has been proposed as a new functional index to assess the severity of aortic stenosis (AS). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the ELI on left ventricular mass (LVM) regression in patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with mechanical valves.
Methods
A total of 30 patients with severe AS who underwent AVR with mechanical valves was studied. Echocardiography was performed to measure the LVM before AVR (pre-LVM) (n = 30) and repeated 12 months later (post-LVM) (n = 19). The ELI was calculated as [effective orifice area (EOA) × aortic cross sectional area]/(aortic cross sectional area − EOA) divided by the body surface area. The LVM regression rate (%) was calculated as 100 × (post-LVM − pre-LVM)/(pre-LVM). A cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death and heart failure requiring hospitalization.
Results
LVM regressed significantly (245.1 ± 84.3 to 173.4 ± 62.6 g, P < 0.01) at 12 months after AVR. The LVM regression rate negatively correlated with the ELI (R = −0.67, P < 0.01). By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, ELI <1.12 cm2/m2 predicted smaller (<−30.0 %) LVM regression rates (area under the curve = 0.825; P = 0.030). Patients with ELI <1.12 cm2/m2 had significantly lower cardiac event-free survival.
Conclusion
The ELI as well as the EOA index (EOAI) could predict LVM regression after AVR with mechanical valves. Whether the ELI is a stronger predictor of clinical events than EOAI is still unclear, and further large-scale study is necessary to elucidate the clinical impact of the ELI in patients with AVR.
doi:10.1007/s12574-013-0196-7
PMCID: PMC4042008  PMID: 24955015
Prosthesis–patient mismatch; Aortic valve replacement; Aortic stenosis; Energy loss coefficient; Energy loss index
8.  Intermediate Term Evaluation of Starr-Edwards Ball Valves in the Mitral Position 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  1985;12(1):43-47.
The Model 6120 ball valve prosthesis introduced in 1965 is still strongly supported as a mitral valve substitute in many centers around the world. A current reassessment of the performance of this prosthesis is therefore pertinent to current medical practice.
In this institution since 1974, 227 Starr-Edwards caged ball valves have been implanted in the mitral position during isolated valve replacement. Two models of caged ball valves were used concurrently: the silastic ball valve in 108 patients (48%) and the composite strut “tract” valve in 119 (52%).
Hospital mortality was 7%, and 8-year survival (standard error) was 74 (6%), with 100% follow-up, documenting 752 total patient-years. No late deaths were known to be valve related, and there were no cases of prosthetic thrombosis. The actuarial estimate of patients free from thromboembolism at 8 years was 89 (4%) with a linearized rate of 1.3% per year. At the most recent follow-up, 95% of the patients were in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Classes I or II. These good results were partly due to an awareness at operation of ventricular outflow tract size requirements and to strict control of postoperative anticoagulation.
We conclude that the Starr-Edwards ball valve is the mitral valve of choice in the young patient who is able to take anticoagulation drugs and has a left ventricular outflow tract of satisfactory size.
PMCID: PMC341791  PMID: 15227040
9.  Application of Regent mechanical valve in patients with small aortic annulus: 3-year follow-up 
Background
Aortic valve replacement (AVR) with a small aortic annulus is always challenging for the cardiac surgeon. In this study, we sought to evaluate the midterm performance of implantation with a 17-mm or 19-mm St. Jude Medical Regent (SJM Regent) mechanical valve in retrospective consecutive cohort of patients with small aortic annulus (diameter ≤ 19 mm).
Methods
From January 2008 to April 2011, 40 patients (31 female, mean age = 47.2 ± 5.8 years) with small aortic annulus (≤19 mm in diameter) underwent aortic valve replacement with a 17-mm or 19-mm St. Jude Medical Regent (SJM Regent) mechanical valve. Preoperative mean body surface area, New York Heart Association class, and mean aortic annulus were 1.61 ± 0.26 m2, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 18 ± 1.4 mm respectively. Patients were divided into two groups, according to the implantation of 17 mm SJM Regent mechanical valve (group 1, n = 18) or 19 mm SJM Regent valve (group 2, n = 22). All patients underwent echocardiography examination preoperatively and at one year post-operation.
Results
There were no early deaths in either group. Follow-up time averaged 36 ± 17.6 months. The mean postoperative New York Heart Association class was 1.3 ± 0.6 (p < 0.001). By echocardiography, in group 1, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), and the indexed effective orifice area (EOAI) increased from 43.7% ± 11.6%, 27.3% ± 7.6%, and 0.70 ± 0.06 cm2/m2 to 69.8 ± 9.3%, 41.4 ± 8.3%, and 0.92 ± 0.10 cm2/m2 respectively (P < 0.05), while the left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and the aortic transvalvular pressure gradient decreased from 116.4 ± 25.4 g/m2, 46.1 ± 8.5 mmHg to 86.7 ± 18.2 g/m2 , 13.7 ± 5.2 mmHg respectively. In group 2, the LVEF, LVFS and EOAI increased from 45.9% ± 9.7%, 30.7% ± 8.0%, and 0.81 ± 0.09 cm2/m2 to 77.4% ± 9.7%, 44.5% ± 9.6%, and 1.27 ± 0.11 cm2/m2 respectively, while the LVMI, and the aortic transvalvular pressure gradient decreased from 118.3 ± 27.6 g/m2, 44.0 ± 6.7 mmHg to 80.1 ± 19.7 g/m2, 10.8 ± 4.1 mmHg as well. The prevalence of PPM was documented in 2 patients in Group 1.
Conclusions
Patients with small aortic annulus and body surface area, experienced satisfactory clinical improvement after aortic valve replacement with modern SJM Regent bileaflet prostheses.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-7-88
PMCID: PMC3488967  PMID: 22999490
Small aortic annulus; St.Jude Medical Regent mechanical valve; Left cardiac function; Prothesis-Patient Mismatch
10.  Long-term outcomes of isolated aortic valve replacement and concomitant AVR and coronary artery bypass grafting 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2012;20(3):110-117.
Background
It is well established that concomitant aortic valve replacement (AVR) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has a higher operative mortality rate than isolated AVR. However, studies report conflicting results on the long-term mortality. The aim of this prospective study was to explore and compare the outcomes and risk factors of isolated AVR and concomitant AVR and CABG in a consecutive Dutch patient population.
Methods
From January 2001 through January 2010, 332 consecutive patients underwent AVR with or without CABG at a single institution (197 isolated AVR and 135 concomitant AVR and CABG). A multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to determine the independent risk factors for long-term mortality after aortic valve replacement.
Results
All 332 consecutive, referred patients who underwent aortic valve surgery were followed for up to 10 years. Median follow-up length was 48 months. The population had a median age of 73 years (IQR 65–78) and predominantly consisted of males (62%). Patients in the combined AVR and CABG group were older, had worse cardiac risk profiles and had worse preoperative cardiac statuses than those receiving isolated AVR. Five-year survival was 85% in AVR and 73% in AVR-CABG (p-value 0.012). Independent risk factors for mortality were higher creatinine values, previous CABG and increasing age.
Conclusion
Unselected, consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve replacement surgery and who received concomitant bypass surgery between 2001–2010 had higher 5-year mortality than their counterparts without CABG. Prior CABG, renal function, age but not concomitant CABG remained independently associated with increased mortality. Finally, the observed mortality rate in this consecutive patient group compared favourably with preoperative risk assessment using the EuroSCORE.
doi:10.1007/s12471-011-0238-6
PMCID: PMC3286529  PMID: 22311176
Aortic valve replacement; Coronary artery bypass grafting; Long term; Outcome; Survival; EuroSCORE; Concomitant; Valve; Surgery; AVR; CABG
11.  Mid-term results in patients having tricuspidization of the quadricuspid aortic valve 
Background
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital anomaly. We investigate the mid-term results of aortic valve reconstruction by tricuspidization in patients with QAV.
Methods
We analyzed the outcome of eight consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve reconstruction surgery (AVRS) with pericardial leaflets with symptomatic quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) disease between December 2007 and May 2012. AVRS consists of leaflet reconstruction and fixation of the sino-tubular junction in order to maintain coaptation of the new valve.
Results
Six males and two females were included; ages ranged from 19 to 63 years (mean age, 51 years). According to Hurwitz and Roberts’s classification, three patients had type A, three patients had type B, one patient had type C, and one patient had type E. All patients had significant aortic regurgitation (AR): moderate in three patients, moderate to severe in one patient, and severe in four patients. Concomitant ascending aorta wrapping with an artificial vascular graft was performed in one case. There was no occurrence of mortality during the follow-up period (42.4 ± 18.0 months). No redo-operation was required. The NYHA functional class showed improvement from 2.1 ± 0.2 to 1.1 ± 0.2 (p = 0.008). The latest echocardiograms showed AR absent or trivial in seven patients, and mild in one patient. The aortic valve orifice area index (AVAI) was 1.03 ± 0.49 cm2/m2. Compared with preoperative echocardiograms, the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction showed improvement from 57.6 ± 17.0 to 63.7 ± 13.2% (p = 0.036); the end-diastolic and end-systolic LV dimensions showed a significant decrease, from 63.5 ± 9.6 to 49.5 ± 3.1 mm (p = 0.012) and 43.6 ± 11.8 to 32.1 ± 5.4 mm (p = 0.012), respectively.
Conclusion
In patients with QAV, AVRS with tricuspidization showed satisfactory early and mid-term results. Long-term follow-up will be necessary in order to study the durability of AVRS; however, it can be considered as a potential standard procedure.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-9-29
PMCID: PMC3922268  PMID: 24506947
Aortic valve; Quadricuspid; Reconstructive surgical procedure; Outcome
12.  Impact of Pulmonary Hypertension on Outcomes Following Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Valve Stenosis 
Objective
The presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) historically has been considered a significant risk factor affecting early and late outcomes following valve replacement. Given the number of recent advances in the management of PH following cardiac surgery a better understanding of the impact of PH on outcomes may assist in the clinical management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if pulmonary hypertension remains a risk factor in the modern era for adverse outcomes following aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic valve stenosis.
Methods
From January 1996 to June 2009, 1,080 patients underwent AVR for primary aortic valve stenosis, of which 574 (53%) had normal systolic pulmonary artery pressures (sPAP) and 506 (47%) had PH. PH was defined as mild (sPAP 35-44 mmHg), moderate (45-59mmHg), or severe (≥ 60mmHg). In the group of patients with PH, 204 had postoperative echocardiograms.
Results
Operative mortality was significantly higher in patients with PH (47/506, 9% versus 31/574, 5%; p=0.02). The incidence of postoperative stroke was similar (p=0.14), but patients with PH had an increased median hospital LOS (8 versus 7 days, p=0.001) and an increased incidence of prolonged ventilation (26% versus 17%, p<0.001). Preoperative PH was an independent risk factor for decreased long term survival (RR 1.7, p=0.02). Those with persistent PH postoperatively had decreased survival. Five-year survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 78 ± 6% with normal sPAP and 77 ± 7% with mild PH postoperatively, compared to 64 ± 8% with moderate PH and 45 ± 12% with severe PH (p<0.001).
Conclusion
In patients undergoing AVR, preoperative PH increased operative mortality and decreased long-term survival. Patients with persistent moderate or severe PH after AVR had decreased long-term survival. These data suggest that PH had a significant impact on outcomes in patients undergoing AVR and should be considered in preoperative risk assessment.
doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.02.028
PMCID: PMC3244079  PMID: 21596173
13.  Mechanical Valve Dysfunction in Yemen 
Background:
Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cardiac disease in Yemen. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Valve replacement is the most common open heart surgery procedure in our cardiac center. The use of mechanical valves remains burdened with serious complications such as thrombosis. Valve thrombosis is still associated with high mortality] The reported mortality rate of the redo operation ranges from 8 to 20% and up to 37-54% in critically ill patients.
Objective:
The aim of the present study was to investigate mechanical valve obstruction among Yemeni patients.
Patients and Methods:
Between January 2003 and April 2007, 2794 patients underwent prosthetic valve replacement in our center, Al-Thawra Hospital. Of those patients, 129 (4.6%) underwent reoperation for te obstructive mechanical valve. Patients with clinical suspicion of prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) were admitted emergently to the CCU and the diagnosis was confirmed with echocardiography. All patients had heart failure; 95% of them were in NYHA class IV. All were transferred directly from the CCU to the operating room. The mean age was 34.8 ± 13.4 years. Two patients received preoperative thrombolytic therapy that was not successful. Obstruction involved the mitral valve prosthesis in 47 (36.4%); the aortic prosthesis in 16 (12.4%) patients; both valves in 21 (16.3%) patients; mitral valve replacement with tricuspid valve repair in 22(17%); double valve replacement with tricuspid valve repair in 1 (0.8%); redo mitral valve replacement with aortic valve cleaning in 7 (5.4%) cases; aortic valve cleaning in 5 (3.9%) patients; mitral valve cleaning in 5 (3.9%); and 5 (3.9%) patients had redo mitral with aortic replacement.
Results:
The operations were performed urgently. The etiology of the obstruction was thrombus in 111 (86%), pannus formation in 4 (3%), pannus and thrombus in 6 (4.8%), vegetation in 7 (5.4%) patients, and interposition of suturing materials in 1 (0.8%) patient. The in- hospital mortality was 23/129 (17.8%).
Conclusion:
The incidence of prosthetic valve obstruction remains high in Yemen. The vast majority of the patients who are referred to our hospital come from remote provinces in the country where regular INR measurement is not readily available. For those who are living in areas without good medical care, certain measures are necessary to avoid this disastrous complication: (1) good patient education, (2) free INR testing and free anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin; and (3) use of tissue rather than mechanical valves.
doi:10.4103/1995-705X.73207
PMCID: PMC3000911  PMID: 21187996
Mechanical valve; pannus; prosthetic valve obstruction; thrombus
14.  Twenty-Two-Year Experience with Aortic Valve Replacement 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  1991;18(1):24-33.
From 1965 through 1986, 817 patients underwent aortic valve replacement at our institution. Six hundred forty-five patients received Starr-Edwards ball valves, including 286 Silastic ball valves (Models 1200/1260), 165 cloth-covered caged-ball prostheses (Models 2300/2310/2320), and 194 track-valve prostheses (Model 2400). In contrast, 172 patients received disc-valve prostheses, including 126 St. Jude Medical aortic bi-leaflet disc valves, 32 Lillehei-Kaster pivoting disc valves, and 14 Björk-Shiley valves (6 convexoconcave and 8 monostrut).
With respect to preoperative data, the 2 groups were comparable, with the following differences. The Starr-Edwards group included 1) more men (77% versus 51%; p < 0.0001); 2) a significantly older patient population (59 ± 10 years versus 56 ± 15 years; p < 0.0001); 3) more patients in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV (72% versus 65%; p < 0.01); 4) fewer patients with angina pectoris as a limiting symptom (20% versus 36%; p < 0.0001); and 5) patients who tended to receive larger prostheses (26 ± 2 mm versus 23 ± 3 mm, p < 0.0001).
The overall 10-year survival rate ± standard error was 59% ± 2% for patients receiving Starr-Edwards valves and 63% ± 6% for those with disc valves. The linearized complication rates (expressed as percentage per patient-year ± standard error) for the Starr-Edwards and disc-valve groups, respectively, were 2.0% ± 0.2% and 1.4% ± 0.5% for thromboembolism, 2.1% ± 0.2% and 3.9% ± 0.8% for Coumadin-related hemorrhage, 0.5% ± 0.1% and 0.3% ± 0.2% for endocarditis, 0.3% ± 0.1% and 0.7% ± 0.3% for other prosthesis-related complications, and 4.8% ± 0.1% and 6.4% ± 1.0% for all complications together. There were no instances of thrombotic occlusion or mechanical failure. After the 6th postoperative year, no thromboembolic events were encountered in patients with a Silastic ball valve; the 15-year freedom from thromboembolic events was 89%. Cox regression analysis showed that 1) a prosthetic orifice diameter of 15 mm or less was associated with an increased mortality; 2) disc valves entailed an increased rate of hemorrhage and prosthesis-related complications considered as a whole; 3) and Lillehei-Kaster valves led to an increased rate of prosthesis-related complications other than thromboembolism, hemorrhage, and endocarditis. Neither the type of prosthesis nor the size influenced the rate of thromboembolism, endocarditis, or prosthesis replacement. Because of their proven durability and relatively low price, we advocate the continued use of Starr-Edwards Model 1260 Silastic ball valves that have an orifice diameter of 16 mm or more. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:24-33)
PMCID: PMC324957  PMID: 15227505
Aortic valve replacement; heart valve prosthesis; St. Jude Medical valve; Starr-Edwards ball valves; valvular heart disease
15.  Surgery for aortic stenosis in severely symptomatic patients older than 80 years: experience in a single UK centre 
Heart  1999;82(2):138-142.
OBJECTIVE—To ascertain the surgical risk and long term outcome of patients over 80 years old undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR).
DESIGN—Consecutive cases with respective case note audit and a telephone questionnaire.
SETTING—Single UK cardiothoracic surgical centre.
PATIENTS—103 (48 male) patients over 80 years old undergoing AVR. The median age was 82 years (80-95 years) and 95 of 103 patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV.
METHOD AND RESULTS—Preoperative characteristics, operative course, cost, and outcome measures were ascertained. Mean bypass time was 56 minutes and 25 patients had simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting. Overall mortality was 19 of 103. Univariate analysis of pertinent variables found that impaired renal function and peripheral vascular disease were significantly associated with early postoperative death. 10 of 12 patients requiring ventilation for more than 24 hours died. The 50% actuarial survival was 62 months. Late complications were uncommon with 92% of patients in NYHA class I or II at follow up.
CONCLUSIONS—AVR in patients over 80 years old has a significant risk. However, those patients who survive experience significant benefit with good long term prospects for general health and social independence.


Keywords: aortic valve replacement; surgical mortality; survival; age
PMCID: PMC1729117  PMID: 10409525
16.  Conservative surgery for mitral valve disease: clinical and echocardiographic analysis of results. 
Thorax  1983;38(8):565-571.
Eighty-five patients underwent mitral valve reconstruction by the Carpentier method from January 1976 to December 1981. Concomitant procedures were performed in 30 patients (aortic valve replacement in 23, coronary revascularisation in six, and tricuspid valve repair in seven). Before operation 76 patients (89%) were in clinical class II or III (New York Heart Association) and atrial fibrillation was present in 50. Thirty-six patients had valvular incompetence, while 26 had pure stenosis. The aetiology was rheumatic in 57 cases and dysplastic in 21. The patients were assessed for clinical improvement, durability of valve repair, thromboembolism, and survival. There was one death, an operative mortality rate of 1.2%, and 63 of 74 patients followed for one to six years were in clinical class I after operation. The actuarial survival was 92% with a 93% incidence of freedom from thromboemboli at five years. Six patients had embolic episodes, four of whom had aortic valve replacement. Three patients had a repeat operation 16-20 months later, a valve failure rate of 6.7%. Nineteen patients with ruptured chordae had postoperative echocardiographic assessment of myocardial and mitral valve functions; the peak rates of dimension changes of the left ventricular cavity (indicative of flow across the mitral valve) fell to normal in most patients, and the left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions decreased significantly from 6.4 (1.53) to 5.09 (1.31) cm (mean and SD)--p less than 0.05. Our results confirm that reconstructive mitral surgery is able to restore and maintain normal valve function in addition to providing satisfactory relief of symptoms.
Images
PMCID: PMC459612  PMID: 6612646
17.  Impact of New York Heart Association classification, advanced age and patient-prosthesis mismatch on outcomes in aortic valve replacement surgery 
OBJECTIVES
More elderly patients (>80 years of age) are being referred for aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without CABG. Current risk stratification models may not accurately predict the preoperative risk in these patients. We sought to determine which perioperative variables were relevant in determining short-term (30-day to in-hospital) outcomes in our intuition's series of consecutive AVR and AVR+CABG surgeries. We constructed a novel variable, patient–prosthesis mismatch (PPM) in the presence of diminished functional status (NYHA) classification, and studied its role as a predictor of mortality risk.
METHODS
From 2006 to 2010, 509 patients undergoing AVR or AVR+CABG were evaluated. We created four groups based on the age and procedure (AVR >80, AVR+CABG >80, AVR <80 and AVR+CABG <80). PPM was defined as a calculated effective orifice area index value of ≤0.85, and it was calculated from manufacturer-generated charts. In-hospital and 30-day outcomes were assessed using the Chi-square and logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS
Overall observed 30-day mortality for all groups was lower (n = 8, 1.6%) than the STS-predicted mortality. Reoperation and PPM+NYHA class III–IV were associated with short-term mortality, but age >80 years was not. Octogenarians referred for surgery often had advanced heart failure.
CONCLUSIONS
Overall, short-term outcomes after AVR with or without CABG were excellent and lower than predicted by the STS model. The low risk of AVR with CABG supports the consideration for earlier surgical referral and intervention for patients with a high likelihood of aortic stenosis progression before the onset of advanced heart failure ensues, regardless of the age. This should help further decrease the already very low mortality observed in these series. Efforts to avoid PPM in the setting of advanced heart failure may improve short-term results in this subset of patients.
doi:10.1093/icvts/ivs231
PMCID: PMC3422943  PMID: 22665381
Aortic valve; Replacement; Coronary artery bypass grafts; Reoperation; Heart failure; Heart valve; Bioprosthesis
18.  Surgery of secondary mitral insufficiency in patients with impaired left ventricular function 
Background
Secondary mitral insufficiency (SMI) is an indicator of a poor prognosis in patients with ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Numerous studies corroborated that mitral valve (MV) surgery improves survival and may be an alternative to heart transplantation in this group of patients.
The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyze the early and mid-term clinical results after MV repair resp. replacement in patients with moderate-severe to severe SMI and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below 35%.
Methods
We investigated 40 patients with poor LVEF (mean, 28 ± 5%) and SMI who underwent MV repair (n = 26) resp. replacement (n = 14) at the University Hospital Muenster from January 1994 to December 2005. All patients were on maximized heart failure medication. 6 pts. had prior coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG). Twenty-seven patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III and 13 were in class IV. Eight patients were initially considered for transplantation. During the operation, 14 pts had CABG for incidental disease and 8 had tricuspid valve repair. Follow-up included echocardiography, ECG, and physician's examination and was completed in 90% among survivors. Additionally, the late results were compared with the survival after orthotope heart transplantation (oHTX) in adults with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathies matched to the same age and time period (148 patients).
Results
Three operative deaths (7.5%) occurred as a result of left ventricular failure in one and multiorgan failure in two patients. There were 14 late deaths, 2 to 67 months after MV procedure. Progress of heart failure was the main cause of death. 18 patients who were still alive took part on the follow-up examination. At a mean follow-up of 50 ± 34 (2–112) months the NYHA class improved significantly from 3.2 ± 0.5 to 2.2 ± 0.4 (p < 0.001). The LVEF improved significantly from 29 ± 5% to 39 ± 16 (p < 0.05). There were no differences in survival after MV repair or replacement. The 1-, 3-, 5-year survival rates in the study group were 80%, 58% and 55% respectively. In the group of patients after oHTX the survival was accordingly 72%, 68%, 66% (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
High risk mitral valve surgery in patients with cardiomyopathy and SMI offers a real mid-term alternative method of treatment of patients in drug refractory heart failure with similar survival in comparison to heart transplantation.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-4-36
PMCID: PMC2721830  PMID: 19607730
19.  Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm 
Executive Summary
Objective
To conduct an assessment on endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA).
Clinical Need
Aneurysm is the most common condition of the thoracic aorta requiring surgery. Aortic aneurysm is defined as a localized dilatation of the aorta. Most aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. However, TAA tends to enlarge progressively and compress surrounding structures causing symptoms such as chest or back pain, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, stridor (a harsh, high-pitched breath sound), and hoarseness. Significant aortic regurgitation causes symptoms of congestive heart failure. Embolization of the thrombus to the distal arterial circulation may occur and cause related symptoms. The aneurysm may eventually rupture and create a life-threatening condition.
The overall incidence rate of TAA is about 10 per 100,000 person-years. The descending aorta is involved in about 30% to 40% of these cases.
The prognosis of large untreated TAAs is poor, with a 3-year survival rate as low as 25%. Intervention is strongly recommended for any symptomatic TAA or any TAA that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal aorta or is 6 cm or larger. Open surgical treatment of TAA involves left thoracotomy and aortic graft replacement. Surgical treatment has been found to improve survival when compared with medical therapy. However, despite dramatic advances in surgical techniques for performing such complex operations, operative mortality from centres of excellence are between 8% and 20% for elective cases, and up to 50% in patients requiring emergency operations. In addition, survivors of open surgical repair of TAAs may suffer from severe complications. Postoperative or postprocedural complications of descending TAA repair include paraplegia, myocardial infarction, stroke, respiratory failure, renal failure, and intestinal ischemia.
The Technology
Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a stent graft, a procedure called endovascular stent-graft (ESG) placement, is a new alternative to the traditional surgical approach. It is less invasive, and initial results from several studies suggest that it may reduce mortality and morbidity associated with the repair of descending TAAs.
The goal in endovascular repair is to exclude the aneurysm from the systemic circulation and prevent it from rupturing, which is life-threatening. The endovascular placement of a stent graft eliminates the systemic pressure acting on the weakened wall of the aneurysm that may lead to the rupture. However, ESG placement has some specific complications, including endovascular leak (endoleak), graft migration, stent fracture, and mechanical damage to the access artery and aortic wall.
The Talent stent graft (manufactured by Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) is licensed in Canada for the treatment of patients with TAA (Class 4; licence 36552). The design of this device has evolved since its clinical introduction. The current version has a more flexible delivery catheter than did the original system. The prosthesis is composed of nitinol stents between thin layers of polyester graft material. Each stent is secured with oversewn sutures to prevent migration.
Review Strategy
Objectives
To compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESG placement in the treatment of TAAs with a conventional surgical approach
To summarize the safety profile and effectiveness of ESG placement in the treatment of descending TAAs
Measures of Effectiveness
Primary Outcome
Mortality rates (30-day and longer term)
Secondary Outcomes
Technical success rate of introducing a stent graft and exclusion of the aneurysm sac from systemic circulation
Rate of reintervention (through surgical or endovascular approach)
Measures of Safety
Complications were categorized into 2 classes:
Those specific to the ESG procedure, including rates of aneurysm rupture, endoleak, graft migration, stent fracture, and kinking; and
Those due to the intervention, either surgical or endovascular. These include paraplegia, stroke, cardiovascular events, respiratory failure, real insufficiency, and intestinal ischemia.
Inclusion Criteria
Studies comparing the clinical outcomes of ESG treatment with surgical approaches
Studies reporting on the safety and effectiveness of the ESG procedure for the treatment of descending TAAs
Exclusion Criteria
Studies investigating the clinical effectiveness of ESG placement for other conditions such as aortic dissection, aortic ulcer, and traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta
Studies investigating the aneurysms of the ascending and the arch of the aorta
Studies using custom-made grafts
Literature Search
The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for health technology assessments. It also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Cochrane CENTRAL from January 1, 2000 to July 11, 2005 for studies on ESG procedures. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies.
One health technology assessment from the United Kingdom was identified. This systematic review included all pathologies of the thoracic aorta; therefore, it did not match the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 435 citations; of these, 9 studies met inclusion criteria.
Summary of Findings
Mortality
The results of a comparative study found that in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between ESG placement and surgery patients (2 [4.8%] for ESG vs. 6 [11.3%] for surgery).
Pooled data from case series with a mean follow-up ranging from 12 to 38 months showed a 30-day mortality and late mortality rate of 3.9% and 5.5%, respectively. These rates are lower than are those reported in the literature for surgical repair of TAA.
Case series showed that the most common cause of early death in patients undergoing endovascular repair is aortic rupture, and the most common causes of late death are cardiac events and aortoesophageal or aortobronchial fistula.
Technical Success Rate
Technical success rates reported by case series are 55% to 100% (100% and 94.4% in 2 studies with all elective cases, 89% in a study with 5% emergent cases, and 55% in a study with 42% emergent cases).
Surgical Reintervention
In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients in the ESG group and 14 (26.5%) patients in the surgery group required surgical reintervention. In the ESG group, the reasons for surgical intervention were postoperative bleeding at the access site, paraplegia, and type 1 endoleak. In the surgical group, the reasons for surgery were duodenal perforation, persistent thoracic duct leakage, false aneurysm, and 11 cases of postoperative bleeding.
Pooled data from case series show that 9 (2.6%) patients required surgical intervention. The reasons for surgical intervention were endoleak (3 cases), aneurysm enlargement and suspected infection (1 case), aortic dissection (1 case), pseudoaneurysm of common femoral artery (1 case), evacuation of hematoma (1 case), graft migration (1 case), and injury to the access site (1 case).
Endovascular Revision
In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak.
Pooled data from case series show that 19 (5.3%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak.
Graft Migration
Two case series reported graft migration. In one study, 3 proximal and 4 component migrations were noted at 2-year follow-up (total of 5%). Another study reported 1 (3.7%) case of graft migration. Overall, the incidence of graft migration was 2.6%.
Aortic Rupture
In the comparative study, aortic rupture due to bare stent occurred in 1 case (2%). The pooled incidence of aortic rupture or dissection reported by case series was 1.4%.
Postprocedural Complications
In the comparative study, there were no statistically significant differences between the ESG and surgery groups in postprocedural complications, except for pneumonia. The rate of pneumonia was 9% for those who received an ESG and 28% for those who had surgery (P = .02). There were no cases of paraplegia in either group. The rate of other complications for ESG and surgery including stroke, cardiac, respiratory, and intestinal ischemia were all 5.1% for ESG placement and 10% for surgery. The rate for mild renal failure was 16% in the ESG group and 30% in the surgery group. The rate for severe renal failure was 11% for ESG placement and 10% for surgery.
Pooled data from case series show the following postprocedural complication rates in the ESG placement group: paraplegia (2.2%), stroke (3.9%), cardiac (2.9%), respiratory (8.7%), renal failure (2.8%), and intestinal ischemia (1%).
Time-Related Outcomes
The results of the comparative study show statistically significant differences between the ESG and surgery group for mean operative time (ESG, 2.7 hours; surgery, 5 hours), mean duration of intensive care unit stay (ESG, 11 days; surgery, 14 days), and mean length of hospital stay (ESG, 10 days; surgery, 30 days).
The mean duration of intensive care unit stay and hospital stay derived from case series is 1.6 and 7.8 days, respectively.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
In Ontario, the annual treatment figures for fiscal year 2004 include 17 cases of descending TAA repair procedures (source: Provincial Health Planning Database). Fourteen of these have been identified as “not ruptured” with a mean hospital length of stay of 9.23 days, and 3 cases have been identified as “ruptured,” with a mean hospital length of stay of 28 days. However, because one Canadian Classification of Health Interventions code was used for both procedures, it is not possible to determine how many were repaired with an EVAR procedure or with an open surgical procedure.
Hospitalization Costs
The current fiscal year forecast of in-hospital direct treatment costs for all in-province procedures of repair of descending TAAs is about $560,000 (Cdn). The forecast in-hospital total cost per year for in-province procedures is about $720,000 (Cdn). These costs include the device cost when the procedure is EVAR (source: Ontario Case Costing Initiative).
Professional (Ontario Health Insurance Plan) Costs
Professional costs per treated patient were calculated and include 2 preoperative thoracic surgery or EVAR consultations.
The professional costs of an EVAR include the fees paid to the surgeons, anesthetist, and surgical assistant (source: fee service codes). The procedure was calculated to take about 150 minutes.
The professional costs of an open surgical repair include the fees of the surgeon, anesthetist, and surgical assistant. Open surgical repair was estimated to take about 300 minutes.
Services provided by professionals in intensive care units were also taken into consideration, as were the costs of 2 postoperative consultations that the patients receive on average once they are discharged from the hospital. Therefore, total Ontario Health Insurance Plan costs per treated patient treated with EVAR are on average $2,956 (ruptured or not ruptured), as opposed to $5,824 for open surgical repair and $6,157 for open surgical repair when the aneurysm is ruptured.
Conclusions
Endovascular stent graft placement is a less invasive procedure for repair of TAA than is open surgical repair.
There is no high-quality evidence with long-term follow-up data to support the use of EVAR as the first choice of treatment for patients with TAA that are suitable candidates for surgical intervention.
However, short- and medium-term outcomes of ESG placement reported by several studies are satisfactory and comparable to surgical intervention; therefore, for patients at high risk of surgery, it is a practical option to consider. Short- and medium-term results show that the benefit of ESG placement over the surgical approach is a lower 30-day mortality and paraplegia rate; and shorter operative time, ICU stay, and hospital stay.
PMCID: PMC3382300  PMID: 23074469
20.  Staged Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty before Standard Aortic Valve Replacement in Selected Patients with Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2014;41(2):152-158.
This study evaluated preoperative balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) as a technique to decrease aortic valve replacement (AVR) risk in patients who have severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis with substantial comorbidity.
We report the outcomes of 18 high-risk patients who received BAV within 180 days before AVR from November 1993 through December 2011. Their median age was 78 years (range, 51–93 yr), and there were 11 men (61%). The pre-BAV median calculated Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality (STS PROM) was 18.3% (range, 9.4%–50.7%). Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction measured a median of 0.23 (range, 0.05–0.68), and the median aortic valve area index was 0.4 cm2/m2 (range, 0.2–0.7 cm2/m2). The median interval from BAV to AVR was 28 days (range, 1–155 d). There were no strokes or deaths after BAV; however, 4 patients (22%) required mechanical circulatory support, 3 (17%) required femoral artery operation, and 1 (6%) developed severe aortic valve regurgitation. After BAV, the median STS PROM fell to 9.1% (range, 2.6%–25.7%) (compared with pre-BAV, P <0.001). Echocardiography before AVR showed that the median left ventricular ejection fraction had improved to 0.35 (range, 0.15–0.66), and the aortic valve area index to 0.5 cm2/m2 (range, 0.3–0.7 cm2/m2) (compared with pre-BAV, both P <0.05). All patients received AVR. Operative death occurred in 2 patients (11%), and combined operative death and morbidity in 7 patients (39%).
Staged BAV substantially reduces the operative risk associated with AVR in selected patients.
doi:10.14503/THIJ-13-3298
PMCID: PMC4004472  PMID: 24808774
Algorithms; aortic valve stenosis/surgery/therapy; balloon valvuloplasty, aortic; calcinosis/therapy; heart valve prosthesis implantation/mortality; retrospective studies; treatment outcome
21.  Long-term results of surgical treatment of aortic and mitral regurgitation with enlarged left ventricle 
Mitral valve and aortic valve regurgitation associated with enlarged left ventricle remains difficult to manage and the long-term results following surgical treatment is uncertain. Between April 1988 and September 2000, 82 patients with aortic and mitral regurgitation associated with enlarged left ventricle underwent valve replacement at Anzhen Hospital. The valve disease was rheumatic in origin in 75 patients (91.5%) and congenital in 7 (8.5%). Twenty-eight patients were in New York heart Association Functional (NYHA) class II and 39 in class III and 15 in class IV. Echocardiogram showed severe aortic insufficiency associated with mild to moderate mitral regurgitation in 66 patients and severe mitral regurgitation associated with mild to moderate AI in 16 patients. The mean left ventricular diastole diameter (LVDD) was 77.8 ± 5.2 mm. Valve replacement was performed under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Early hospital mortality was 7.3%. Two weeks after surgery the echocardiogram showed a reduction of LVDD. Follow up was completed in 69 patients with mean of 13.5 years. 20 patients were in NYHA class I; 26 in Class II and 3 in Class III and 2 in class IV. The follow-up survival rate was 73.9%, and follow-up mortality was 26.1%. LVDD reduced from 77.8 ± 5.2 mm to 58.3 ± 4.5 mm (P < 0.001). In 24 patients, the LVDD was less than 50 mm. Double valve replacement and/or repair carried out an acceptable early and Long-term clinical outcomes in patients with MR and AI with associated LV great enlargement. Both LVDD and NYHA improved following surgical treatment in survival patients.
PMCID: PMC3992412  PMID: 24753767
Surgical treatment; aortic insufficiency; mitral regurgitation; enlarged left ventricular
22.  Unoperated severe aortic stenosis: decision making in an adult UK-based population 
INTRODUCTION
Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis is associated with a poor prognosis, with most patients dying 2–3 years after diagnosis. We analysed the proportion of patients with severe aortic stenosis not referred for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in a UK-based population and the clinical factors contributing to this.
METHODS
Retrospective analysis of patients with echocardiographic evidence of severe aortic stenosis was performed at a university teaching hospital.
RESULTS
A total of 178 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis (AVA: <1cm2, mean pressure gradient: ≥40mmHg, or visually severe on echocardiography) were included in the study. Eighty-three patients did not have AVR (95% confidence interval: 39–54%). The cohort included 146 symptomatic patients (82%) and 32 (18%) who were asymptomatic. The most common reason for non-referral in symptomatic patients was ‘high operative risk’ and in asymptomatic patients ‘no symptoms’. Of the patients who did not have AVR, only 19% (n=16) were referred for a surgical opinion. None of the patients in the asymptomatic group underwent echocardiographic stress imaging. The thirty-day operative mortality rate in the AVR group was 2.3%. Symptomatic patients who underwent AVR had superior survival, even after adjusting for co-morbidities (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
A considerable proportion of patients with severe aortic stenosis are not referred for surgery although they have a clear indication for AVR. Patients are often estimated as being too high risk or having prohibitive co-morbidities. Among asymptomatic patients, stress imaging was rarely used despite its useful role prognostically and in deciding the best time for intervention.
doi:10.1308/003588412X13171221591817
PMCID: PMC3954323  PMID: 22943332
Aortic valve stenosis; Aortic valve; Heart valve disease; Echocardiography; Heart valve prosthesis implantation; Cardiovascular surgical procedures
23.  Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis: Characteristics and Outcomes 
Objectives
We sought to determine the prevalence, characteristics and outcomes of asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS).
Background
Management of asymptomatic patients with severe AS remains controversial. In these patients, LV systolic dysfunction, defined in the guidelines as ejection fraction < 50%, is a class I(C) indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR), but its prevalence is unknown.
Methods
A retrospective study of adults ≥ 40 years with severe valvular AS (peak velocity ≥ 4 m/sec, mean gradient > 40 mmHg, aortic valve area (AVA) < 1 cm2, or AVA index < 0.6 cm2/m2) from 1984 through 2010 was undertaken. Patients with prior cardiac surgery, severe coronary artery disease, or greater than moderate aortic regurgitation were excluded.
Results
Of 9940 patients with severe AS, 43 (0.4 %) patients had asymptomatic LV dysfunction. Age was 73 ± 14 years and 70% were male. Hypertension (78%) and LV hypertrophy (LV mass index 143 ± 36 g/m2) were characteristic. Fifty-three percent of these patients developed symptoms at 21 ± 19 months after diagnosis. During 7.5 ± 6.7 years follow-up, 5-year mortality was 48%. After multivariable adjustment, there was no survival advantage with AVR in asymptomatic, severe AS with LV dysfunction (p = 0.51).
Conclusions
In severe AS, the prevalence of asymptomatic LV systolic dysfunction is 0.4%. Despite an asymptomatic clinical status, patients with severe AS and LV ejection fraction < 50% have a poor prognosis, with or without AVR.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.08.988
PMCID: PMC3535453  PMID: 23122793
Aortic stenosis; valves; echocardiography; heart failure; valve surgery
24.  Beneficial Effects of the CorCap Cardiac Support Device: 5 Year results from the Acorn Trial 
Background
The CorCap Cardiac Support Device (Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.) is the first device that specifically addresses ventricular remodeling in heart failure by reducing wall stress. We previously reported outcomes from the Acorn randomized trial to a common closing date (22.9 months of follow up). This report summarizes results of extended follow up to 5 years.
Methods
107 patients were enrolled in the No-Mitral Valve Repair/Replacement stratum including 57 in the CorCap treatment group and 50 in the control (optimal medical therapy alone) group. Patients were assessed every year until completing 5 years of follow up, for survival, adverse events, major cardiac procedures, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional status and echocardiograms, which were read at a core laboratory.
Results
Overall survival rates were similar between the treatment and control groups demonstrating no late adverse effect on mortality. The treatment group had significant reductions in left ventricular end diastolic volume (p = 0.029) as well as a small increase in sphericity index. More patients in the treatment group improved by at least one NYHA functional class (p= 0.0005). There was no difference in rates of adverse events. In a subgroup of patients with an intermediate left ventricular end diastolic dimension, there was a significant reduction in the Kaplan Meier estimate of the freedom from the composite endpoint of death and major cardiac procedures (p= 0.04).
Conclusion
These cumulative data demonstrate the sustained reverse remodeling of the left ventricle and the long term safety and efficacy of the CorCap Cardiac Support Device as an adjunctive therapy for patients with heart failure who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.06.014
PMCID: PMC3790142  PMID: 21762937
25.  Surgical management of native valve endocarditis. 
Thorax  1983;38(3):168-174.
From 1972 to 1981 40 patients have required urgent valve replacement for left-sided bacterial endocarditis. The aortic valve was replaced in 31 patients, the mitral valve in four, and both in five patients. Twenty-six patients (65.5%) were in functional class IV heart failure according to the New York Heart Association criteria, and 13 patients (32.5%) were in class III heart failure at the time of operation. One patient in class II was operated on urgently for multiple cerebral embolism but died of fatal cerebral haemorrhage. In 22 patients (55%) there were no pre-existing valvular lesions and these patients were found to be more liable to develop severe haemodynamic failure. Premature closure of the mitral valve, documented by M-mode echocardiography, was a useful diagnostic aid and successfully determined the best timing of surgery in 14 out of 20 patients with severe aortic regurgitation. Cardiac arrest before operation appeared to be a significant risk factor (p = 0.0015) unless followed by immediate cardiopulmonary bypass. There were eight operative deaths (20%). Of 26 patients who were in functional class IV heart failure, 19 were operated on within four days of their haemodynamic deterioration and all survived. The operation was delayed in the remaining seven patients and none of them survived (p = 0.000003). There were no operative deaths among the patients in class III heart failure. There was only one episode of reinfection in the 16 patients followed up for at least three years. The duration of postoperative antibiotic treatment (four to six weeks in our patients), rather than any preoperative antibiotic regimen, seems to be important for preventing reinfection. At present there are 28 survivors, of whom 24 are in functional class I and four in class II.
Images
PMCID: PMC459513  PMID: 6857579

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